Starting an ASxxxx assembler without any arguments provides the following option list and then exits: Usage: [-Options] file Usage: [-Options] outfile file1 [file2 file3 ...] -h or NO ARGUMENTS Show this help list -d Decimal listing -q Octal listing -x Hex listing (default) -g Undefined symbols made global -a All user symbols made global -b Display .define substitutions in listing -bb and display without .define substitutions -c Disable instruction cycle count in listing -j Enable NoICE Debug Symbols -y Enable SDCC Debug Symbols -l Create list output (out)file[.lst] -o Create object output (out)file[.rel] -s Create symbol output (out)file[.sym] -p Disable listing pagination -u Disable .list/.nlist processing -w Wide listing format for symbol table -z Disable case sensitivity for symbols -f Flag relocatable references by ` in listing file -ff Flag relocatable references by mode in listing file The ASxxxx assemblers are command line oriented. Most sytems require the option(s) and file(s) arguments to follow the ASxxxx assembler name: as6809 -[Options] file as6809 [-Options] outfile file1 [file2 ...] Some systems may request the arguments after the assembler is started at a system specific prompt: as6809 argv: -[Options] file as6809 argv: [-Options] outfile file1 [file2 ...] The ASxxxx options in some more detail: -h List the ASxxxx options -d decimal listing -q octal listing -x hex listing (default) The listing radix affects the .lst, .rel, and .sym files. -g undefined symbols made global Unresolved (external) variables and symbols are flagged as global. -a all user symbols made global All defined (not local or external) variables and symbols are flagged as global. -b display .define substitutions in listing If a .define substitution has been applied to an assembler source line the source line is printed with the substitution. -bb and display without .define substitutions If a .define substitution has been applied to an assembler source line the source line is first printed without substitution followed by the line with the substitution. -c Disable instruction cycle count in listing This option overrides the listing option 'cyc' in the .list and .nlist directives. Instruction cycle counts cannot be enabled if the -c option is specified. -j enable NOICE debug symbols -y enable SDCC debug symbols -l create list output (out)file.lst If -s (symbol table output) is not specified the symbol table is included at the end of the listing file. -o create object output (out)file.rel -s create symbol output (out)file.sym -p disable listing pagination This option inhibits the generation of a form-feed character and its associated page header in the assembler listing. -u disable .list/.nlist processing This option disables all .list and .nlist directives. The listing mode is .list with the options err, loc, bin, eqt, cyc, lin, src, pag, lst, and md. The options cyc and pag are overridden by the -c and -p command line options. -w wide listing format for symbol table -z disable case sensitivity for symbols -f by ` in the listing file -ff by mode in the listing file Relocatable modess are flagged by byte position (LSB, Byte 2, Byte 3, MSB) *nMN paged, uvUV unsigned, rsRS signed, pqPQ program counter relative. The file name for the .lst, .rel, .hlr, and .sym files is the first file name specified in the command line. All output files are ascii text files which may be edited, copied, etc. The out- put files are the concatenation of all the input files, if files are to be assembled independently invoke the assembler for each file. The .rel file contains a radix directive so that the linker will use the proper conversion for this file. Linked files may have different radices. The ASxxxx assemblers also have several 'hidden' options which are not shown in the usage message. These are: -r Include assembler line numbers in the .hlr hint file -rr Also include non listed line numbers in the .hlr hint file -t Show Include File and Macro Expansion levels and memory allocations for the assembler and macro processor
Graphical Illustration of Include File Locations for the following command line entry: __> bin\ascheck -l -o -s obj\prjct.rel src\prjct\prjct.asm
/---------------------------------------------------------------------\ | (rooted) | _____ | _____ | | | | | | | ---| inc | <---/ ---| bin | | | |_____| | |_____| | | | | | | | \___ inc4.asm | \___ ascheck.exe | | | | | | | _____ | _____ _____ | _____ _____ | | | | | | | | | | | | | (in prjct.asm directory) | | C:\ |-----| ..\ |-----| __> |--+--| src |-----|prjct| <-----------------------------\ | |_____| |_____| | |_____| | |_____| | |_____| | | | | | | .include inc1.asm -/ | | ^ | | \___ prjct.asm .include C:\inc\inc4.asm --/ | | | | \___ inc1.asm .include ..\inc\inc3.asm -------\ Current | | | | _____ .include src\inc\inc2.asm -\ | Working ------> | >---/ | | | | | | Directory | | ---| inc | <-------------------------------------/ | | | |_____| (relative to current working directory) | | | | | | | \___ inc2.asm | | | _____ | | | | | | | ---| obj | | | |_____| | | | | | \___ .REL, .SYM, .LST, .HLR | | | | _____ | | | | (relative to current working directory) | ---| inc | <------------------------------------------------------------------/ |_____| | \___ inc3.asm
Graphical Illustration of Include File Locations for the following command line entry: __$ bin/ascheck -l -o -s obj/prjct.rel src/prjct/prjct.asm
/---------------------------------------------------------------------\ | (rooted) | _____ | _____ | | | | | | | ---| inc | <---/ ---| bin | | | |_____| | |_____| | | | | | | | \___ inc4.asm | \___ ascheck | | | | | | | _____ | _____ _____ | _____ _____ | | | | | | | | | | | | | (in prjct.asm directory) | | / |-----| ../ |-----| __$ |--+--| src |-----|prjct| <-----------------------------\ | |_____| |_____| | |_____| | |_____| | |_____| | | | | | | .include inc1.asm -/ | | ^ | | \___ prjct.asm .include /inc/inc4.asm ----/ | | | | \___ inc1.asm .include ../inc/inc3.asm -------\ Current | | | | _____ .include src/inc/inc2.asm -\ | Working ------> | >---/ | | | | | | Directory | | ---| inc | <-------------------------------------/ | | | |_____| (relative to current working directory) | | | | | | | \___ inc2.asm | | | _____ | | | | | | | ---| obj | | | |_____| | | | | | \___ .REL, .SYM, .LST, .HLR | | | | _____ | | | | (relative to current working directory) | ---| inc | <------------------------------------------------------------------/ |_____| | \___ inc3.asm
The ASxxxx assemblers provide limited diagnostic error codes during the assembly process, these errors will be noted in the listing file and printed on the stderr device. The assembler reports the errors on the stderr device as ?ASxxxx-Error-<*> in line nnn of filename where * is the error code, nnn is the line number, and filename is the source/include file. The errors are: (.) This error is caused by an absolute direct assign- ment of the current location counter . = expression (incorrect) rather than the correct . = . + expression (a) Indicates a machine specific addressing or address- ing mode error. (b) Indicates a direct page boundary error. (c) Indicates modulus of .bndry directives to large. (d) Indicates a direct page addressing error. (e) Caused by a .error or .assume directive. (i) Caused by an .include file error or an .if/.endif mismatch. (m) Multiple definitions of the same label, multiple .module directives, multiple conflicting attributes in an .area or .bank directive or the use of .hilo and lohi within the same assembly. (n) An .mexit, .endm, or .narg directive outside of a macro, repeat block or indefinite repeat block. (o) Directive or mnemonic error or the use of the .org directive in a relocatable area. (p) Phase error: label location changing between passes 2 and 3. Normally caused by having more than one level of forward referencing. (q) Questionable syntax: missing or improper operators, terminators, or delimiters. (r) Relocation error: logic operation attempted on a relocatable term, addition of two relocatable terms, subtraction of two relocatable terms not within the same programming area or external symbols. (s) String Substitution / recursion error. (u) Undefined symbol encountered during assembly. (z) Divide by 0 or Modulus by 0 error: result is 0.
The (-l) option produces an ascii output listing file. Each page of output contains a five line header: 1. The ASxxxx program name and page number 2. Assembler Radix and Address Bits 3. Title from a .title directive (if any) 4. Subtitle from a .sbttl directive (if any) 5. Blank line Each succeeding line contains five fields: 1. Error field (first two characters of line) 2. Current location counter 3. Generated code in byte format 4. Opcode cycles count 5. Source text line number 6. Source text The error field may contain upto 2 error flags indicating any errors encountered while assembling this line of source code. The current location counter field displays the 16-bit, 24-bit, or 32-bit program position. This field will be in the selected radix. The generated code follows the program location. The listing radix determines the number of bytes that will be displayed in this field. Hexidecimal listing allows six bytes of data within the field, decimal and octal allow four bytes within the field. If more than one field of data is generated from the assembly of a single line of source code, then the data field is repeated on successive lines. The opcode cycles count is printed within the delimiters [ ] on the line with the source text. This reduces the number of generated code bytes displayed on the line with the source list- ing by one. (The -c option disables all opcode cycle listing.) The source text line number is printed in decimal and is fol- lowed by the source text. A Source line with a .page directive is never listed. (The -u option overrides this behavior.) Two additional options are available for printing the source line text. If the -b option is specified then the listed source line contains all the .define substitutions. If the -bb option is specified then the original source line is printed before the source line with substitutions. Two data field options are available to flag those bytes which will be relocated by the linker. If the -f option is specified then each byte to be relocated will be preceeded by the '`' character. If the -ff option is specified then each byte to be relocated will be preceeded by one of the following characters: 1. * paged relocation 2. u low byte of unsigned word or unsigned byte 3. v high byte of unsigned word 4. p PCR low byte of word relocation or PCR byte 5. q PCR high byte of word relocation 6. r low byte relocation or byte relocation 7. s high byte relocation Assemblers which use 24-bit or 32-bit addressing use an ex- tended flagging mode: 1. * paged relocation 2. u 1st byte of unsigned value 3. v 2nd byte of unsigned value 4. U 3rd byte of unsigned value 5. V 4th byte of unsigned value 6. p PCR 1st byte of relocation value or PCR byte 7. q PCR 2nd byte of relocation value 8. P PCR 3rd byte of relocation value 9. Q PCR 4th byte of relocation value 10. r 1st byte of relocation value or byte relocation 11. s 2nd byte of relocation value 12. R 3rd byte of relocation value 13. S 4th byte of relocation value
The symbol table has two parts: 1. The alphabetically sorted list of symbols and/or labels defined or referenced in the source program. 2. A list of the program areas defined during assembly of the source program. The sorted list of symbols and/or labels contains the follow- ing information: 1. Program area number (none if absolute value or exter- nal) 2. The symbol or label 3. Directly assigned symbol is denoted with an (=) sign 4. The value of a symbol, location of a label relative to the program area base address (=0), or a **** indicat- ing the symbol or label is undefined. 5. The characters: G - global, L - local, R - relocatable, and X - external. The list of program areas provides the correspondence between the program area numbers and the defined program areas, the size of the program areas, and the area flags (attributes).
The object file is an ascii file containing the information needed by the linker to bind multiple object modules into a com- plete loadable memory image. The object module contains the following designators: [XDQ][HL] X Hexidecimal radix D Decimal radix Q Octal radix H Most significant byte first L Least significant byte first 2 16-Bit Addressing 3 24-Bit Addressing 4 32-Bit Addressing H Header M Module G Merge Mode B Bank A Area S Symbol T Object code R Relocation information P Paging information Refer to the linker for a detailed description of each of the designators and the format of the information contained in the object file.
The hint file is an ascii file containing information needed by the linker to convert the listing file into a relocated list- ing file. Each line in the .hlr file coresponds to a single line in the listing file. The text line usually contains 3 or 4 parameters in the radix selected for the assembler as shown in the following table: Line Position: 123456789012 ------------ Octal: 111 222 333 Decimal: 111 222 333 Hex: 11 22 33 Parameter 1 is the listed parameters for the line designated by a bit position in the parameter: BIT 0 - LIST_ERR Error Code(s) BIT 1 - LIST_LOC Location BIT 2 - LIST_BIN Generated Binary Value(s) BIT 3 - LIST_EQT Assembler Equate Value BIT 4 - LIST_CYC Opcode Cycles BIT 5 - LIST_LIN Line Numbers BIT 6 - LIST_SRC Assembler Source Code BIT 7 - HLR_NLST Listing Inhibited Parameter 2 is the internal assembler listing mode value specified for this line during the assembly process: 0 - NLIST No listing 1 - SLIST Source only 2 - ALIST Address only 3 - BLIST Address only with allocation 4 - CLIST Code 5 - ELIST Equate only 6 - ILIST IF conditional evaluation Parameter 3 is the number of output bytes listed for this line. The 4th parameter is only output if an equate references a value in a different area. The area name is output in the fol- lowing format following the 3 parameters described above: Line Position: 123456789012 ------------ Area Name: equatearea When the line number is output to the .hlr file (-r option) the line number is prepended to the 3 or 4 parameters described above. The line number is always in decimal in the following format: Line Position: 1234567 ------- Decimal: LLLLL Thus the four formats (for each radix) that may be present in a .hlr file are: Line Position: 123456789012345678901234567890 ------------------------------ 11 22 33 11 22 33 equatearea LLLLL 11 22 33 LLLLL 11 22 33 equatearea The linker understands these formats without any user inter- action.
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Last Updated: January 2017