ASxxxx Cross Assembler Documentation




                                ASxxxx Assemblers


                                       and


                            ASLINK Relocating Linker




                                 Version   5.20
                                  January 2017





        CHAPTER 1  THE ASSEMBLER                                     1-1 
          1.1     THE ASXXXX ASSEMBLERS                              1-1 
          1.1.1     Assembly Pass 1                                  1-2 
          1.1.2     Assembly Pass 2                                  1-2 
          1.1.3     Assembly Pass 3                                  1-2 
          1.2     SOURCE PROGRAM FORMAT                              1-3 
          1.2.1     Statement Format                                 1-3 
          1.2.1.1     Label Field                                    1-3 
          1.2.1.2     Operator Field                                 1-5 
          1.2.1.3     Operand Field                                  1-5 
          1.2.1.4     Comment Field                                  1-6 
          1.3     SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS                            1-6 
          1.3.1     Character Set                                    1-6 
          1.3.2     User-Defined Symbols                            1-10 
          1.3.3     Reusable Symbols                                1-10 
          1.3.4     Current Location Counter                        1-12 
          1.3.5     Numbers                                         1-13 
          1.3.6     Terms                                           1-14 
          1.3.7     Expressions                                     1-14 
          1.4     GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES                      1-16 
          1.4.1     .module Directive                               1-16 
          1.4.2     .title Directive                                1-16 
          1.4.3     .sbttl Directive                                1-17 
          1.4.4     .list and .nlist Directives                     1-17 
          1.4.5     .page Directive                                 1-18 
          1.4.6     .msg Directive                                  1-19 
          1.4.7     .error Directive                                1-20 
          1.4.8     .byte, .db, and .fcb Directives                 1-20 
          1.4.9     .word, .dw, and .fdb Directives                 1-21 
          1.4.10    .3byte and .triple Directives                   1-21 
          1.4.11    .4byte and .quad Directive                      1-22 
          1.4.12    .blkb, .ds, .rmb, and .rs Directives            1-22 
          1.4.13    .blkw, .blk3, and .blk4 Directives              1-22 
          1.4.14    .ascii, .str, and .fcc Directives               1-23 
          1.4.15    .ascis and .strs Directives                     1-23 
          1.4.16    .asciz and .strz Directives                     1-24 
          1.4.17    .assume Directive                               1-24 
          1.4.18    .radix Directive                                1-25 
          1.4.19    .even Directive                                 1-25 
          1.4.20    .odd Directive                                  1-25 
          1.4.21    .bndry Directive                                1-26 
          1.4.22    .area Directive                                 1-27 
          1.4.23    .bank Directive                                 1-29 
          1.4.24    .org Directive                                  1-30 
          1.4.25    .globl Directive                                1-31 
          1.4.26    .local Directive                                1-31 
          1.4.27    .equ, .gblequ, and .lclequ Directives           1-32 
          1.4.28    .if, .else, and .endif Directives               1-33 
          1.4.29    .iff, .ift, and .iftf Directives                1-34 
          1.4.30    .ifxx Directives                                1-35 
          1.4.31    .ifdef Directive                                1-36 
          1.4.32    .ifndef Directive                               1-37 
          1.4.33    .ifb Directive                                  1-38 
          1.4.34    .ifnb Directive                                 1-39 
          1.4.35    .ifidn Directive                                1-40 
          1.4.36    .ifdif Directive                                1-41 


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          1.4.37    Alternate .if Directive Forms                   1-42 
          1.4.38    Immediate Conditional Assembly Directives       1-43 
          1.4.39    .include Directive                              1-44 
          1.4.40    .define and .undefine Directives                1-45 
          1.4.41    .setdp Directive                                1-46 
          1.4.42    .16bit, .24bit, and .32bit Directives           1-48 
          1.4.43    .msb Directive                                  1-48 
          1.4.44    .lohi and .hilo Directives                      1-49 
          1.4.45    .end Directive                                  1-49 
          1.5     INVOKING ASXXXX                                   1-50 
          1.6     ERRORS                                            1-53 
          1.7     LISTING FILE                                      1-54 
          1.8     SYMBOL TABLE FILE                                 1-56 
          1.9     OBJECT FILE                                       1-57 
          1.10    HINT FILE                                         1-58 

        CHAPTER 2  THE MACRO PROCESSOR                               2-1 
          2.1     DEFINING MACROS                                    2-1 
          2.1.1     .macro Directive                                 2-2 
          2.1.2     .endm Directive                                  2-3 
          2.1.3     .mexit Directive                                 2-3 
          2.2     CALLING MACROS                                     2-4 
          2.3     ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS     2-5 
          2.3.1     Macro Nesting                                    2-6 
          2.3.2     Special Characters in Macro Arguments            2-7 
          2.3.3     Passing Numerical Arguments as Symbols           2-7 
          2.3.4     Number of Arguments in Macro Calls               2-9 
          2.3.5     Creating Local Symbols Automatically             2-9 
          2.3.6     Concatenation of Macro Arguments                2-10 
          2.4     MACRO ATTRIBUTE DIRECTIVES                        2-11 
          2.4.1     .narg Directive                                 2-12 
          2.4.2     .nchr Directive                                 2-13 
          2.4.3     .ntyp Directive                                 2-14 
          2.4.4     .nval Directive                                 2-14 
          2.5     INDEFINITE REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVES                2-15 
          2.5.1     .irp Directive                                  2-16 
          2.5.2     .irpc Directive                                 2-17 
          2.6     REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVE                            2-18 
          2.6.1     .rept Directive                                 2-18 
          2.7     MACRO DELETION DIRECTIVE                          2-19 
          2.7.1     .mdelete Directive                              2-19 
          2.8     MACRO INVOCATION DETAILS                          2-19 
          2.9     BUILDING A MACRO LIBRARY                          2-20 
          2.9.1     .mlib Macro Directive                           2-21 
          2.9.2     .mcall Macro Directive                          2-22 
          2.10    EXAMPLE MACRO CROSS ASSEMBLERS                    2-24 

        CHAPTER 3  THE LINKER                                        3-1 
          3.1     ASLINK RELOCATING LINKER                           3-1 
          3.2     INVOKING ASLINK                                    3-2 
          3.3     LIBRARY PATH(S) AND FILE(S)                        3-5 
          3.4     ASLINK PROCESSING                                  3-6 


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          3.5     ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING                 3-9 
          3.5.1     Object Module Format                             3-9 
          3.5.2     Header Line                                     3-10 
          3.5.3     Module Line                                     3-10 
          3.5.4     Merge Mode Line                                 3-10 
          3.5.5     Bank Line                                       3-11 
          3.5.6     Area Line                                       3-11 
          3.5.7     Symbol Line                                     3-12 
          3.5.8     T Line                                          3-12 
          3.5.9     R Line                                          3-12 
          3.5.10    P Line                                          3-13 
          3.5.11    24-Bit and 32-Bit Addressing                    3-13 
          3.5.12    ASlink V5.xx (V4.xx) Error Messages             3-14 
          3.6     ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING                       3-17 
          3.6.1     Object Module Format                            3-17 
          3.6.2     Header Line                                     3-17 
          3.6.3     Module Line                                     3-18 
          3.6.4     Area Line                                       3-18 
          3.6.5     Symbol Line                                     3-18 
          3.6.6     T Line                                          3-18 
          3.6.7     R Line                                          3-19 
          3.6.8     P Line                                          3-19 
          3.6.9     24-Bit and 32-Bit Addressing                    3-20 
          3.6.10    ASlink V3.xx Error Messages                     3-20 
          3.7     HINT FILE FORMAT FOR RELOCATED LISTINGS           3-23 
          3.8     INTEL IHX OUTPUT FORMAT (16-BIT)                  3-25 
          3.9     INTEL I86 OUTPUT FORMAT (24 OR 32-BIT)            3-27 
          3.10    MOTOROLA S1-S9 OUTPUT FORMAT (16-BIT)             3-29 
          3.11    MOTOROLA S2-S8 OUTPUT FORMAT (24-BIT)             3-30 
          3.12    MOTOROLA S3-S7 OUTPUT FORMAT (32-BIT)             3-31 
          3.13    TANDY COLOR COMPUTER DISK BASIC FORMAT            3-32 

        CHAPTER 4  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                        4-1 
          4.1     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH LINUX              4-2 
          4.2     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK UNDER CYGWIN            4-2 
          4.3     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH DJGPP              4-3 
          4.4     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH BORLAND'S
                  TURBO C++ 3.0                                      4-3 
          4.4.1     Graphical User Interface                         4-3 
          4.4.2     Command Line Interface                           4-4 
          4.5     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH
                  MS VISUAL C++ 6.0                                  4-5 
          4.5.1     Graphical User Interface                         4-5 
          4.5.2     Command Line Interface                           4-5 
          4.6     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH
                  MS VISUAL STUDIO 2005                              4-6 
          4.6.1     Graphical User Interface                         4-6 
          4.6.2     Command Line Interface                           4-6 
          4.7     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH
                  MS VISUAL STUDIO 2010                              4-7 
          4.7.1     Graphical User Interface                         4-7 
          4.7.2     Command Line Interface                           4-7 


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          4.8     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH
                  MS VISUAL STUDIO 2013                              4-8 
          4.8.1     Graphical User Interface                         4-8 
          4.8.2     Command Line Interface                           4-8 
          4.9     BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH
                  OPEN WATCOM V1.9                                   4-9 
          4.9.1     Graphical User Interface                         4-9 
          4.9.2     Command Line Interface                           4-9 
          4.10    BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH
                  SYMANTEC C/C++ V7.2                               4-10 
          4.10.1    Graphical User Interface                        4-10 
          4.10.2    Command Line Interface                          4-10 
          4.11    THE _CLEAN.BAT AND _PREP.BAT FILES                4-11 

        APPENDIX A  ASXSCN LISTING FILE SCANNER                      A-1 

        APPENDIX B  ASXCNV LISTING CONVERTER                         B-1 

        APPENDIX C  S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                        C-1 
          C.1     BACKGROUND                                         C-1 
          C.2     CREATING AN OS9 MODULE                             C-2 
          C.2.1     Step 1:  Define Header Values                    C-3 
          C.2.2     Step 2:  Create The Module Header                C-3 
          C.2.3     Step 3:  Allocate Storage                        C-5 
          C.2.4     Step 4:  Insert The Program Code                 C-5 
          C.2.5     Step 5:  End Assembly By Inserting CRC           C-6 
          C.3     THE CONVERSION UTILITY:  S19OS9                    C-7 

        APPENDIX D  CHANGE LOG                                       D-1 

        APPENDIX AA  ASCHECK ASSEMBLER                              AA-1 
          AA.1    .opcode DIRECTIVE                                 AA-1 

        APPENDIX AB  AS1802 ASSEMBLER                               AB-1 
          AB.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    AB-1 
          AB.2    1802 REGISTER SET                                 AB-1 
          AB.3    1802 INSTRUCTION SET                              AB-1 
          AB.3.1    1802 Inherent Instructions                      AB-2 
          AB.3.2    1802 Short Branch Instructions                  AB-2 
          AB.3.3    1802 Long Branch Instructions                   AB-3 
          AB.3.4    1802 Immediate Instructions                     AB-3 
          AB.3.5    1802 Register Instructions                      AB-3 
          AB.3.6    1802 Input and Output Instructions              AB-3 
          AB.3.7    CDP1802 COSMAC Microprocessor Instruction
                    Set Summary                                     AB-4 

        APPENDIX AC  AS2650 ASSEMBLER                               AC-1 
          AC.1    2650 REGISTER SET                                 AC-1 
          AC.2    2650 INSTRUCTION SET                              AC-1 
          AC.2.1    Load / Store Instructions                       AC-2 
          AC.2.2    Arithmetic / Compare Instructions               AC-2 
          AC.2.3    Logical / Rotate Instructions                   AC-2 


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          AC.2.4    Condition Code Branches                         AC-3 
          AC.2.5    Register Test Branches                          AC-3 
          AC.2.6    Branches (to Subroutines) / Returns             AC-3 
          AC.2.7    Input / Output                                  AC-3 
          AC.2.8    Miscellaneos                                    AC-3 
          AC.2.9    Program Status                                  AC-4 

        APPENDIX AD  AS430 ASSEMBLER                                AD-1 
          AD.1    MPS430 REGISTER SET                               AD-1 
          AD.2    MPS430 ADDRESSING MODES                           AD-2 
          AD.2.1    MPS430 Instruction Mnemonics                    AD-3 

        APPENDIX AE  AS6100 ASSEMBLER                               AE-1 
          AE.1    6100 MACHINE DESCRIPTION                          AE-1 
          AE.2    ASSEMBLER SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     AE-1 
          AE.3    MACHINE SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                       AE-2 
          AE.3.1    .setpg                                          AE-2 
          AE.3.2    .mempn                                          AE-3 
          AE.3.3    .mempa                                          AE-3 
          AE.4    6100 INSTRUCTION SET                              AE-3 
          AE.4.1    Basic Instructions                              AE-3 
          AE.4.2    Operate Instructions                            AE-4 
          AE.4.2.1    Group 1 Operate Instructions                  AE-4 
          AE.4.2.2    Group 2 Operate Instructions                  AE-5 
          AE.4.2.3    Group 3 Operate Instructions                  AE-5 
          AE.4.2.4    Group Errors                                  AE-6 
          AE.4.3    Input/Output (IOT) Instructions                 AE-6 

        APPENDIX AF  AS61860 ASSEMBLER                              AF-1 
          AF.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    AF-1 
          AF.2    61860 REGISTER SET                                AF-1 
          AF.3    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     AF-2 
          AF.4    61860 INSTRUCTION SET                             AF-2 
          AF.4.1    Load Immediate Register                         AF-3 
          AF.4.2    Load Accumulator                                AF-3 
          AF.4.3    Store Accumulator                               AF-3 
          AF.4.4    Move Data                                       AF-3 
          AF.4.5    Exchange Data                                   AF-4 
          AF.4.6    Stack Operations                                AF-4 
          AF.4.7    Block Move Data                                 AF-4 
          AF.4.8    Block Exchange Data                             AF-4 
          AF.4.9    Increment and Decrement                         AF-5 
          AF.4.10   Increment/Decrement with Load/Store             AF-5 
          AF.4.11   Fill                                            AF-5 
          AF.4.12   Addition and Subtraction                        AF-6 
          AF.4.13   Shift Operations                                AF-6 
          AF.4.14   Boolean Operations                              AF-6 
          AF.4.15   Compare                                         AF-7 
          AF.4.16   CPU Control                                     AF-7 
          AF.4.17   Absolute Jumps                                  AF-7 
          AF.4.18   Relative Jumps                                  AF-8 
          AF.4.19   Calls                                           AF-8 


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          AF.4.20   Input and output                                AF-8 
          AF.4.21   Unknown Commands                                AF-9 

        APPENDIX AG  AS6500 ASSEMBLER                               AG-1 
          AG.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    AG-1 
          AG.2    6500 REGISTER SET                                 AG-2 
          AG.3    6500 INSTRUCTION SET                              AG-2 
          AG.3.1    Processor Specific Directives                   AG-3 
          AG.3.2    65xx Core Inherent Instructions                 AG-3 
          AG.3.3    65xx Core Branch Instructions                   AG-3 
          AG.3.4    65xx Core Single Operand Instructions           AG-3 
          AG.3.5    65xx Core Double Operand Instructions           AG-4 
          AG.3.6    65xx Core Jump and Jump to Subroutine
                    Instructions                                    AG-4 
          AG.3.7    65xx Core Miscellaneous X and Y Register
                    Instructions                                    AG-4 
          AG.3.8    65F11 and 65F12 Specific Instructions           AG-5 
          AG.3.9    65C00/21 and 65C29 Specific Instructions        AG-5 
          AG.3.10   65C02, 65C102, and 65C112 Specific
                    Instructions                                    AG-6 

        APPENDIX AH  AS6800 ASSEMBLER                               AH-1 
          AH.1    6800 REGISTER SET                                 AH-1 
          AH.2    6800 INSTRUCTION SET                              AH-1 
          AH.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AH-2 
          AH.2.2    Branch Instructions                             AH-2 
          AH.2.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AH-3 
          AH.2.4    Double Operand Instructions                     AH-4 
          AH.2.5    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AH-4 
          AH.2.6    Long Register Instructions                      AH-5 

        APPENDIX AI  AS6801 ASSEMBLER                               AI-1 
          AI.1    .hd6303 DIRECTIVE                                 AI-1 
          AI.2    6801 REGISTER SET                                 AI-1 
          AI.3    6801 INSTRUCTION SET                              AI-1 
          AI.3.1    Inherent Instructions                           AI-2 
          AI.3.2    Branch Instructions                             AI-2 
          AI.3.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AI-3 
          AI.3.4    Double Operand Instructions                     AI-4 
          AI.3.5    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AI-5 
          AI.3.6    Long Register Instructions                      AI-5 
          AI.3.7    6303 Specific Instructions                      AI-5 

        APPENDIX AJ  AS6804 ASSEMBLER                               AJ-1 
          AJ.1    6804 REGISTER SET                                 AJ-1 
          AJ.2    6804 INSTRUCTION SET                              AJ-1 
          AJ.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AJ-2 
          AJ.2.2    Branch Instructions                             AJ-2 
          AJ.2.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AJ-2 
          AJ.2.4    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AJ-2 
          AJ.2.5    Bit Test Instructions                           AJ-2 
          AJ.2.6    Load Immediate data Instruction                 AJ-3 


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          AJ.2.7    6804 Derived Instructions                       AJ-3 

        APPENDIX AK  AS68(HC)05 ASSEMBLER                           AK-1 
          AK.1    .6805 DIRECTIVE                                   AK-1 
          AK.2    .hc05 DIRECTIVE                                   AK-1 
          AK.3    THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE                            AK-1 
          AK.4    6805 REGISTER SET                                 AK-2 
          AK.5    6805 INSTRUCTION SET                              AK-2 
          AK.5.1    Control Instructions                            AK-3 
          AK.5.2    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   AK-3 
          AK.5.3    Branch Instructions                             AK-3 
          AK.5.4    Read-Modify-Write Instructions                  AK-4 
          AK.5.5    Register\Memory Instructions                    AK-4 
          AK.5.6    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AK-5 

        APPENDIX AL  AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER                        AL-1 
          AL.1    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     AL-1 
          AL.1.1    .hc08 Directive                                 AL-1 
          AL.1.2    .hcs08 Directive                                AL-1 
          AL.1.3    .6805 Directive                                 AL-2 
          AL.1.4    .hc05 Directive                                 AL-2 
          AL.1.5    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          AL-2 
          AL.2    68HC(S)08 REGISTER SET                            AL-3 
          AL.3    68HC(S)08 INSTRUCTION SET                         AL-3 
          AL.3.1    Control Instructions                            AL-4 
          AL.3.2    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   AL-4 
          AL.3.3    Branch Instructions                             AL-4 
          AL.3.4    Complex Branch Instructions                     AL-5 
          AL.3.5    Read-Modify-Write Instructions                  AL-5 
          AL.3.6    Register\Memory Instructions                    AL-6 
          AL.3.7    Double Operand Move Instruction                 AL-6 
          AL.3.8    16-Bit  Index Register Instructions        AL-6 
          AL.3.9    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AL-6 

        APPENDIX AM  AS6809 ASSEMBLER                               AM-1 
          AM.1    6809 REGISTER SET                                 AM-1 
          AM.2    6809 INSTRUCTION SET                              AM-1 
          AM.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AM-3 
          AM.2.2    Short Branch Instructions                       AM-3 
          AM.2.3    Long Branch Instructions                        AM-3 
          AM.2.4    Single Operand Instructions                     AM-4 
          AM.2.5    Double Operand Instructions                     AM-5 
          AM.2.6    D-register Instructions                         AM-5 
          AM.2.7    Index/Stack Register Instructions               AM-5 
          AM.2.8    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AM-6 
          AM.2.9    Register - Register Instructions                AM-6 
          AM.2.10   Condition Code Register Instructions            AM-6 
          AM.2.11   6800 Compatibility Instructions                 AM-6 

        APPENDIX AN  AS6811 ASSEMBLER                               AN-1 
          AN.1    68HC11 REGISTER SET                               AN-1 
          AN.2    68HC11 INSTRUCTION SET                            AN-1 


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          AN.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AN-2 
          AN.2.2    Branch Instructions                             AN-2 
          AN.2.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AN-3 
          AN.2.4    Double Operand Instructions                     AN-4 
          AN.2.5    Bit Manupulation Instructions                   AN-4 
          AN.2.6    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AN-5 
          AN.2.7    Long Register Instructions                      AN-5 

        APPENDIX AO  AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                        AO-1 
          AO.1    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     AO-1 
          AO.1.1    .hc12 Directive                                 AO-1 
          AO.1.2    .hcs12 Directive                                AO-1 
          AO.1.3    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          AO-2 
          AO.2    68HC(S)12 REGISTER SET                            AO-2 
          AO.3    68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET                         AO-3 
          AO.3.1    Inherent Instructions                           AO-4 
          AO.3.2    Short Branch Instructions                       AO-4 
          AO.3.3    Long Branch Instructions                        AO-5 
          AO.3.4    Branch on Decrement, Test, or Increment         AO-5 
          AO.3.5    Bit Clear and Set Instructions                  AO-5 
          AO.3.6    Branch on Bit Clear or Set                      AO-5 
          AO.3.7    Single Operand Instructions                     AO-6 
          AO.3.8    Double Operand Instructions                     AO-7 
          AO.3.9    Move Instructions                               AO-7 
          AO.3.10   D-register Instructions                         AO-7 
          AO.3.11   Index/Stack Register Instructions               AO-8 
          AO.3.12   Jump and Jump/Call to Subroutine
                    Instructions                                    AO-8 
          AO.3.13   Other Special Instructions                      AO-8 
          AO.3.14   Register - Register Instructions                AO-8 
          AO.3.15   Condition Code Register Instructions            AO-8 
          AO.3.16   M68HC11 Compatibility Mode Instructions         AO-9 

        APPENDIX AP  AS6816 ASSEMBLER                               AP-1 
          AP.1    68HC16 REGISTER SET                               AP-1 
          AP.2    68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET                            AP-1 
          AP.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AP-2 
          AP.2.2    Push/Pull Multiple Register Instructions        AP-3 
          AP.2.3    Short Branch Instructions                       AP-3 
          AP.2.4    Long Branch Instructions                        AP-3 
          AP.2.5    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   AP-3 
          AP.2.6    Single Operand Instructions                     AP-4 
          AP.2.7    Double Operand Instructions                     AP-5 
          AP.2.8    Index/Stack Register Instructions               AP-5 
          AP.2.9    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AP-6 
          AP.2.10   Condition Code Register Instructions            AP-6 
          AP.2.11   Multiply and Accumulate Instructions            AP-6 

        APPENDIX AQ  AS740 ASSEMBLER                                AQ-1 
          AQ.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    AQ-1 
          AQ.2    740 REGISTER SET                                  AQ-1 
          AQ.3    740 INSTRUCTION SET                               AQ-1 


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          AQ.3.1    Inherent Instructions                           AQ-3 
          AQ.3.2    Branch Instructions                             AQ-3 
          AQ.3.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AQ-3 
          AQ.3.4    Double Operand Instructions                     AQ-4 
          AQ.3.5    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        AQ-4 
          AQ.3.6    Miscellaneous X and Y Register Instructions     AQ-4 
          AQ.3.7    Bit Instructions                                AQ-4 
          AQ.3.8    Other Instructions                              AQ-4 

        APPENDIX AR  AS78K0S ASSEMBLER                              AR-1 
          AR.1    78K/0S REGISTER SET                               AR-1 
          AR.2    78K/0S INSTRUCTION SET                            AR-1 
          AR.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AR-3 
          AR.2.2    Branch Instructions                             AR-3 
          AR.2.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AR-3 
          AR.2.4    Double Operand Instructions                     AR-4 

        APPENDIX AS  AS8048 ASSEMBLER                               AS-1 
          AS.1    .8048 DIRECTIVE                                   AS-1 
          AS.2    .8041 DIRECTIVE                                   AS-1 
          AS.3    .8022 DIRECTIVE                                   AS-2 
          AS.4    .8021 DIRECTIVE                                   AS-2 
          AS.5    THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE                            AS-2 
          AS.6    8048 REGISTER SET                                 AS-3 
          AS.7    8048 INSTRUCTION SET                              AS-3 
          AS.7.1    Alphabetical Instruction Listing                AS-5 

        APPENDIX AT  AS8051 ASSEMBLER                               AT-1 
          AT.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    AT-1 
          AT.2    8051 REGISTER SET                                 AT-1 
          AT.3    8051 INSTRUCTION SET                              AT-2 
          AT.3.1    Inherent Instructions                           AT-2 
          AT.3.2    Move Instructions                               AT-3 
          AT.3.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AT-3 
          AT.3.4    Two Operand Instructions                        AT-4 
          AT.3.5    Call and Return Instructions                    AT-4 
          AT.3.6    Jump Instructions                               AT-4 
          AT.3.7    Predefined Symbols:  SFR Map                    AT-5 
          AT.3.8    Predefined Symbols:  SFR Bit Addresses          AT-6 
          AT.3.9    Predefined Symbols:  Control Bits               AT-7 

        APPENDIX AU  AS8085 ASSEMBLER                               AU-1 
          AU.1    8085 REGISTER SET                                 AU-1 
          AU.2    8085 INSTRUCTION SET                              AU-1 
          AU.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           AU-2 
          AU.2.2    Register/Memory/Immediate Instructions          AU-2 
          AU.2.3    Call and Return Instructions                    AU-2 
          AU.2.4    Jump Instructions                               AU-2 
          AU.2.5    Input/Output/Reset Instructions                 AU-3 
          AU.2.6    Move Instructions                               AU-3 
          AU.2.7    Other Instructions                              AU-3 
          AU.2.8    Unspecified Instructions                        AU-3 


                                                                  Page x
        


          AU.3    UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE                        AU-4 

        APPENDIX AV  AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                             AV-1 
          AV.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                   AV-1 
          AV.2    AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES                     AV-1 
          AV.2.1    Processor Selection Directives                  AV-1 
          AV.2.2    .cpu Directive                                  AV-2 
          AV.2.3    Processor Addressing Range Directives           AV-3 
          AV.2.4    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          AV-3 
          AV.2.5    DS80C390 Addressing Mode Directive              AV-4 
          AV.2.6    The .msb Directive                              AV-4 
          AV.3    DS8XCXXX REGISTER SET                             AV-6 
          AV.4    DS8XCXXX INSTRUCTION SET                          AV-6 
          AV.4.1    Inherent Instructions                           AV-7 
          AV.4.2    Move Instructions                               AV-7 
          AV.4.3    Single Operand Instructions                     AV-7 
          AV.4.4    Two Operand Instructions                        AV-8 
          AV.4.5    Call and Return Instructions                    AV-8 
          AV.4.6    Jump Instructions                               AV-8 
          AV.5    DS8XCXXX SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS               AV-9 
          AV.5.1    SFR Map                                         AV-9 
          AV.5.2    Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-10 
          AV.5.3    Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-11 
          AV.5.4    Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-12 
          AV.6    DS80C310 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS              AV-13 
          AV.6.1    SFR Map                                        AV-13 
          AV.6.2    Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-14 
          AV.6.3    Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-15 
          AV.6.4    Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-16 
          AV.7    DS80C320/DS80C323 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS     AV-17 
          AV.7.1    SFR Map                                        AV-17 
          AV.7.2    Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-18 
          AV.7.3    Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-19 
          AV.7.4    Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-20 
          AV.8    DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS              AV-21 
          AV.8.1    SFR Map                                        AV-21 
          AV.8.2    Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-22 
          AV.8.3    Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-23 
          AV.8.4    Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-24 
          AV.9    DS83C520/DS87C520 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS     AV-26 
          AV.9.1    SFR Map                                        AV-26 
          AV.9.2    Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-27 
          AV.9.3    Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-28 
          AV.9.4    Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-29 
          AV.10   DS83C530/DS87C530 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS     AV-30 
          AV.10.1   SFR Map                                        AV-30 
          AV.10.2   Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-31 
          AV.10.3   Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-32 
          AV.10.4   Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-33 
          AV.11   DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS     AV-34 
          AV.11.1   SFR Map                                        AV-34 
          AV.11.2   Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic            AV-36 


                                                                 Page xi
        


          AV.11.3   Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific           AV-37 
          AV.11.4   Optional Symbols:  Control Bits                AV-39 

        APPENDIX AW  ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                AW-1 
          AW.1    AVR ASSEMBLER NOTES                               AW-1 
          AW.1.1    Processor Specific Directives                   AW-1 
          AW.1.2    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          AW-2 
          AW.2    AVR REGISTER SET                                  AW-3 
          AW.3    AVR INSTRUCTION SET                               AW-3 
          AW.3.1    AVR Arithmetic and Logical Instructions         AW-5 
          AW.3.2    AVR Bit and Bit-Test Instructions               AW-6 
          AW.3.3    AVR Skip on Test Instructions                   AW-6 
          AW.3.4    AVR Jump/Call/Return Instructions               AW-6 
          AW.3.5    AVR Short Branch Instructions                   AW-6 
          AW.3.6    AVR Short Branch Instructions with Bit Test     AW-7 
          AW.3.7    AVR Data Transfer Instructions                  AW-7 

        APPENDIX AX  ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                               AX-1 
          AX.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    AX-1 
          AX.2    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     AX-1 
          AX.2.1    .z80 Directive                                  AX-1 
          AX.2.2    .adl Directive                                  AX-2 
          AX.2.3    .msb Directive                                  AX-2 
          AX.3    EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS                  AX-3 
          AX.3.1    Instruction Symbols                             AX-3 
          AX.3.2    EZ80 Instructions                               AX-5 
          AX.3.3    Arithmetic Instructions                         AX-7 
          AX.3.4    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   AX-8 
          AX.3.5    Block Transfer and Compare Instructions         AX-8 
          AX.3.6    Exchange Instructions                           AX-8 
          AX.3.7    Input/Output Instructions                       AX-8 
          AX.3.8    Load Instructions                               AX-9 
          AX.3.9    Logical Instructions                            AX-9 
          AX.3.10   Processor Control Instructions                  AX-9 
          AX.3.11   Program Flow Instructions                       AX-9 
          AX.3.12   Shift and Rotate Instructions                   AX-9 

        APPENDIX AY  ASF2MC8 ASSEMBLER                              AY-1 
          AY.1    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     AY-1 
          AY.1.1    .8L Directive                                   AY-1 
          AY.1.2    .8FX Directive                                  AY-1 
          AY.1.3    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          AY-2 
          AY.2    F2MC8L/F2MC8FX REGISTERS                          AY-2 
          AY.3    F2MC8L/F2MC8FX INSTRUCTION SET                    AY-3 
          AY.3.1    Transfer Instructions                           AY-4 
          AY.3.2    Operation Instructions                          AY-4 
          AY.3.3    Branch/Jump/Call Instructions                   AY-4 
          AY.3.4    Other Instructions                              AY-4 

        APPENDIX AZ  ASF8 ASSEMBLER                                 AZ-1 
          AZ.1    F8 REGISTERS                                      AZ-2 
          AZ.2    F8 INSTRUCTION SET                                AZ-3 


                                                                Page xii
        


          AZ.2.1    Accumulator Group Instructions                  AZ-4 
          AZ.2.2    Branch Instructions                             AZ-4 
          AZ.2.3    Memory Reference Instructions                   AZ-4 
          AZ.2.4    Address Register Instructions                   AZ-4 
          AZ.2.5    Scratchpad Register Instructions                AZ-5 
          AZ.2.6    Miscellaneous Instructions                      AZ-5 

        APPENDIX BA  ASGB ASSEMBLER                                 BA-1 
          BA.1    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                   BA-1 
          BA.2    INTRODUCTION                                      BA-1 
          BA.3    GAMEBOY REGISTER SET AND CONDITIONS               BA-1 
          BA.4    GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET                           BA-2 
          BA.4.1    .tile Directive                                 BA-2 
          BA.4.2    Potentially Controversial Mnemonic Selection    BA-4 
          BA.4.2.1    Auto-Indexing Loads                           BA-4 
          BA.4.2.2    Input and Output Operations                   BA-4 
          BA.4.2.3    The 'stop' Instruction                        BA-5 
          BA.4.3    Inherent Instructions                           BA-5 
          BA.4.4    Implicit Operand Instructions                   BA-5 
          BA.4.5    Load Instructions                               BA-6 
          BA.4.6    Call/Return Instructions                        BA-6 
          BA.4.7    Jump Instructions                               BA-6 
          BA.4.8    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BA-6 
          BA.4.9    Input and Output Instructions                   BA-7 
          BA.4.10   Register Pair Instructions                      BA-7 

        APPENDIX BB  ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                 BB-1 
          BB.1    H8/3XX REGISTER SET                               BB-1 
          BB.2    H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET                            BB-1 
          BB.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           BB-2 
          BB.2.2    Branch Instructions                             BB-2 
          BB.2.3    Single Operand Instructions                     BB-3 
          BB.2.4    Double Operand Instructions                     BB-4 
          BB.2.5    Mov Instructions                                BB-5 
          BB.2.6    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BB-6 
          BB.2.7    Extended Bit Manipulation Instructions          BB-7 
          BB.2.8    Condition Code Instructions                     BB-7 
          BB.2.9    Other Instructions                              BB-8 
          BB.2.10   Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        BB-8 

        APPENDIX BC  ASM8C ASSEMBLER                                BC-1 
          BC.1    M8C REGISTER SET                                  BC-1 
          BC.2    M8C ADDRESSING MODES                              BC-1 
          BC.3    M8C INSTRUCTION SET                               BC-2 
          BC.3.1    Double Operand Arithmetic Instructions          BC-2 
          BC.3.2    Double Operand Logic Instructions               BC-3 
          BC.3.3    Miscellaneous Double Operand Instructions       BC-3 
          BC.3.4    Single Operand Shift/Rotate Instructions        BC-3 
          BC.3.5    Miscellaneous Single Operand Instructions       BC-4 
          BC.3.6    Move Instructions                               BC-4 
          BC.3.7    Inherent Instructions                           BC-5 
          BC.3.8    Branching Instructions                          BC-5 


                                                               Page xiii
        


          BC.3.9    Relative Table Read Instruction                 BC-5 

        APPENDIX BD  ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                BD-1 
          BD.1    PIC ASSEMBLER NOTES                               BD-1 
          BD.2    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     BD-1 
          BD.2.1    .pic Directive                                  BD-2 
          BD.2.2    .picnopic Directive                             BD-3 
          BD.2.3    .pic12bit Directive                             BD-3 
          BD.2.4    .pic14bit Directive                             BD-3 
          BD.2.5    .pic16bit Directive                             BD-3 
          BD.2.6    .pic20bit Directive                             BD-3 
          BD.2.7    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          BD-4 
          BD.2.8    .picfix Directive                               BD-4 
          BD.2.9    .maxram Directive                               BD-5 
          BD.2.10   .badram Directive                               BD-5 
          BD.2.11   .setdmm Directive                               BD-5 
          BD.3    12-BIT OPCODE PIC                                 BD-6 
          BD.4    14-BIT OPCODE PIC                                 BD-6 
          BD.5    16-BIT OPCODE PIC                                 BD-8 
          BD.6    20-BIT ADDRESSING PIC                             BD-9 
          BD.7    PIC OPCODES                                      BD-10 

        APPENDIX BE  ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                BE-1 
          BE.1    ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                    BE-1 
          BE.2    PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES                     BE-1 
          BE.2.1    .r2k Directive                                  BE-2 
          BE.2.2    .hd64 Directive                                 BE-2 
          BE.2.3    .z80 Directive                                  BE-2 
          BE.2.4    The .__.CPU.  Variable                          BE-3 
          BE.3    RABBIT 2000/3000 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS      BE-4 
          BE.3.1    Instruction Symbols                             BE-4 
          BE.3.2    Rabbit Instructions                             BE-6 
          BE.4    Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS           BE-8 
          BE.4.1    Inherent Instructions                           BE-9 
          BE.4.2    Implicit Operand Instructions                   BE-9 
          BE.4.3    Load Instruction                               BE-10 
          BE.4.4    Call/Return Instructions                       BE-10 
          BE.4.5    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions       BE-10 
          BE.4.6    Bit Manipulation Instructions                  BE-11 
          BE.4.7    Interrupt Mode and Reset Instructions          BE-11 
          BE.4.8    Input and Output Instructions                  BE-11 
          BE.4.9    Register Pair Instructions                     BE-11 
          BE.4.10   HD64180 Specific Instructions                  BE-12 

        APPENDIX BF  ASSCMP ASSEMBLER                               BF-1 
          BF.1    SC/MP REGISTER SET                                BF-1 
          BF.2    SC/MP ADDRESSING MODES                            BF-1 
          BF.3    SC/MP INSTRUCTION SET                             BF-2 
          BF.3.1    Memory Reference Instructions                   BF-2 
          BF.3.2    Immediate Instructions                          BF-2 
          BF.3.3    Extension Register Instructions                 BF-3 
          BF.3.4    Memory Increment/Decrement Instructions         BF-3 


                                                                Page xiv
        


          BF.3.5    Transfer Instructions                           BF-3 
          BF.3.6    Pointer Register Move Instructions              BF-3 
          BF.3.7    Shift, Rotate, Serial I/O Instructions          BF-3 
          BF.3.8    Single-Byte Miscellaneous Instructions          BF-4 
          BF.3.9    Double-Byte Miscellaneous Instruction           BF-4 

        APPENDIX BG  ASST6 ASSEMBLER                                BG-1 
          BG.1    ST6 REGISTER SET                                  BG-1 
          BG.2    ST6 INSTRUCTION SET                               BG-1 
          BG.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           BG-2 
          BG.2.2    Conditional Branch Instructions                 BG-2 
          BG.2.3    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BG-2 
          BG.2.4    Single Operand Instructions                     BG-2 
          BG.2.5    Double Operand Instructions                     BG-2 
          BG.2.6    Call to Subroutine and Jump Instructions        BG-3 
          BG.2.7    Load and Store Instructions                     BG-3 

        APPENDIX BH  ASST7 ASSEMBLER                                BH-1 
          BH.1    ST7 REGISTER SET                                  BH-1 
          BH.2    ST7 INSTRUCTION SET                               BH-1 
          BH.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           BH-4 
          BH.2.2    Conditional Branch Instructions                 BH-4 
          BH.2.3    Bit Test and Branch Instructions                BH-4 
          BH.2.4    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BH-5 
          BH.2.5    Single Operand Instructions                     BH-5 
          BH.2.6    Double Operand Instructions                     BH-5 
          BH.2.7    Call to Subroutine and Jump Instructions        BH-5 

        APPENDIX BI  ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                BI-1 
          BI.1    ST8 REGISTER SET                                  BI-1 
          BI.2    ST8 INSTRUCTION SET                               BI-1 
          BI.2.1    Inherent Instructions                           BI-5 
          BI.2.2    Conditional Branch Instructions                 BI-5 
          BI.2.3    Bit Test and Branch Instructions                BI-5 
          BI.2.4    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BI-5 
          BI.2.5    Single Operand Instructions                     BI-6 
          BI.2.6    Double Operand Instructions                     BI-6 
          BI.2.7    Call to Subroutine and Jump Instructions        BI-7 

        APPENDIX BJ  ASZ8 ASSEMBLER                                 BJ-1 
          BJ.1    Z8 REGISTER SET                                   BJ-1 
          BJ.2    Z8 INSTRUCTION SET                                BJ-1 
          BJ.2.1    Load Instructions                               BJ-2 
          BJ.2.2    Arithmetic Instructions                         BJ-2 
          BJ.2.3    Logical Instructions                            BJ-3 
          BJ.2.4    Program Control Instructions                    BJ-3 
          BJ.2.5    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BJ-3 
          BJ.2.6    Block Transfer Instructions                     BJ-3 
          BJ.2.7    Rotate and Shift Instructions                   BJ-3 
          BJ.2.8    Cpu Control Instructions                        BJ-3 



                                                                 Page xv
        


        APPENDIX BK  ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                BK-1 
          BK.1    .z80 DIRECTIVE                                    BK-1 
          BK.2    .hd64 DIRECTIVE                                   BK-1 
          BK.3    THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE                            BK-2 
          BK.4    Z80 REGISTER SET AND CONDITIONS                   BK-2 
          BK.5    Z80 INSTRUCTION SET                               BK-3 
          BK.5.1    Inherent Instructions                           BK-4 
          BK.5.2    Implicit Operand Instructions                   BK-4 
          BK.5.3    Load Instruction                                BK-5 
          BK.5.4    Call/Return Instructions                        BK-5 
          BK.5.5    Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions        BK-5 
          BK.5.6    Bit Manipulation Instructions                   BK-6 
          BK.5.7    Interrupt Mode and Reset Instructions           BK-6 
          BK.5.8    Input and Output Instructions                   BK-6 
          BK.5.9    Register Pair Instructions                      BK-6 
          BK.5.10   HD64180/Z180 Specific Instructions              BK-7 


                                                                  Page 2
        


         
                                  P R E F A C E





           The  ASxxxx  assemblers  were  written following the style of
        several unfinished cross assemblers found in the Digital  Equip-
        ment  Corporation  Users  Society  (DECUS) distribution of the C
        programming language.  The incomplete DECUS  code  was  provided
        with  no  documentation  as  to  the  input syntax or the output
        format.  I wish to thank the author for inspiring  me  to  begin
        the development of this set of assemblers.  

           The  ASLINK  program was written as a companion to the ASxxxx
        assemblers, its design and implementation was not  derived  from
        any other work.  

           I  would  greatly  appreciate  receiving  the  details of any
        changes, additions, or errors pertaining to these  programs  and
        will  attempt  to  incorporate  any  fixes  or  generally useful
        changes in a future update to these programs.  



                Alan R.  Baldwin 
                Kent State University 
                Physics Department 
                Kent, Ohio 44242 
                U.S.A.  


                http://shop-pdp.net 

                baldwin@shop-pdp.net 

                baldwin@kent.edu 
                tel:  (330) 672 2531 
                fax:  (330) 672 2959 


                                                                  Page 3
        


         
               E N D   U S E R   L I C E N S E   A G R E E M E N T





           Copyright (C) 1989-2017 Alan R.  Baldwin 

           This  program  is  free  software:   you  can redistribute it
        and/or modify it under the  terms  of  the  GNU  General  Public
        License  as  published  by  the Free Software Foundation, either
        version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. 

           This  program is distributed in the hope that it will be use-
        ful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;  without even  the  implied  war-
        ranty  of  MERCHANTABILITY  or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
        See the GNU General Public License for more details.  

           You  should  have  received  a copy of the GNU General Public
        License   along   with    this    program.     If    not,    see
        .  


                                                                  Page 4
        


         




                             C O N T R I B U T O R S



        Thanks  to Marko Makela for his contribution of the AS6500 cross
        assembler.  

                Marko Makela
                Sillitie 10 A
                01480 Vantaa
                Finland
                Internet: Marko dot Makela at Helsinki dot Fi
                EARN/BitNet: msmakela at finuh




        Thanks  to John Hartman for his contribution of the AS8051 cross
        assembler and updates to the ASxxxx and ASLINK internals.  

                John L. Hartman
                jhartman at compuserve dot com
                noice at noicedebugger dot com




        Thanks  to  G.   Osborn  for  his  contributions  to LKS19.C and
        LKIHX.C.  

                G. Osborn
                gary at s-4 dot com




        Thanks to Ken Hornstein for his contribution of object libraries
        contained in LKLIBR.C.  

                Ken Hornstein
                kenh at cmf dot nrl dot navy dot mil






                                                                  Page 5
        


        Thanks  to  Bill  McKinnon for his contributions to the AS8XCXXX
        cross assembler for the DS8XCXXX series of microprocessors.  

                Bill McKinnon
                w_mckinnon at conknet dot com




        Thanks  to Roger Ivie for his contribution of the ASGB cross as-
        sembler for the GameBoy.  

                Roger Ivie
                ivie at cc dot usu dot edu




        Thanks  to  Uwe  Steller for his contribution of the AS740 cross
        assembler.  

                Uwe Stellar
                Uwe dot Steller at t-online dot de




        Thanks  to  Shujen Chen for his contribution of the AS1802 cross
        assembler.  

                Shugen Chen
                DeVry University
                1221 N. Swift Road
                schen at devry dot edu




        Thanks  to  Edgar Puehringer for his contribution of the AS61860
        cross assembler.  

                Edgar Puehringer
                edgar_pue at yahoo dot com






                                                                  Page 6
        


        Thanks to Ulrich Raich and Razaq Ijoduola for their contribution
        of the ASRAB cross assembler.  

                Ulrich Raich and Razaq Ijoduola
                PS Division
                CERN
                CH-1211 Geneva-23
        
                Ulrich dot Raich at cern dot ch




        Thanks  to Patrick Head for his contribution of the ASEZ80 cross
        assembler.  

                Patrick Head
                patrick at phead dot net




        Thanks  to  Boisy  G.   Pitre for contributing the .ifeq, .ifne,
        .ifgt, .iflt, .ifle, and .ifge conditional  directives  and  the
        Tandy Color Computer Disk Basic binary output for ASLINK.  

                Boisy G. Pitre
                boisy at boisypitre dot com




        Thanks  to  Mike  McCarty for his contributions to the processor
        cycle count option of the ASxxxx Assemblers.  

                Mike McCarty
                mike dot mccarty at sbcglobal dot net




        Thanks  to  Mengjin Su for his contribution of the PIC18Fxxx Ex-
        tended Instructions.  

                Mengjin Su
                msu at micron dot com






                                                                  Page 7
        


        Thanks  to  Carl  Rash for his contribution of the Visual Studio
        2010 project files.  

                Carl Rash
                crash at triad dot rr dot com


                                                                  Page 8
        


        ASxxxx Cross Assemblers, Version 5.20, January 2017 

        Submitted by Alan R.  Baldwin, 
        Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

        Operating System:  Linux, Windows, MS-DOS 
        or other supporting ANSI C.  

        Source Langauge:  C 

        Abstract:  

           The  ASxxxx  assemblers are a series of microprocessor assem-
        blers written in the C programming  language.   This  collection
        contains  cross  assemblers  for the 1802, S2650, SC/MP, MPS430,
        6100, 61860,  6500,  6800(6802/6808),  6801(6803/HD6303),  6804,
        6805,  68HC(S)08,  6809, 68HC11, 68HC(S)12, 68HC16, 740, 78K/0S,
        8048(8041/8022/8021)  8051,  8085(8080),  DS8xCxxx,  AVR,  EZ80,
        F2MC8L/FX,  F8/3870,  GameBoy(Z80),  H8/3xx,  Cypress PSoC(M8C),
        PIC, Rabbit 2000/3000, asst6, asst7, asst8, Z8, and Z80(HD64180)
        series  microprocessors.   Each  assembler has a device specific
        section which includes:  (1) device description, byte order, and
        file  extension  information,  (2)  a table of assembler general
        directives, special directives, assembler  mnemonics  and  asso-
        ciated operation codes, (3) machine specific code for processing
        the device mnemonics, addressing modes, and special directives. 

           The assemblers have a common device independent section which
        handles the details of file input/output, symbol  table  genera-
        tion,  program/data  areas,  expression  analysis, and assembler
        directive processing.  

           The  assemblers  provide  the following features:  (1) alpha-
        betized, formatted symbol table listings, (2) relocatable object
        modules, (3) global symbols for linking object modules, (4) con-
        ditional assembly directives, (5) reusable  local  symbols,  (6)
        include-file  processing,  and  (7)  a  general macro processing
        facility.  

           The  companion program ASLINK is a relocating linker perform-
        ing the following functions:  (1) bind multiple  object  modules
        into  a  single  memory  image,  (2) resolve inter-module symbol
        references,  (3)  resolve  undefined  symbols   from   specified
        librarys of object modules, (4) process absolute, relative, con-
        catenated, and overlay attributes in data and program  sections,
        (5)  perform  byte and word program-counter relative (pc or pcr)
        addressing calculations, (6) define absolute  symbol  values  at
        link  time, (7) define absolute area base address values at link
        time, (8) produce an Intel Hex  record,  Motorola  S  record  or
        Tandy  CoCo  Disk  Basic  output  file, (9) produce a map of the
        linked memory  image,  and  (10)  update  the  ASxxxx  assembler
        listing files with the absolute linked addresses and data.  


                                                                  Page 9
        


           The  assemblers  and  linker have been tested using Linux and
        DJGPP, Cygwin, Symantec C/C++ V7.2, Borland Turbo C++ 3.0,  Open
        Watcom  V1.9,  VC6,  Visual Studio 2005, Visual Studio 2010, and
        Visual Studio 2013.  Complete source code and documentation  for
        the  assemblers  and  linker  is included with the distribution.
        Additionally, test code for each assembler and several micropro-
        cessor monitors ( ASSIST05 for the 6805, MONDEB and ASSIST09 for
        the 6809, and BUFFALO 2.5 for the 6811) are included as  working
        examples of use of these assemblers.  














                                    CHAPTER 1

                                  THE ASSEMBLER





        1.1  THE ASXXXX ASSEMBLERS 


           The  ASxxxx  assemblers are a series of microprocessor assem-
        blers written in the C programming language.  Each assembler has
        a device specific section which includes:  

             1.  device  description, byte order, and file extension in-
                 formation 

             2.  a  table  of  the assembler general directives, special
                 device directives, assembler mnemonics  and  associated
                 operation codes 

             3.  errorsmachine  specific  code for processing the device
                 mnemonics, addressing modes, and special directives 

        The device specific information is detailed in the appendices.  

           The assemblers have a common device independent section which
        handles the details of file input/output, symbol  table  genera-
        tion,  program/data  areas,  expression  analysis, and assembler
        directive processing.  

        The assemblers provide the following features:  

             1.  Command string control of assembly functions 

             2.  Alphabetized, formatted symbol table listing 

             3.  Relocatable object modules 

             4.  Global symbols for linking object modules 

             5.  Conditional assembly directives 



        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-2
        THE ASXXXX ASSEMBLERS


             6.  Program sectioning directives 


           ASxxxx assembles one or more source files into a single relo-
        catable ascii object file.  The output of the ASxxxx  assemblers
        consists of an ascii relocatable object file(*.rel), an assembly
        listing file(*.lst), and a symbol file(*.sym) each controlled by
        an  assembler  option.  If both the object and listing files are
        specified then a listing to relocated listing hint file  (*.hlr)
        is  created  as  a  helper for the linker to properly create the
        relocated listing file.  


        1.1.1  Assembly Pass 1 


           During  pass  1, ASxxxx opens all source files and performs a
        rudimentary assembly of each source statement.  During this pro-
        cess  all symbol tables are built, program sections defined, and
        number of bytes for each assembled source line is estimated.  

           At the end of pass 1 all undefined symbols may be made global
        (external) using the ASxxxx switch -g, otherwise undefined  sym-
        bols will be flagged as errors during succeeding passes.  


        1.1.2  Assembly Pass 2 


           During  pass  2  the ASxxxx assembler resolves forward refer-
        ences and determines the number  of  bytes  for  each  assembled
        line.   The  number  of bytes used by a particular assembler in-
        struction may depend upon the addressing mode, whether  the  in-
        struction allows multiple forms based upon the relative distance
        to the addressed location, or other factors.   Pass  2  resolves
        these cases and determines the address of all symbols.  


        1.1.3  Assembly Pass 3 


           Pass 3 by the assembler generates the listing file, the relo-
        catable output file, the listing to relocated listing hint file,
        and  the  symbol  tables.  Also during pass 3 the errors will be
        reported.  

           The  relocatable object file is an ascii file containing sym-
        bol references and definitions, program  area  definitions,  and
        the  relocatable assembled code, the linker ASLINK will use this
        information to generate an absolute load file  (Intel,  Motorola
        or Tandy CoCo Disk Basic formats).  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-3
        SOURCE PROGRAM FORMAT


        1.2  SOURCE PROGRAM FORMAT 



        1.2.1  Statement Format 


           A source program is composed of assembly-language statements.
        Each statement must be completed on one line.  A line  may  con-
        tain a maximum of 128 characters, longer lines are truncated and
        lost.  

           An  ASxxxx  assembler  statement  may  have  as  many as four
        fields.  These fields are identified by their order  within  the
        statement  and/or  by separating characters between fields.  The
        general format of the ASxxxx statement is:  

              [label:]  Operator        Operand         [;Comment(s)] 

           The  label and comment fields are optional.  The operator and
        operand fields are interdependent.  The operator field may be an
        assembler  directive or an assembly mnemonic.  The operand field
        may be optional or required as defined in  the  context  of  the
        operator.  

           ASxxxx  interprets  and  processes source statements one at a
        time.  Each statement causes a particular operation to  be  per-
        formed.  


        1.2.1.1  Label Field  - 

           A  label is a user-defined symbol which is assigned the value
        of the current location counter and entered into  the  user  de-
        fined  symbol  table.   The  current location counter is used by
        ASxxxx to assign memory addresses to the source  program  state-
        ments as they are encountered during the assembly process.  Thus
        a label is a means  of  symbolically  referring  to  a  specific
        statement.  

           When  a program section is absolute, the value of the current
        location counter is absolute;  its value references an  absolute
        memory  address.   Similarly, when a program section is relocat-
        able, the value of the current location counter is  relocatable.
        A  relocation  bias  calculated at link time is added to the ap-
        parent value of the current location counter  to  establish  its
        effective  absolute  address  at  execution time.  (The user can
        also force the linker to relocate sections defined as  absolute.
        This may be required under special circumstances.) 

           If  present,  a  label  must  be  the first field in a source
        statement and must be terminated by a colon (:).   For  example,


        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-4
        SOURCE PROGRAM FORMAT


        if  the  value  of  the  current  location  counter  is absolute
        01F0(H), the statement:  

              abcd:     nop 

        assigns  the  value  01F0(H) to the label abcd.  If the location
        counter value were relocatable, the final value of abcd would be
        01F0(H)+K, where K represents the relocation bias of the program
        section, as calculated by the linker at link time.  

           More  than  one label may appear within a single label field.
        Each label so specified is assigned the same address value.  For
        example,  if  the  value  of  the  current  location  counter is
        1FF0(H), the multiple labels in the following statement are each
        assigned the value 1FF0(H):  

              abcd:     aq:     $abc:   nop 

           Multiple labels may also appear on successive lines.  For ex-
        ample, the statements 

              abcd:  
              aq:  
              $abc:     nop 

        likewise  cause  the  same value to be assigned to all three la-
        bels.  

           A  double  colon  (::)  defines the label as a global symbol.
        For example, the statement 

              abcd::    nop 

        establishes the label abcd as a global symbol.  The distinguish-
        ing attribute of a global symbol is that it  can  be  referenced
        from  within an object module other than the module in which the
        symbol is defined.  References to this label  in  other  modules
        are  resolved when the modules are linked as a composite execut-
        able image.  

        The legal characters for defining labels are:  

                A through Z 
                a through z 
                0 through 9 
                . (Period) 
                $ (Dollar sign) 
                _ (underscore) 

           A  label  may  be  any  length,  however  only  the  first 79
        characters are significant and, therefore must be  unique  among
        all   labels  in  the  source  program  (not  necessarily  among


        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-5
        SOURCE PROGRAM FORMAT


        separately compiled modules).  An error code(s) (m or p) will be
        generated  in the assembly listing if the first 79 characters in
        two or more labels are the same.  The m code is  caused  by  the
        redeclaration  of  the symbol or its reference by another state-
        ment.  The p code is generated because the symbols  location  is
        changing on each pass through the source file.  

           The  label  must  not  start with the characters 0-9, as this
        designates a reusable symbol with special  attributes  described
        in a later section.  

           The  label  must  not  start  with  the  sequence $$, as this
        represents the temporary radix 16 for constants.  


        1.2.1.2  Operator Field  - 

           The  operator field specifies the action to be performed.  It
        may consist of an instruction mnemonic (op code) or an assembler
        directive.  

           When  the  operator is an instruction mnemonic, a machine in-
        struction is generated and the assembler evaluates the addresses
        of  the operands which follow.  When the operator is a directive
        ASxxxx performs certain control actions or processing operations
        during assembly of the source program.  

           Leading  and  trailing  spaces  or tabs in the operator field
        have no significance;  such characters serve  only  to  separate
        the operator field from the preceeding and following fields.  

           An operator is terminated by a space, tab or end of line.  


        1.2.1.3  Operand Field  - 

           When  the  operator is an instruction mnemonic (op code), the
        operand  field  contains  program  variables  that  are  to   be
        evaluated/manipulated by the operator.  

           Operands  may  be  expressions  or  symbols, depending on the
        operator.  Multiple expressions used in the operand  fields  may
        be  separated  by a comma.  An operand should be preceeded by an
        operator field;  if it is not, the statement will give an  error
        (q  or  o).   All  operands  following instruction mnemonics are
        treated as expressions.  

           The operand field is terminated by a semicolon when the field
        is followed  by  a  comment.   For  example,  in  the  following
        statement:  

              label:    lda     abcd,x          ;Comment field 


        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-6
        SOURCE PROGRAM FORMAT



        the  tab  between lda and abcd terminates the operator field and
        defines the beginning of the operand field;  a  comma  separates
        the operands abcd and x;  and a semicolon terminates the operand
        field and defines the beginning of the comment field.   When  no
        comment  field  follows,  the operand field is terminated by the
        end of the source line.  


        1.2.1.4  Comment Field  - 

           The comment field begins with a semicolon and extends through
        the end of the line.  This field is optional and may contain any
        7-bit ascii character except null.  

           Comments  do not affect assembly processing or program execu-
        tion.  


        1.3  SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS 


           This  section  describes the generic components of the ASxxxx
        assemblers:  the character set, the conventions observed in con-
        structing  symbols,  and  the use of numbers, operators, and ex-
        pressions.  


        1.3.1  Character Set 


           The following characters are legal in ASxxxx source programs: 

             1.  The  letters  A  through Z.  Both upper- and lower-case
                 letters are acceptable.  The  assemblers,  by  default,
                 are  case  sensitive,  i.e.   ABCD and abcd are not the
                 same symbols.  (The assemblers can be made case  insen-
                 sitive by using the -z command line option.) 

             2.  The digits 0 through 9 

             3.  The  characters . (period), $ (dollar sign), and _ (un-
                 derscore).  

             4.  The special characters listed in Tables 1 through 6.  


           Tables  1  through  6  describe  the various ASxxxx label and
        field terminators, assignment operators, operand separators, as-
        sembly, unary, binary, and radix operators.  


        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-7
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


        Table 1         Label Terminators and Assignment Operators 
        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 

                :   Colon               Label terminator.  

                ::  Double colon        Label  Terminator;   defines the
                                        label as a global label.  

                =   Equal sign          Direct assignment operator.  

                ==  Global equal        Direct assignment operator;  de-
                                        fines the  symbol  as  a  global
                                        symbol.  

                =:  Local equal         Direct assignment operator;  de-
                                        fines the symbol as a local sym-
                                        bol.  

        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 





        Table 2         Field Terminators and Operand Separators 
        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 

                    Tab                 Item or field terminator.  

                    Space               Item or field terminator.  

                ,   Comma               Operand field separator.  

                ;   Semicolon           Comment field indicator.  

        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 







        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-8
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


        Table 3         Assembler Operators 
        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 

                #   Number sign         Immediate expression indicator. 

                .   Period              Current location counter.  

                (   Left parenthesis    Expression delimiter.  

                )   Right parenthesis   Expression delimeter.  

        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 





        Table 4         Unary Operators 
        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 

                <   Left bracket           Right bracket       >FEDC   Produces  the upper byte
                                                value of the expression.
                                                (FE) 

                +   Plus sign           +A      Positive value of A 

                -   Minus sign          -A      Produces   the  negative
                                                (2's complement) of A.  

                ~   Tilde               ~A      Produces the 1's comple-
                                                ment of A.  

                '   Single quote        'D      Produces  the  value  of
                                                the character D.  

                "   Double quote        "AB     Produces the double byte
                                                value for AB.  

                \   Backslash           '\n     Unix style characters 
                                                \b, \f, \n, \r, \t 
                                     or '\001   or octal byte values.  

        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 







        THE ASSEMBLER                                           PAGE 1-9
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


        Table 5         Binary Operators 
        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 

                <<  Double          0800 << 4   Produces the 4 bit 
                    Left bracket                left-shifted   value  of
                                                0800.  (8000) 

                >>  Double          0800 >> 4   Produces the 4 bit 
                    Right bracket               right-shifted  value  of
                                                0800.  (0080) 

                +   Plus sign       A + B       Arithmetic      Addition
                                                operator.  

                -   Minus sign      A - B       Arithmetic   Subtraction
                                                operator.  

                *   Asterisk        A * B       Arithmetic   Multiplica-
                                                tion operator.  

                /   Slash           A / B       Arithmetic      Division
                                                operator.  

                &   Ampersand       A & B       Logical AND operator.  

                |   Bar             A | B       Logical OR operator.  

                %   Percent sign    A % B       Modulus operator.  

                ^   Up arrow or     A ^ B       EXCLUSIVE OR operator.  
                    circumflex 

        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 





        Table 6         Temporary Radix Operators 
        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 

                $%,   0b, 0B            Binary radix operator.  

                $&,   0o, 0O, 0q, 0Q    Octal radix operator.  

                $#,   0d, 0D            Decimal radix operator.  

                $$,   0h, 0H, 0x, 0X    Hexidecimal radix operator.  


                Potential  ambiguities arising from the use of 0b and 0d
                as temporary radix  operators  may  be  circumvented  by


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-10
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


                preceding  all non-prefixed hexidecimal numbers with 00.
                Leading 0's are required in any  case  where  the  first
                hexidecimal  digit is abcdef as the assembler will treat
                the letter sequence as a label.  

        ---------------------------------------------------------------- 







        1.3.2  User-Defined Symbols 


           User-defined  symbols are those symbols that are equated to a
        specific value through a direct assignment statement  or  appear
        as  labels.  These symbols are added to the User Symbol Table as
        they are encountered during assembly.  

        The following rules govern the creation of user-defined symbols: 

             1.  Symbols  can  be  composed  of alphanumeric characters,
                 dollar signs ($),  periods  (.),  and  underscores  (_)
                 only.  

             2.  The  first  character  of a symbol must not be a number
                 (except in the case of reusable symbols).  

             3.  The  first 79 characters of a symbol must be unique.  A
                 symbol  can  be  written  with  more  than   79   legal
                 characters,  but the 80th and subsequent characters are
                 ignored.  

             4.  Spaces and Tabs must not be embedded within a symbol.  



        1.3.3  Reusable Symbols 


           Reusable  symbols are specially formatted symbols used as la-
        bels within a block of coding that has been delimited as a reus-
        able symbol block.  Reusable symbols are of the form n$, where n
        is a decimal integer from 0 to 65535,  inclusive.   Examples  of
        reusable symbols are:  

              1$ 
              27$ 
              138$ 
              244$ 


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-11
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


           The range of a reusable symbol block consists of those state-
        ments between two normally constructed  symbolic  labels.   Note
        that a statement of the form:  

              ALPHA = EXPRESSION 

        is a direct assignment statement but does not create a label and
        thus does not delimit the range of a reusable symbol block.  

           Note  that  the  range  of a reusable symbol block may extend
        across program areas.  

           Reusable symbols provide a convenient means of generating la-
        bels for branch instructions and other  such  references  within
        reusable symbol blocks.  Using reusable symbols reduces the pos-
        sibility of symbols with multiple definitions appearing within a
        user  program.   In  addition,  the use of reusable symbols dif-
        ferentiates entry-point labels from other labels, since reusable
        labels cannot be referenced from outside their respective symbol
        blocks.  Thus, reusable symbols of the same name can  appear  in
        other  symbol blocks without conflict.  Reusable symbols require
        less symbol table space  than  normal  symbols.   Their  use  is
        recommended.  

           The  use  of  the  same reusable symbol within a symbol block
        will generate one or both of the m or p errors.  

        Example of reusable symbols:  

                a:      ldx     #atable ;get table address
                        lda     #0d48   ;table length
                1$:     clr     ,x+     ;clear
                        deca
                        bne     1$
                        
                b:      ldx     #btable ;get table address
                        lda     #0d48   ;table length
                1$:     clr     ,x+     ;clear
                        deca
                        bne     1$




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-12
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


        1.3.4  Current Location Counter 


           The  period  (.) is the symbol for the current location coun-
        ter.  When used in the operand  field  of  an  instruction,  the
        period   represents  the  address  of  the  first  byte  of  the
        instruction:  

                AS:     ldx     #.      ;The period (.) refers to
                                        ;the address of the ldx
                                        ;instruction.

           When  used  in  the  operand field of an ASxxxx directive, it
        represents the address of the current byte or word:  

                QK = 0
        
                .word   0xFFFE,.+4,QK   ;The operand .+4 in the .word
                                        ;directive represents a value
                                        ;stored in the second of the
                                        ;three words during assembly.

           If  we  assume  the  current  value of the program counter is
        0H0200, then during assembly, ASxxxx  reserves  three  words  of
        storage  starting  at  location 0H0200.  The first value, a hex-
        idecimal constant FFFE, will be stored at location 0H0200.   The
        second  value  represented  by  .+4  will  be stored at location
        0H0202, its value will be 0H0206 ( = 0H0202  +  4).   The  third
        value  defined  by  the  symbol  QK  will  be placed at location
        0H0204.  

           At the beginning of each assembly pass, ASxxxx resets the lo-
        cation counter.  Normally, consecutive memory locations are  as-
        signed  to  each  byte  of  object code generated.  However, the
        value of the location counter can be changed  through  a  direct
        assignment statement of the following form:  

              . = . + expression 


           The  new  location  counter can only be specified relative to
        the current location counter.  Neglecting to specify the current
        program  counter  along with the expression on the right side of
        the assignment operator will generate the (.) error.   (Absolute
        program areas may use the .org directive to specify the absolute
        location of the current program counter.) 

        The following coding illustrates the use of the current location
        counter:  

                .area   CODE1   (ABS)   ;program area CODE1
                                        ;is ABSOLUTE


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-13
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


        
                .org    0H100           ;set location to
                                        ;0H100 absolute
        
        num1:   ldx     #.+0H10         ;The label num1 has
                                        ;the value 0H100.
                                        ;X is loaded with
                                        ;0H100 + 0H10
        
                .org    0H130           ;location counter
                                        ;set to 0H130
        
        num2:   ldy     #.              ;The label num2 has
                                        ;the value 0H130.
                                        ;Y is loaded with
                                        ;value 0H130.
        
        
                .area   CODE2   (REL)   ;program area CODE2
                                        ;is RELOCATABLE
        
                . = . + 0H20            ;Set location counter
                                        ;to relocatable 0H20 of
                                        ;the program section.
        
        num3:   .word   0               ;The label num3 has
                                        ;the value
                                        ;of relocatable 0H20.
        
                . = . + 0H40            ;will reserve 0H40
                                        ;bytes of storage as will
                .blkb   0H40            ;or
                .blkw   0H20

           The  .blkb  and .blkw directives are the preferred methods of
        allocating space.  


        1.3.5  Numbers 


           ASxxxx  assumes that all numbers in the source program are to
        be interpreted in decimal radix unless otherwise specified.  The
        .radix  directive  may  be used to specify the default as octal,
        decimal, or hexidecimal.  Individual numbers can  be  designated
        as  binary, octal, decimal, or hexidecimal through the temporary
        radix prefixes shown in table 6.  

           Negative  numbers  must be preceeded by a minus sign;  ASxxxx
        translates such numbers into two's  complement  form.   Positive
        numbers may (but need not) be preceeded by a plus sign.  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-14
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


           Numbers are always considered to be absolute values, therefor
        they are never relocatable.  


        1.3.6  Terms 


           A  term is a component of an expression and may be one of the
        following:  


             1.  A number.  

             2.  A symbol:  
                 1.  A  period (.) specified in an expression causes the
                     current location counter to be used.  
                 2.  A User-defined symbol.  
                 3.  An undefined symbol is assigned a value of zero and
                     inserted in the User-Defined symbol table as an un-
                     defined symbol.  

             3.  A single quote followed by a single ascii character, or
                 a double quote followed by two ascii characters.  

             4.  An  expression enclosed in parenthesis.  Any expression
                 so enclosed is evaluated and reduced to a  single  term
                 before  the remainder of the expression in which it ap-
                 pears is evaluated.  Parenthesis, for example,  may  be
                 used  to  alter the left-to-right evaluation of expres-
                 sions, (as in A*B+C versus A*(B+C)), or to apply a  un-
                 ary operator to an entire expression (as in -(A+B)).  

             5.  A unary operator followed by a symbol or number.  



        1.3.7  Expressions 


           Expressions  are  combinations  of  terms  joined together by
        binary operators.  Expressions reduce to a value.   The  evalua-
        tion  of  an expression includes the determination of its attri-
        butes.  A resultant expression value may be one of  three  types
        (as  described  later  in this section):  relocatable, absolute,
        and external.  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-15
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


        Expressions are evaluate with an operand hierarchy as follows:  

                *       /       %       multiplication,
                                        division, and
                                        modulus first.
        
                +       -               addition and
                                        subtraction second.
        
                <<      >>              left shift and
                                        right shift third.
        
                ^                       exclusive or fourth.
        
                &                       logical and fifth.
        
                |                       logical or last
        
                except that unary operators take precedence over binary
                operators.


           A  missing  or  illegal  operator  terminates  the expression
        analysis, causing error codes (o) and/or  (q)  to  be  generated
        depending upon the context of the expression itself.  

           At assembly time the value of an external (global) expression
        is equal to the value of the absolute part of  that  expression.
        For  example,  the expression external+4, where 'external' is an
        external symbol, has the value of 4.  This expression,  however,
        when  evaluated  at link time takes on the resolved value of the
        symbol 'external', plus 4.  

           Expressions,  when  evaluated  by  ASxxxx,  are  one of three
        types:  relocatable, absolute, or external.  The following  dis-
        tinctions are important:  

             1.  An  expression is relocatable if its value is fixed re-
                 lative to the base address of the program area in which
                 it appears;  it will have an offset value added at link
                 time.  Terms that contain labels defined in relocatable
                 program  areas  will  have  a relocatable value;  simi-
                 larly, a period (.)  in  a  relocatable  program  area,
                 representing  the value of the current program location
                 counter, will also have a relocatable value.  

             2.  An  expression  is  absolute if its value is fixed.  An
                 expression whose terms are numbers and ascii characters
                 will  reduce  to  an absolute value.  A relocatable ex-
                 pression or term minus a relocatable term,  where  both
                 elements  being  evaluated  belong  to the same program
                 area, is an absolute expression.  This is because every


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-16
        SYMBOLS AND EXPRESSIONS


                 term  in  a  program area has the same relocation bias.
                 When one term is subtracted from the other the  reloca-
                 tion bias is zero.  

             3.  An  expression is external (or global) if it contains a
                 single global reference (plus or minus an absolute  ex-
                 pression  value) that is not defined within the current
                 program.  Thus, an external  expression  is  only  par-
                 tially  defined following assembly and must be resolved
                 at link time.  



        1.4  GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES 


           An  ASxxxx  directive  is placed in the operator field of the
        source line.  Only one directive is  allowed  per  source  line.
        Each  directive  may  have  a blank operand field or one or more
        operands.  Legal operands differ with each directive.  


        1.4.1  .module Directive 

        Format:  

                .module name 

           The  .module  directive causes the name to be included in the
        assemblers output file as an identifier for this particular  ob-
        ject module.  The name may be from 1 to 79 characters in length.
        The name may not have any embedded white space (spaces or tabs).
        Only  one  identifier is allowed per assembled module.  The main
        use of this directive  is  to  allow  the  linker  to  report  a
        modules'  use  of undefined symbols.  At link time all undefined
        symbols are  reported  and  the  modules  referencing  them  are
        listed.  


        1.4.2  .title Directive 

        Format:  

                .title  string 

           The .title directive provides a character string to be placed
        on the second line of each page during listing.  The string  be-
        gins  with  the first non white space character (after any space
        or tab) and ends with the end of the line.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-17
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.3  .sbttl Directive 

        Format:  

                .sbttl  string 

           The .sbttl directive provides a character string to be placed
        on the third line of each page during listing.  The  string  be-
        gins  with  the first non white space character (after any space
        or tab) and ends with the end of the line.  


        1.4.4  .list and .nlist Directives 

        Format:  

                .list                           ;Basic .list 

                .list   expr                    ;with expression 

                .list   (arg1,arg2,...,argn)    ;with sublist options 

                .nlist                          ;Basic .nlist 

                .nlist  expr                    ;with expression 

                .nlist  (arg1,arg2,...,argn)    ;with sublist options 


        The  .list  and  .nlist directives control the listing output to
        the .lst  file.   The  directives  have  the  following  sublist
        options:  

                err     -       errors
                loc     -       program location
                bin     -       binary output
                eqt     -       symbol or .if evaluation
                cyc     -       opcode cycle count
                lin     -       source line number
                src     -       source line text
                pag     -       pagination
                lst     -       .list/.nlist line listing
                md      -       macro definition listing
                me      -       macro expansion listing
                meb     -       macro expansion binary listing
        
                !       -       sets the listing mode to
                                !(.list) or !(.nlist) before
                                applying the sublist options


        The  'normal' listing mode .list is the combination of err, loc,


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-18
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        bin, eqt, cyc, lin, src, pag, lst, and md enabled  with  me  and
        meb  disabled.  The 'normal' listing mode .nlist has all sublist
        items disabled.  When specifying sublist options the option list
        must   be  enclosed  within  parenthesis  and  multiple  options
        seperated by commas.  

           The NOT option, !, is used to set the listing mode to the op-
        posite of the .list or .nlist directive before applying the sub-
        list options.  For example:  

                .nlist  (!)     is equivalent to .list  and
                .list   (!)     is equivalent to .nlist
                                any additional options will
                                be applied normally


           Normal  .list/.nlist processing is disabled within false con-
        ditional blocks.  However, the .list/.nlist with  an  expression
        can  override  this  behavior  if  the expression has a non zero
        value.  

           Examples of listing options:  

                .list   (meb)   ; lists macro generated binary
        
                .list   (me)    ; lists macro expansions
        
                .nlist  (src)   ; .nlist src lines not listed
        
                .nlist  (!,lst) ; list all except .nlist
        
                .nlist          ; combination lists only
                .list   (src)   ; the source line
        
                .list   (!,src) ; list only the source line
        
                .list   1       ; enable listing even within
                                ; a FALSE conditional block


        1.4.5  .page Directive 

        Format:  

                .page 

           The .page directive causes a page ejection with a new heading
        to be printed.  The new page occurs after the next line  of  the
        source  program is processed, this allows an immediately follow-
        ing .sbttl directive to appear  on  the  new  page.   The  .page
        source  line will not appear in the file listing.  Paging may be
        disabled by invoking the -p directive or by using the directive: 


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-19
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES



                .nlist  (pag)


           If  the .page directive is followed by a non zero constant or
        an expression that evaluates to a non zero value then pagination
        will be enabled within a false condition range to allow extended
        textual information to be incorporated  in  the  source  program
        with out the need to use the comment delimiter (;):  

                .if     0
        
                .page   1       ;Enable pagination within 'if' block.
                This text will be bypassed during assembly
                but appear in the listing file.
                .
                .
                .
        
                .endif


        1.4.6  .msg Directive 

        Format:  

                .msg     /string/               or 

                .msg    ^/string/ 


        where:  string  represents a text string.  The string is printed
                        to the console during the final assembly pass.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters  do  not  match, the .msg
                        directive will give the (q) error.  


           The  .msg  directive  is  useful to report assembly status or
        other information during the assembly process.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-20
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.7  .error Directive 

        Format:  

                .error exp 

        where:  exp     represents   an  absolute  expression.   If  the
                        evaluation of the expression results  in  a  non
                        zero value then an 'e' error is reported and the
                        text line is listed in the generated error.  


           The  .error  directive  is  useful to report configuration or
        value errors during the assembly process.  (The .error directive
        is  identical in function to the .assume directive, just perhaps
        more descriptive.) 


        1.4.8  .byte, .db, and .fcb Directives 

        Format:  

                .byte   exp             ;Stores the binary value
                .db     exp             ;of the expression in the
                .fcb    exp             ;next byte.
        
                .byte   exp1,exp2,expn  ;Stores the binary values
                .db     exp1,exp2,expn  ;of the list of expressions
                .fcb    exp1,exp2,expn  ;in successive bytes.
        
        where:  exp,    represent expressions that will be
                exp1,   truncated to 8-bits of data.
                .       Each expression will be calculated,
                .       the high-order byte will be truncated.
                .       Multiple expressions must be
                expn    separated by commas.

           The  .byte, .db, or .fcb directives are used to generate suc-
        cessive bytes of binary data in the object module.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-21
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.9  .word, .dw, and .fdb Directives 

        Format:  

                .word   exp             ;Stores the binary value
                .dw     exp             ;of the expression in
                .fdb    exp             ;the next word.
        
                .word   exp1,exp2,expn  ;Stores the binary values
                .dw     exp1,exp2,expn  ;of the list of expressions
                .fdb    exp1,exp2,expn  ;in successive words.
        
        where:  exp,    represent expressions that will occupy two
                exp1,   bytes of data. Each expression will be
                .       calculated as a 16-bit word expression.
                .       Multiple expressions must be
                expn    separated by commas.

           The  .word, .dw, or .fdb directives are used to generate suc-
        cessive words of binary data in the object module.  


        1.4.10  .3byte and .triple Directives 

        Format:  

                .3byte  exp             ;Stores the binary value
                .triple exp             ;of the expression in
                                        ;the next triple (3 bytes).
        
                .3byte  exp1,exp2,expn  ;Stores the binary values
                .triple exp1,exp2,expn  ;of the list of expressions
                                        ;in successive triples
                                        ;(3 bytes).
        
        where:  exp,    represent expressions that will occupy three
                exp1,   bytes of data. Each expression will be
                .       calculated as a 24-bit word expression.
                .       Multiple expressions must be
                expn    separated by commas.

           The  .3byte  or .triple directive is used to generate succes-
        sive triples of binary data in the object module.  (These direc-
        tives   are  only  available  in  assemblers  supporting  24-bit
        addressing.) 




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-22
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.11  .4byte and .quad Directive 

        Format:  

                .4byte  exp             ;Stores the binary value
                .quad   exp             ;of the expression in
                                        ;the next quad (4 bytes).
        
                .4byte  exp1,exp2,expn  ;Stores the binary values
                .quad   exp1,exp2,expn  ;of the list of expressions
                                        ;in successive quads
                                        ;(4 bytes).
        
        where:  exp,    represent expressions that will occupy three
                exp1,   bytes of data. Each expression will be
                .       calculated as a 32-bit word expression.
                .       Multiple expressions must be
                expn    separated by commas.

           The  .4byte or .quad directive is used to generate successive
        quads of binary data in the object  module.   (These  directives
        are only available in assemblers supporting 32-bit addressing.) 


        1.4.12  .blkb, .ds, .rmb, and .rs Directives 

        Format:  

                .blkb   N       ;reserve N bytes of space
                .ds     N       ;reserve N bytes of space
                .rmb    N       ;reserve N bytes of space
                .rs     N       ;reserve N bytes of space

           The  .blkb, .ds, .rmb, and .rs directives reserve byte blocks
        in the object module;  


        1.4.13  .blkw, .blk3, and .blk4 Directives 

        Format:  

                .blkw   N       ;reserve N words of space
                .blk3   N       ;reserve N triples of space
                .blk4   N       ;reserve N quads of space

           The .blkw directive reserves word blocks;  the .blk3 reserves
        3  byte  blocks(available  in   assemblers   supporting   24-bit
        addressing);  the .blk4 reserves 4 byte blocks (available in as-
        semblers supporting 32-bit addressing).  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-23
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.14  .ascii, .str, and .fcc Directives 

        Format:  

                .ascii   /string/               or 

                .ascii  ^/string/ 

                .fcc     /string/               or 

                .fcc    ^/string/ 

                .str     /string/               or 

                .str    ^/string/ 


        where:  string  is a string of printable ascii characters.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters  do not match, the .ascii
                        directive will give the (q) error.  

        The  .ascii,  .fcc, and .str directives place one binary byte of
        data for each character in the string into the object module.  


        1.4.15  .ascis and .strs Directives 

        Format:  

                .ascis   /string/               or 

                .ascis  ^/string/ 

                .strs    /string/               or 

                .strs   ^/string/ 


        where:  string  is a string of printable ascii characters.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters  do not match, the .ascis
                        and .strs directives will give the (q) error.  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-24
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           The .ascis and .strs directives place one binary byte of data
        for each character in the string into the  object  module.   The
        last character in the string will have the high order bit set.  


        1.4.16  .asciz and .strz Directives 

        Format:  

                .asciz   /string/               or 

                .asciz  ^/string/ 

                .strz    /string/               or 

                .strz   ^/string/ 


        where:  string  is a string of printable ascii characters.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters  do not match, the .asciz
                        and .strz directive will give the (q) error.  


           The .asciz and .strz directives place one binary byte of data
        for each character in the string into the object  module.   Fol-
        lowing  all  the  character data a zero byte is inserted to ter-
        minate the character string.  


        1.4.17  .assume Directive 

        Format:  

                .assume exp 

        where:  exp     represents   an  absolute  expression.   If  the
                        evaluation of the expression results  in  a  non
                        zero value then an 'e' error is reported and the
                        text line is listed in the generated error.  


           The  .assume  directive  is useful to check assumptions about
        assembler values.  (The .assume directive is identical in  func-
        tion to the .error directive, just perhaps more descriptive.) 




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-25
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.18  .radix Directive 

        Format:  

                .radix  character 

        where:  character  represents  a single character specifying the
                default radix to be used for  succeeding  numbers.   The
                character may be any one of the following:  

                        B,b     Binary
        
                        O,o     Octal
                        Q,q
        
                        D,d     Decimal
                        'blank'
        
                        H,h     Hexidecimal
                        X,x


        1.4.19  .even Directive 

        Format:  

                .even 

           The .even directive ensures that the current location counter
        contains an even boundary value by adding 1 if the current loca-
        tion is odd.  


        1.4.20  .odd Directive 

        Format:  

                .odd 

           The  .odd directive ensures that the current location counter
        contains an odd boundary value by adding one if the current  lo-
        cation is even.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-26
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.21  .bndry Directive 

        Format:  

                .bndry  n 

           If  the current location is not an integer multiple of n then
        the location counter is increased to the next  integer  multiple
        of n.  

           As an example:  

                .bndry  4 

        changes  the current location to be at a multiple of 4, a 4-byte
        boundary.  

           The boundary specifications are propagated to the linker as a
        boundary modulus, ie the smallest common boundary for all  .odd,
        .even, and .bndry directives contained within the area.  A boun-
        dary value of 1 is equivalent to .odd and a boundary value of  2
        is equivalent to .even.  Because areas are always assembled with
        an initial address of 0, an even address, both  .odd  and  .even
        are modulus 2 boundaries.  

           As  an  example, suppose there are two sections:  a CODE sec-
        tion and a DATA section.  The program code is  written  so  that
        the  data  associated with this section of the program code fol-
        lows immediately.  

                        .area   CODE
                        ; Subroutine 1 Code
                        ; Uses data having a boundary of 6
        
                        .area   DATA
                        ; Subroutine 1 Data
                        .bndry  6
                        .word   1, 2, 3
        
                        ...
        
                        .area   CODE
                        ; Subroutine 2 Code
                        ; Uses data having a boundary of 8
        
                        .area   DATA
                        ; Subroutine 2 Data
                        .bndry  8
                        .word   1, 2, 3, 4,




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-27
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           Since  the CODE and DATA sections are assembled during a sin-
        gle assembly (also applies to include files) the  the  assembler
        compiles all CODE segments as a single area segment.  The assem-
        bler also compiles all the DATA segments as a single  area  seg-
        ment  which  has  two .bndry directives and will have a boundary
        modulus of 24.  24 is the smallest boundary divisible by 6 and 8
        with  no remainder.  When the assembled file is linked the loca-
        tion of the data in the DATA area will be offset to  an  address
        which has a boundary modulus of 24.  

           When  multiple files containing the same area names (projects
        with multiple independently compiled files or library files) are
        linked  together  each  area segment will be offset to match the
        segments boundary modulus.  

           Boundary  specifications  will also be preserved when an area
        base address is specified with the -b linker option  and/or  the
        area is placed within a bank.  


        1.4.22  .area Directive 

        Format:  

                .area   name    [(options)] 

        where:  name    represents the symbolic name of the program sec-
                        tion.   This  name  may  be  the  same  as   any
                        user-defined  symbol  or  bank as the area names
                        are independent  of  all  symbols,  labels,  and
                        banks.  

                options specify the type of program or data area:  
                        ABS     absolute (automatically invokes OVR) 
                        REL     relocatable 
                        OVR     overlay 
                        CON     concatenate 
                        NOPAG   non-paged area 
                        PAG     paged area 

                options specify a code or data segment:  
                        CSEG    Code segment 
                        DSEG    Data segment 

                option  specifies the data area bank:  
                        BANK    Named collection of areas 


           The .area directive provides a means of defining and separat-
        ing multiple programming and data sections.   The  name  is  the
        area  label used by the assembler and the linker to collect code


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-28
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        from various separately assembled modules into one section.  The
        name may be from 1 to 79 characters in length.  

           The options are specified within parenthesis and separated by
        commas as shown in the following example:  

                .area  TEST  (REL,CON)  ;This section is relocatable
                                        ;and concatenated with other
                                        ;sections of this program area.
        
                .area  DATA  (REL,OVR)  ;This section is relocatable
                                        ;and overlays other sections
                                        ;of this program area.
        
                .area  SYS   (ABS,OVR)  ;(CON not allowed with ABS)
                                        ;This section is defined as
                                        ;absolute. Absolute sections
                                        ;are always overlayed with
                                        ;other sections of this program
                                        ;area.
        
                .area  PAGE  (PAG)      ;This is a paged section. The
                                        ;section must be on a 256 byte
                                        ;boundary and its length is
                                        ;checked by the linker to be
                                        ;no larger than 256 bytes.
                                        ;This is useful for direct page
                                        ;areas.

           The  default  area type is REL|CON;  i.e.  a relocatable sec-
        tion which is concatenated with other sections of code with  the
        same area name.  The ABS option indicates an absolute area.  The
        OVR and CON options indicate if program  sections  of  the  same
        name  will overlay each other (start at the same location) or be
        concatenated with each other (appended to each other).  

           The  area can be specified as either a code segment, CSEG, or
        a data segment, DSEG.  The CSEG and DSEG descriptors are  useful
        when  the  microprocessor  code  and  data  unit allocations are
        unequal:  e.g.  the executable code  uses  an  allocation  of  2
        bytes for each instruction and is addressed at an increment of 1
        for every instruction, and the data uses an allocation of 1 byte
        for  each element and is addressed at an increment of 1 for each
        data byte.  The allocation units are defined by the architecture
        of the particular microprocessor.  

           The  .area  directive also provides a means of specifying the
        bank this area is associated with.  All areas associated with  a
        particular  bank  are  combined  at  link  time  into a block of
        code/data.  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-29
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           The  CSEG,  DSEG,  and  BANK options are specified within the
        parenthesis as shown in the following examples:  

                .area   C_SEG   (CSEG,BANK=C1)
                                        ;This is a code section
                                        ;and is included in bank C1
                .area   D_SEG   (DSEG,BANK=D1)
                                        ;This is a data section
                                        ;and is included in bank D1.

           Multiple  invocations  of  the  .area directive with the same
        name must specify the same options or leave  the  options  field
        blank,  this  defaults  to  the previously specified options for
        this program area.  

        The   ASxxxx   assemblers   automatically  provide  two  program
        sections:  


                '_CODE'         This  is  the  default  code/data  area.
                                This   program   area   is    of    type
                                (REL,CON,CSEG).  

                '_DATA'         This  is the default optional data area.
                                This   program   area   is    of    type
                                (REL,CON,DSEG).  

        The .area names and options are never case sensitive.  


        1.4.23  .bank Directive 

        Format:  

                .bank   name    [(options)] 

        where:  name    represents  the  symbolic  name of the bank sec-
                        tion.   This  name  may  be  the  same  as   any
                        user-defined  symbol  or  area as the bank names
                        are independent  of  all  symbols,  labels,  and
                        areas.   The name may be from 1 to 79 characters
                        in length.  

                options specify the parameters of the bank:  
                        BASE    base address of bank 
                        SIZE    maximum size of bank 
                        FSFX    file suffix for this bank 
                        MAP     NOICE mapping 




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-30
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           The  .bank  directive allows an arbitrary grouping of program
        and/or data areas to be communicated to the  linker.   The  bank
        parameters are all optional and are described as follows:  

             1.  BASE, the  starting  address of the bank (default is 0)
                 may be defined.  This address can be overridden by  us-
                 ing  the linker -b option for the first area within the
                 bank.  The bank address is always specified  in  'byte'
                 addressing.  A first area which is not 'byte' addressed
                 (e.g.  a processor addressed by a 'word' of 2  or  more
                 bytes)  has  the  area  address  scaled to begin at the
                 'byte' address.  

             2.  SIZE, the  maximum  length  of  the  bank  specified in
                 bytes.  The size is always specified in terms of bytes. 

             3.  FSFX, the file suffix to be used by the linker for this
                 bank.  The suffix may not contain embedded white space. 

             4.  MAP,  NOICE   mapping   parameter   for  this  bank  of
                 code/data.  


           The options are specified within parenthesis and separated by
        commas as shown in the following example:  

                .BANK  C1  (BASE=0x0100,SIZE=0x1000,FSFX=_C1)
                                        ;This bank starts at 0x0100,
                                        ;has a maximum size of 0x1000,
                                        ;and is to be placed into
                                        ;a file with a suffix of _C1

           The parameters must be absolute (external symbols are not al-
        lowed.) 


        1.4.24  .org Directive 

        Format:  

                .org    exp 

        where:  exp     is  an absolute expression that becomes the cur-
                        rent location counter.  

        The  .org directive is valid only in an absolute program section
        and will give a (q) error if used in a relocatable program area.
        The  .org  directive specifies that the current location counter
        is to become the specified absolute value.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-31
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.25  .globl Directive 

        Format:  

                .globl  sym1,sym2,...,symn 

        where:  sym1,           represent legal symbolic names.
                sym2,...        When multiple symbols are specified,
                symn            they are separated by commas.

           A  .globl directive may also have a label field and/or a com-
        ment field.  

           The  .globl directive is provided to export (and thus provide
        linkage to) symbols not  otherwise  defined  as  global  symbols
        within  a  module.   In  exporting  global symbols the directive
        .globl J is similar to:  

              J == expression or J::  

           Because  object  modules  are linked by global symbols, these
        symbols are vital to a program.  All internal symbols  appearing
        within  a  given program must be defined at the end of pass 1 or
        they will be considered undefined.  The assembly directive  (-g)
        can  be  invoked to make all undefined symbols global at the end
        of pass 1.  

           The  .globl directive and == construct can be overridden by a
        following .local directive.  


                                      NOTE

             The  ASxxxx  assemblers  use the last occurring symbol
             specification in the source file(s) as the type  shown
             in the symbol table and output to the .rel file.  




        1.4.26  .local Directive 

        Format:  

                .local  sym1,sym2,...,symn 

        where:  sym1,           represent legal symbolic names.
                sym2,...        When multiple symbols are specified,
                symn            they are separated by commas.

           A  .local directive may also have a label field and/or a com-
        ment field.  


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-32
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           The  .local  directive is provided to define symbols that are
        local to the current assembly process.  Local  symbols  are  not
        effected  by  the assembler option -a (make all symbols global).
        In defining local symbols the directive .local J is similar to: 

              J =: expression 

           The  .local directive and the =:  construct are useful in de-
        fining symbols and constants within a header or definition  file
        that contains many symbols specific to the current assembly pro-
        cess that should not be exported into the .rel output  file.   A
        typical  usage  is  in  the definition of SFRs (Special Function
        Registers) for a microprocessor.  

           The .local directive and =:  construct can be overridden by a
        following .globl directive.  


                                      NOTE

             The  ASxxxx  assemblers  use the last occurring symbol
             specification in the source file(s) as the type  shown
             in the symbol table and output to the .rel file.  




        1.4.27  .equ, .gblequ, and .lclequ Directives 

        Format:  

                sym1    .equ    expr    ; equivalent to sym1  = expr
                sym2    .gblequ expr    ; equivalent to sym2 == expr
                sym3    .lclequ expr    ; equivalent to sym3 =: expr
        
                or
        
                .equ    sym1,   expr    ; equivalent to sym1  = expr
                .gblequ sym2,   expr    ; equivalent to sym2 == expr
                .lclequ sym3,   expr    ; equivalent to sym3 =: expr

           These  alternate  forms  of equivalence are provided for user
        convenience.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-33
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.28  .if, .else, and .endif Directives 

        Format:  

                .if     expr
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  range of true condition will be processed if the expres-
        sion 'expr' is not zero (i.e.  true) and the range of false con-
        dition  will  be processed if the expression 'expr' is zero (i.e
        false).  The range of true condition is optional as is the .else
        directive  and  the range of false condition.  The following are
        all valid .if/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .if     A-4             ;evaluate A-4
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if A-4 is
                .endif                  ;not zero
        
                .if     K+3             ;evaluate K+3
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if K+3
                .endif                  ;is zero
        
                .if     J&3             ;evaluate J masked by 3
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if J&3
                .else                   ;is not zero
                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if J&3
                .endif                  ;is zero


        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting
        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-34
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.29  .iff, .ift, and .iftf Directives 

        Format:  

                .if     expr    ;'if' range Condition is
                                ;TRUE when expr is not zero
                 .ift                                   ;}
                 .      ;} range of true condition      ;}
                 .iff                                   ;} if
                 .      ;} range of false condition     ;} block
                 .iftf                                  ;}
                 .      ;} unconditional range          ;}
                .else           ;'else' range Condition is
                                ;TRUE when expr is zero
                 .ift                                   ;}
                 .      ;} range of true condition      ;}
                 .iff                                   ;} else
                 .      ;} range of false condition     ;} block
                 .iftf                                  ;}
                 .      ;} unconditional range          ;}
                .endif

           The  subconditional  assembly directives may be placed within
        conditional assembly blocks to indicate:  

                1. The assembly of an alternate body of code when
                   the condition of the block tests false.
        
                2. The assembly of non-contiguous body of code
                   within the conditional assembly block,
                   depending upon the result of the conditional
                   test in entering the block.
        
                3. The unconditional assembly of a body of code
                   within a conditional assembly block.


        The use of the .iff, .ift, and .iftf directives makes the use of
        the .else directive redundant.  

           Note  that  the  implementation of the .else directive causes
        the .if tested condition to be complemented.  The TRUE and FALSE
        conditions are determined by the .if/.else conditional state.  

           All  .if/.else/.endif  directives  are  limited  to a maximum
        nesting of 10 levels.  

           The  use  of the .iff, .ift, or .iftf directives outside of a
        conditional block results in a (i) error code.  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-35
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.30  .ifxx Directives 


           Additional  conditional  directives are available to test the
        value of an evaluated expression:  

                .ifne   expr            ; true if expr != 0
                .ifeq   expr            ; true if expr == 0
                .ifgt   expr            ; true if expr >  0
                .iflt   expr            ; true if expr <  0
                .ifge   expr            ; true if expr >= 0
                .ifle   expr            ; true if expr <= 0

           Format:  

                .ifxx   expr
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  range of true condition will be processed if the expres-
        sion 'expr' is not zero (i.e.  true) and the range of false con-
        dition  will  be processed if the expression 'expr' is zero (i.e
        false).  The range of true condition is optional as is the .else
        directive  and  the range of false condition.  The following are
        all valid .ifxx/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifne   A-4             ;evaluate A-4
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if A-4 is
                .endif                  ;not zero
        
                .ifeq   K+3             ;evaluate K+3
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if K+3
                .endif                  ;is zero
        
                .ifne   J&3             ;evaluate J masked by 3
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if J&3
                .else                   ;is not zero


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-36
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if J&3
                .endif                  ;is zero


        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting
        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.31  .ifdef Directive 

        Format:  

                .ifdef  sym
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  range  of true condition will be processed if the symbol
        'sym' has been defined with a .define directive or  'sym'  is  a
        variable  with  an  assigned  value else the false range will be
        processed.  The range of true condition is optional  as  is  the
        .else directive and the range of false condition.  The following
        are all valid .ifdef/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifdef  sym$1           ;lookup symbol sym$1
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if sym$1
                .endif                  ;is defined or
                                        ;assigned a value
        
                .ifdef  sym$2           ;lookup symbol sym$2
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if sym$1
                .endif                  ;is not defined and
                                        ;not assigned a value
        
                .ifdef  sym$3           ;lookup symbol sym$3
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if sym$3
                .else                   ;is defined/valued
                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if sym$3


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-37
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .endif                  ;is not defined/valued


        Note  that the default assembler configuration of case sensitive
        means the testing for a defined symbol is also case sensitive.  

           All  .if/.else/.endif  directives  are  limited  to a maximum
        nesting of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.32  .ifndef Directive 

        Format:  

                .ifndef sym
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the condition test.  

           The  range  of true condition will be processed if the symbol
        'sym' is not defined by a .define directive and a variable 'sym'
        has  not been assigned a value else the range of false condition
        will be processed.  The range of true condition is  optional  as
        is  the  .else  directive and the range of false condition.  The
        following are all valid .ifndef/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifndef sym$1           ;lookup symbol sym$1
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if sym$1 is
                .endif                  ;not defined and
                                        ;not assigned a value
        
                .ifndef sym$2           ;lookup symbol sym$2
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if sym$1
                .endif                  ;is defined or
                                        ;is assigned a value
        
                .ifndef sym$3           ;lookup symbol sym$3
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if sym$3


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-38
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .else                   ;is not defined/valued
                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if sym$3
                .endif                  ;is defined/valued


        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting
        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.33  .ifb Directive 

        Format:  

                .ifb    sym
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  conditional  .ifb  is most useful when used in macro de-
        finitions to determine if the argument is blank.  The  range  of
        true  condition  will be processed if the symbol 'sym' is blank.
        The range of true condition is optional as is the  .else  direc-
        tive  and  the  range of false condition.  The following are all
        valid .ifb/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifb    sym$1           ;argument is not blank
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if argument
                .endif                  ;is blank
        
                .ifb    sym$2           ;argument is not blank
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if argument
                .endif                  ;is not blank
        
                .ifb                    ;argument is blank
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if
                .else                   ;argument is blank
                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if
                .endif                  ;argument not blank


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-39
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES




        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting
        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.34  .ifnb Directive 

        Format:  

                .ifnb   sym
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  conditional  .ifnb is most useful when used in macro de-
        finitions to determine if the argument is not blank.  The  range
        of  true  condition will be processed if the symbol 'sym' is not
        blank.  The range of true condition is optional as is the  .else
        directive  and  the range of false condition.  The following are
        all valid .ifnb/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifnb   sym$1           ;argument is not blank
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if argument
                .endif                  ;is not blank
        
                .ifnb   sym$2           ;argument is not blank
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if argument
                .endif                  ;is blank
        
                .ifnb                   ;argument is blank
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if
                .else                   ;argument is not blank
                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if
                .endif                  ;argument is blank


        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-40
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.35  .ifidn Directive 

        Format:  

                .ifidn  sym$1,sym$2
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  conditional .ifidn is most useful when used in macro de-
        finitions to determine if  the  arguments  are  identical.   The
        range  of true condition will be processed if the symbol 'sym$1'
        is idendical to 'sym$2' (i.e.  the character strings  for  sym$1
        and  sym$2  are  the  same  consistent with the case sensitivity
        flag).  When this if statement occurs inside a  macro  where  an
        argument  substitution  may  be blank then an argument should be
        delimited with the form /symbol/ for each symbol.  The range  of
        true  condition  is  optional  as is the .else directive and the
        range  of  false  condition.   The  following  are   all   valid
        .ifidn/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifidn  sym$1,sym$1     ;arguments are the same
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if arguments
                .endif                  ;are the sane
        
                .ifidn  sym$1,sym$2     ;arguments are not the same
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if arguments
                .endif                  ;are not the same
        
                .ifidn  sym$3,sym$3     ;arguments are the same
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if
                .else                   ;arguments are the same
                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if
                .endif                  ;arguments are not the same


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-41
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES




        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting
        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.36  .ifdif Directive 

        Format:  

                .ifdif  sym$1,sym$2
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of true condition
                .                       ;}
                .else
                .                       ;}
                .                       ;} range of false condition
                .                       ;}
                .endif

           The  conditional  assembly directives allow you to include or
        exclude blocks of source code during the assembly process, based
        on the evaluation of the test condition.  

           The  conditional .ifdif is most useful when used in macro de-
        finitions to determine if  the  arguments  are  different.   The
        range  of true condition will be processed if the symbol 'sym$1'
        is different from 'sym$2' (i.e.  the character strings for sym$1
        and  sym$2  are the not the same consistent with the case sensi-
        tivity flag).  When this if  statement  occurs  inside  a  macro
        where  an  argument  substitution  may be blank then an argument
        should be delimited with the form /symbol/ for each symbol.  The
        range  of  true  condition is optional as is the .else directive
        and the range of false condition.  The following are  all  valid
        .ifdif/.else/.endif constructions:  

                .ifdif  sym$1,sym$2     ;arguments are different
                .byte   1,2             ;insert bytes if arguments
                .endif                  ;are different
        
                .ifdif  sym$1,sym$1     ;arguments are identical
                .else
                .byte   3,4             ;insert bytes if arguments
                .endif                  ;are different
        
                .ifdif  sym$1,sym$3     ;arguments are different
                .byte   12              ;insert this byte if
                .else                   ;arguments are different


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-42
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .byte   13              ;insert this byte if
                .endif                  ;arguments are identical


        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting
        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.37  Alternate .if Directive Forms 


           Format:  

                .if     cnd(,)  arg1(, arg2)

           where  the  cnd (followed by an optional comma) may be any of
        the following:  

                -------------------------------------------------------
                 condition              Assemble
                (complement)    Args    Block if:
                -------------------------------------------------------
                eq   ( ne )     expr    equal to zero
                                        (not equal to zero)
        
                gt   ( le )     expr    greater than zero
                                        (less than or equal to zero)
        
                lt   ( ge )     expr    less than zero
                                        (greater than or equal to zero)
        
                def  ( ndef )   symbol  .define'd or user set
                                        (not .define'd or user set)
        
                b    ( nb )     macro   argument present
                                symbol  (argument not present)
        
                idn  ( dif )    macro   arguments identical
                                symbol  (arguments not identical)
        
                f    ( t )      -----   only within a .if/.else/.endif
                                        conditional block
        
                tf              -----   only within a .if/.else/.endif
                                        conditional block


        All .if/.else/.endif directives are limited to a maximum nesting


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-43
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        of 10 levels.  

           The  use of a .else directive outside a .if/.endif block will
        generate an (i) error.  Assemblies having unequal .if and .endif
        counts will cause an (i) error.  


        1.4.38  Immediate Conditional Assembly Directives 


           The  immediate conditional assembly directives allow a single
        line of code to be assembled without  using  a  .if/.else/.endif
        construct.   All  of  the previously described conditionals have
        immediate equivalents.  

           Format:  

                .iif            arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifeq          arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifne          arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifgt          arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifle          arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifge          arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iiflt          arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifdef         arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifndef        arg(,)          line_to_assemble
        
                .iifb        (,)arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifnb       (,)arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iifidn      (,)arg1,arg2(,)    line_to_assemble
                .iifdif      (,)arg1,arg2(,)    line_to_assemble
        
                .iiff                           line_to_assemble
                .iift                           line_to_assemble
                .iiftf                          line_to_assemble


        Alternate Format:  

                .iif            arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    eq      arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    ne      arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    gt      arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    le      arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    ge      arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    lt      arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    def     arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    ndef    arg(,)          line_to_assemble
        
                .iif    b    (,)arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    nb   (,)arg(,)          line_to_assemble
                .iif    idn  (,)arg1,arg2(,)    line_to_assemble


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-44
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .iif    dif  (,)arg1,arg2(,)    line_to_assemble
        
                .iiff                           line_to_assemble
                .iift                           line_to_assemble
                .iiftf                          line_to_assemble


        The (,) indicates an optional comma.  

           The  .iif  types b, n, idn, and dif require the commas if the
        argument(s) may be blank.  These commas may be  removed  if  the
        arguments are delimited with the form ^/symbol/ for each symbol. 

           The   immediate   conditional  directives  donot  change  the
        .if/.else/.endif nesting level.  


        1.4.39  .include Directive 

        Format:  

                .include         /string/               or 

                .include        ^/string/ 


        where:  string  represents  a string that is the file specifica-
                        tion of an ASxxxx source file.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting characters do not match, the .include
                        directive will give the (q) error.  

           The .include directive is used to insert a source file within
        the source file currently being assembled.  When this  directive
        is encountered, an implicit .page directive is issued.  When the
        end of the specified source file is reached, an  implicit  .page
        directive is issued and input continues from the previous source
        file.  The maximum nesting level of source files specified by  a
        .include directive is five.  

           The  total  number  of separately specified .include files is
        unlimited as each .include file is opened and then closed during
        each pass made by the assembler.  

           The  default  directory  path,  if none is specified, for any
        .include file is the directory path of the  current  file.   For
        example:    if   the  current  source  file,  D:\proj\file1.asm,


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-45
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        includes  a  file  specified  as  "include1"   then   the   file
        D:\proj\include1.asm is opened.  


        1.4.40  .define and .undefine Directives 

        Format:  

                .define        keyword  /string/        or 

                .define        keyword ^/string/ 

                .undefine      keyword 


        where:  keyword is  the  substitutable  string  which must start
                        with a letter and may contain any combination of
                        digits and letters.  

        where:  string  represents  a string that is substituted for the
                        keyword.  The string may contain any sequence of
                        characters including white space.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters do not match, the .define
                        directive will give the (q) error.  

           The  .define  directive specifies a user defined string which
        is substituted for the keyword.  The substitution string may it-
        self  contain other keywords that are substitutable.  The assem-
        bler resumes the parse of the line at the point the keyword  was
        found.  Care must be excersized to avoid any circular references
        within .define directives, otherwise the assembler may  enter  a
        'recursion runaway' resulting in an 's' error.  

           The  .undefine  directive removes the keyword as a substitut-
        able string.  No error is returned if the keyword  was  not  de-
        fined.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-46
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.4.41  .setdp Directive 

        Format:  

                .setdp [base [,area]] 

        The set direct page directive has a common format in all the as-
        semblers supporting a paged mode.  The .setdp directive is  used
        to  inform  the  assembler of the current direct page region and
        the offset address within the selected area.  The normal invoca-
        tion methods are:  

                .area   DIRECT  (PAG)
                .setdp
        
                or
        
                .setdp  0,DIRECT

        for  all  the  68xx microprocessors (the 6804 has only the paged
        ram area).  The commands specify that the direct page is in area
        DIRECT and its offset address is 0 (the only valid value for all
        but the 6809 microprocessor).  Be sure to place the DIRECT  area
        at address 0 during linking.  When the base address and area are
        not specified, then zero and the current area are the  defaults.
        If  a  .setdp directive is not issued the assembler defaults the
        direct page to the area "_CODE" at offset 0.  

           The  assembler  verifies  that  any  local variable used in a
        direct variable reference is located in this area.  Local  vari-
        able  and  constant value direct access addresses are checked to
        be within the address range from 0 to 255.  

           External direct references are assumed by the assembler to be
        in the correct area and have valid  offsets.   The  linker  will
        check all direct page relocations to verify that they are within
        the correct area.  

           The  6809  microprocessor  allows the selection of the direct
        page to be on any 256 byte boundary by loading  the  appropriate
        value  into the dp register.  Typically one would like to select
        the page boundary at link time, one method follows:  


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-47
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .area   DIRECT  (PAG)   ; define the direct page
                .setdp
                .
                .
                .
                .area   PROGRAM
                .
                ldd     #DIRECT         ; load the direct page register
                tfr     a,dp            ; for access to the direct page

        At  link  time specify the base and global equates to locate the
        direct page:  

                -b DIRECT = 0x1000
                -g DIRECT = 0x1000

        Both  the  area address and offset value must be specified (area
        and variable names are independent).   The  linker  will  verify
        that  the  relocated  direct page accesses are within the direct
        page.  

        The  preceeding  sequence  could  be repeated for multiple paged
        areas, however an alternate method is to define a non-paged area
        and use the .setdp directive to specify the offset value:  

                .area   DIRECT          ; define non-paged area
                .
                .
                .
                .area   PROGRAM
                .
                .setdp  0,DIRECT        ; direct page area
                ldd     #DIRECT         ; load the direct page register
                tfr     a,dp            ; for access to the direct page
                .
                .
                .setdp  0x100,DIRECT    ; direct page area
                ldd     #DIRECT+0x100   ; load the direct page register
                tfr     a,dp            ; for access to the direct page

        The  linker  will  verify that subsequent direct page references
        are in the specified area and offset address range.  It  is  the
        programmers responsibility to load the dp register with the cor-
        rect page segment  corresponding  to  the  .setdp  base  address
        specified.  

           For  those  cases  where a single piece of code must access a
        defined data structure within a direct page and there  are  many
        pages,  define  a  dumby  direct page linked at address 0.  This
        dumby page is used only to define  the  variable  labels.   Then
        load  the dp register with the real base address but donot use a
        .setdp  directive.   This  method  is  equivalent   to   indexed


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-48
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        addressing,  where the dp register is the index register and the
        direct addressing is the offset.  


        1.4.42  .16bit, .24bit, and .32bit Directives 

        Format:  

                .16bit          ;specify 16-bit addressing
                .24bit          ;specify 24-bit addressing
                .32bit          ;specify 32-bit addressing


           The  .16bit, .24bit, and .32bit directives are special direc-
        tives for assembler configuration when default  values  are  not
        used.  


        1.4.43  .msb Directive 

        Format:  

                .msb    n 


           The  .msb  directive is only available in selected assemblers
        which support 24 or 32-bit addressing.  

           The  assembler operator '>' selects the upper byte (MSB) when
        included in an assembler  instruction.   The  default  assembler
        mode  is  to  select bits <15:8> as the MSB.  The .msb directive
        allows the programmer to specify a particular byte as the  'MSB'
        when the address space is larger than 16-bits.  

           The assembler directive   .msb n  configures the assembler to
        select a particular byte as MSB.  Given a 32-bit address of MNmn
        (M(3)  is  <31:24>, N(2) is <23:16>, m(1) is <15:8>, and n(0) is
        <7:0>) the following examples show how to  select  a  particular
        address byte:  

                .msb 1          ;select byte 1 of address
                                ;
                LD A,>MNmn      ;byte m <15:8> ==>> A
                ...
        
                .msb 2          ;select byte 2 of address
                                ;
                LD A,>MNmn      ;byte N <23:16> ==>> A
                ...
        
                .msb 3          ;select byte 3 of address
                                ;


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-49
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                LD A,>MNmn      ;byte M <31:24> ==>> A
                ...


        1.4.44  .lohi and .hilo Directives 

        Format:  

                .lohi           ;specify LSB first output
                .hilo           ;specify MSB first output


           The .lohi and .hilo directives are special directives for as-
        sembler output configuration.  These  directives  are  currently
        only enabled in assembler 'ascheck'.  

           An  'm' error will be generated if the .lohi and .hilo direc-
        tives are both used within the same assembly source file.  


        1.4.45  .end Directive 

        Format:  

                .end 

                .end    exp 

        where:  exp     represents  any expression, including constants,
                        symbols, or labels.  


           The  .end  directive is used to specify a code entry point to
        be included in the linker output file.  Review  the  I86  and  S
        record formats described in the linker section for details.  

           The .end directive without an expression is ignored.  


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-50
        GENERAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        1.5  INVOKING ASXXXX 


           Starting  an  ASxxxx assembler without any arguments provides
        the following option list and then exits:  

        Usage: [-Options] file
        Usage: [-Options] outfile file1 [file2 file3 ...]
          -h   or NO ARGUMENTS  Show this help list
          -d   Decimal listing
          -q   Octal   listing
          -x   Hex     listing (default)
          -g   Undefined symbols made global
          -a   All user symbols made global
          -b   Display .define substitutions in listing
          -bb  and display without .define substitutions
          -c   Disable instruction cycle count in listing
          -j   Enable NoICE Debug Symbols
          -y   Enable SDCC  Debug Symbols
          -l   Create list   output (out)file[.lst]
          -o   Create object output (out)file[.rel]
          -s   Create symbol output (out)file[.sym]
          -p   Disable listing pagination
          -u   Disable .list/.nlist processing
          -w   Wide listing format for symbol table
          -z   Disable case sensitivity for symbols
          -f   Flag relocatable references by  `   in listing file
          -ff  Flag relocatable references by mode in listing file



           The ASxxxx assemblers are command line oriented.  Most sytems
        require the option(s) and file(s) arguments to follow the ASxxxx
        assembler name:  

          as6809 -[Options] file
        
          as6809 [-Options] outfile file1 [file2 ...]


        Some  systems  may  request the arguments after the assembler is
        started at a system specific prompt:  

          as6809
          argv: -[Options] file
        
          as6809
          argv: [-Options] outfile file1 [file2 ...]


        The ASxxxx options in some more detail:  



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-51
        INVOKING ASXXXX


                -h      List the ASxxxx options
        
                -d      decimal listing
                -q      octal   listing
                -x      hex     listing (default)
        
                        The listing radix affects the
                        .lst, .rel, .hlr, and .sym files.
        
                -g      undefined symbols made global
        
                        Unresolved (external) variables
                        and symbols are flagged as global.
        
                -a      all user symbols made global
        
                        All defined (not local or external)
                        variables and symbols are flagged
                        as global.
        
                -b      display .define substitutions in listing
        
                        If a .define substitution has been applied
                        to an assembler source line the source
                        line is printed with the substitution.
        
                -bb     and display without .define substitutions
        
                        If a .define substitution has been applied
                        to an assembler source line the source
                        line is first printed without substitution
                        followed by the line with the substitution.
        
                -c      Disable instruction cycle count in listing
        
                        This option overrides the listing option
                        'cyc' in the .list and .nlist directives.
                        Instruction cycle counts cannot be enabled
                        if the -c option is specified.
        
                -j      enable NOICE debug symbols
                -y      enable SDCC debug symbols
        
                -l      create list   output (out)file.lst
        
                        If -s (symbol table output) is not
                        specified the symbol table is included
                        at the end of the listing file.
        
                -o      create object output (out)file.rel
                -s      create symbol output (out)file.sym
        


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-52
        INVOKING ASXXXX


                -p      disable listing pagination
        
                        This option inhibits the generation
                        of a form-feed character and its
                        associated page header in the
                        assembler listing.
        
                -u      disable .list/.nlist processing
        
                        This option disables all .list and
                        .nlist directives. The listing mode
                        is .list with the options err, loc,
                        bin, eqt, cyc, lin, src, pag, lst,
                        and md. The options cyc and pag are
                        overridden by the -c and -p command
                        line options.
        
                -w      wide listing format for symbol table
        
                -z      disable case sensitivity for symbols
        
                -f      by  `   in the listing file
                -ff     by mode in the listing file
        
                        Relocatable modes are flagged by byte
                        position (LSB, Byte 2, Byte 3, MSB)
                        *nMN    paged,
                        uvUV    unsigned,
                        rsRS    signed,
                        pqPQ    program counter relative.

           The file name for the .lst, .rel, .hlr, and .sym files is the
        first file name specified in the command line.  All output files
        are ascii text files which may be edited, copied, etc.  The out-
        put files are the concatenation of all the input files, if files
        are  to be assembled independently invoke the assembler for each
        file.  

           The  .rel  file contains a radix directive so that the linker
        will use the proper conversion for this file.  Linked files  may
        have different radices.  

           The  ASxxxx  assemblers  also  have  several 'hidden' options
        which are not shown in the usage message.  These are:  

                -r      Include assembler line numbers
                        in the .hlr hint file
                -rr     Also include non listed line
                        numbers in the .hlr hint file
        
                -t      Show Include File and Macro Expansion
                        levels and memory allocations for


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-53
        INVOKING ASXXXX


                        the assembler and macro processor


        1.6  ERRORS 


           The  ASxxxx assemblers provide limited diagnostic error codes
        during the assembly process, these errors will be noted  in  the
        listing file and printed on the stderr device.  

           The assembler reports the errors on the stderr device as 

                ?ASxxxx-Error-<*> in line nnn of filename

        where  * is the error code, nnn is the line number, and filename
        is the source/include file.  

           The errors are:  

              (.)   This  error  is caused by an absolute direct assign-
                    ment of the current location counter 
                          . = expression (incorrect) 
                    rather than the correct 
                          . = . + expression 

              (a)   Indicates  a machine specific addressing or address-
                    ing mode error.  

              (b)   Indicates a direct page boundary error.  

              (c)   Indicates modulus of .bndry directives to large.  

              (d)   Indicates a direct page addressing error.  

              (e)   Caused by a .error or .assume directive.  

              (i)   Caused  by  an  .include file error or an .if/.endif
                    mismatch.  

              (m)   Multiple  definitions  of  the  same label, multiple
                    .module directives, multiple conflicting  attributes
                    in  an  .area or .bank directive or the use of .hilo
                    and lohi within the same assembly.  

              (n)   An  .mexit,  .endm,  or .narg directive outside of a
                    macro, repeat block or indefinite repeat block.  

              (o)   Directive  or  mnemonic error or the use of the .org
                    directive in a relocatable area.  

              (p)   Phase error:  label location changing between passes
                    2 and 3.  Normally caused by having  more  than  one


        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-54
        ERRORS


                    level of forward referencing.  

              (q)   Questionable syntax:  missing or improper operators,
                    terminators, or delimiters.  

              (r)   Relocation  error:   logic  operation attempted on a
                    relocatable term, addition of two relocatable terms,
                    subtraction  of two relocatable terms not within the
                    same programming area or external symbols.  

              (s)   String Substitution / recursion error.  

              (u)   Undefined symbol encountered during assembly.  

              (z)   Divide by 0 or Modulus by 0 error:  result is 0.  


        1.7  LISTING FILE 


           The  (-l) option produces an ascii output listing file.  Each
        page of output contains a five line header:  


             1.  The ASxxxx program name and page number 

             2.  Assembler Radix and Address Bits 

             3.  Title from a .title directive (if any) 

             4.  Subtitle from a .sbttl directive (if any) 

             5.  Blank line 



        Each succeeding line contains six fields:  


             1.  Error field (first two characters of line) 

             2.  Current location counter 

             3.  Generated code in byte format 

             4.  Opcode cycles count 

             5.  Source text line number 

             6.  Source text 




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-55
        LISTING FILE


           The error field may contain upto 2 error flags indicating any
        errors encountered while assembling this line of source code.  

           The  current  location  counter  field  displays  the 16-bit,
        24-bit, or 32-bit program position.  This field will be  in  the
        selected radix.  

           The generated code follows the program location.  The listing
        radix determines the number of bytes that will be  displayed  in
        this field.  Hexidecimal listing allows six bytes of data within
        the field, decimal and octal allow four bytes within the  field.
        If more than one field of data is generated from the assembly of
        a single line of source code, then the data field is repeated on
        successive lines.  

           The  opcode cycles count is printed within the delimiters [ ]
        on the line with the source text.  This reduces  the  number  of
        generated code bytes displayed on the line with the source list-
        ing by one.  (The -c option disables all opcode cycle listing.) 

           The source text line number is printed in decimal and is fol-
        lowed by the source text.  A Source line with a .page  directive
        is never listed.  (The -u option overrides this behavior.) 

           Two  additional options are available for printing the source
        line text.  If the -b option is specified then the listed source
        line  contains all the .define substitutions.  If the -bb option
        is specified then the original source line is printed before the
        source line with substitutions.  

           Two  data  field  options  are  available to flag those bytes
        which will be relocated by the linker.   If  the  -f  option  is
        specified  then  each  byte to be relocated will be preceeded by
        the '`' character.  If the -ff option  is  specified  then  each
        byte  to  be relocated will be preceeded by one of the following
        characters:  

             1.  *   paged relocation 

             2.  u   low  byte of unsigned word or unsigned byte 

             3.  v   high byte of unsigned word 

             4.  p   PCR low  byte of word relocation or PCR byte 

             5.  q   PCR high byte of word relocation 

             6.  r   low  byte relocation or byte relocation 

             7.  s   high byte relocation 




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-56
        LISTING FILE


           Assemblers  which  use 24-bit or 32-bit addressing use an ex-
        tended flagging mode:  

             1.  *   paged relocation 

             2.  u   1st  byte of unsigned value 

             3.  v   2nd  byte of unsigned value 

             4.  U   3rd  byte of unsigned value 

             5.  V   4th  byte of unsigned value 

             6.  p   PCR 1st  byte of relocation value or PCR byte 

             7.  q   PCR 2nd  byte of relocation value 

             8.  P   PCR 3rd  byte of relocation value 

             9.  Q   PCR 4th  byte of relocation value 

            10.  r   1st  byte of relocation value or byte relocation 

            11.  s   2nd  byte of relocation value 

            12.  R   3rd  byte of relocation value 

            13.  S   4th  byte of relocation value 



        1.8  SYMBOL TABLE FILE 


           The symbol table has two parts:  

             1.  The alphabetically sorted list of symbols and/or labels
                 defined or referenced in the source program.  

             2.  A  list of the program areas defined during assembly of
                 the source program.  


           The sorted list of symbols and/or labels contains the follow-
        ing information:  

             1.  Program  area  number (none if absolute value or exter-
                 nal) 

             2.  The symbol or label 



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-57
        SYMBOL TABLE FILE


             3.  Directly assigned symbol is denoted with an (=) sign 

             4.  The  value of a symbol, location of a label relative to
                 the program area base address (=0), or a ****  indicat-
                 ing the symbol or label is undefined.  

             5.  The       characters:       G - global,      L - local,
                 R - relocatable, and X - external.  


           The list of program areas provides the correspondence between
        the program area numbers and the defined program areas, the size
        of the program areas, and the area flags (attributes).  


        1.9  OBJECT FILE 


           The  object  file is an ascii file containing the information
        needed by the linker to bind multiple object modules into a com-
        plete  loadable  memory  image.   The object module contains the
        following designators:  

                [XDQ][HL][234]
                        X       Hexidecimal radix
                        D       Decimal radix
                        Q       Octal radix
        
                        H       Most significant byte first
                        L       Least significant byte first
        
                        2       16-Bit Addressing
                        3       24-Bit Addressing
                        4       32-Bit Addressing
        
                H       Header 
                M       Module
                G       Merge Mode
                B       Bank
                A       Area
                S       Symbol
                T       Object code
                R       Relocation information
                P       Paging information

           Refer to the linker for a detailed description of each of the
        designators and the format of the information contained  in  the
        object file.  




        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-58
        HINT FILE


        1.10  HINT FILE 


           The  hint file is an ascii file containing information needed
        by the linker to convert the listing file into a relocated list-
        ing  file.   Each  line  in the .hlr file coresponds to a single
        line in the listing file.  The text line usually contains 3 or 4
        parameters  in  the radix selected for the assembler as shown in
        the following table:  

        Line Position:  123456789012
                        ------------
        Octal:           111 222 333
        Decimal:         111 222 333
        Hex:             11 22 33
        
        
        Parameter 1 specifies the parameters listed in the line.
        A bit is set for each listing option enabled during the
        assembly of the line.
        
                BIT 0   - LIST_ERR      Error Code(s)
                BIT 1   - LIST_LOC      Location
                BIT 2   - LIST_BIN      Generated Binary Value(s)
                BIT 3   - LIST_EQT      Assembler Equate Value
                BIT 4   - LIST_CYC      Opcode Cycles
                BIT 5   - LIST_LIN      Line Numbers
                BIT 6   - LIST_SRC      Assembler Source Code
                BIT 7   - HLR_NLST      Listing Inhibited
        
        Parameter 2 is the internal assembler listing mode
        value specified for this line during the assembly process:
        
                0 - NLIST       No listing
                1 - SLIST       Source only
                2 - ALIST       Address only
                3 - BLIST       Address only with allocation
                4 - CLIST       Code
                5 - ELIST       Equate only
                6 - ILIST       IF conditional evaluation
        
        Parameter 3 is the number of output bytes listed
        for this line.

           The  4th  parameter  is only output if an equate references a
        value in a different area.  The area name is output in the  fol-
        lowing format following the 3 parameters described above:  

        Line Position:  123456789012
                        ------------
        Area Name:       equatearea



        THE ASSEMBLER                                          PAGE 1-59
        HINT FILE


           When  the  line number is output to the .hlr file (-r option)
        the line number is prepended to the 3 or 4 parameters  described
        above.   The  line  number is always in decimal in the following
        format:  

        Line Position:  1234567
                        -------
        Decimal:          LLLLL

           Thus the four formats (for each radix) that may be present in
        a .hlr file are:  

        Line Position:  123456789012345678901234567890
                        ------------------------------
                         11 22 33
                         11 22 33 equatearea
                          LLLLL 11 22 33
                          LLLLL 11 22 33 equatearea

           The  linker understands these formats without any user inter-
        action.  














                                    CHAPTER 2

                               THE MACRO PROCESSOR





        2.1  DEFINING MACROS 


           By  using macros a programmer can use a single line to insert
        a sequence of lines into a source program.  

           A  macro  definition is headed by a .macro directive followed
        by the source lines.  The source lines  may  optionally  contain
        dummy arguments.  If such arguments are used, each one is listed
        in the .macro directive.  

           A  macro call is the statement used by the programmer to call
        the macro source program.  It consists of the  macro  name  fol-
        lowed  by  the  real arguments needed to replace the dummy argu-
        ments used in the macro.  

           Macro  expansion  is  the insertion of the macro source lines
        into the main  program.   Included  in  this  insertion  is  the
        replacement of the dummy arguments by the real arguments.  

           Macro  directives provide a means to manipulate the macro ex-
        pansions.  Only one directive is allowed per source line.   Each
        directive  may  have  a  blank  operand  field  or  one  or more
        operands.  Legal  operands  differ  with  each  directive.   The
        macros  and  their  associated  directives  are detailed in this
        chapter.  

           Macro  directives  can replace any machine dependent mnemonic
        associated with a specific assembler.  However, the basic assem-
        bler directives cannot be replaced with a macro.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-2
        DEFINING MACROS


        2.1.1  .macro Directive 


        Format:
        
        [label:]        .macro  name, dummy argument list
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                name    represents the user-assigned symbolic
                        name of the macro.  This name  may be
                        any legal symbol and may be used as a
                        label elsewhere in the program.  The
                        macro name is not case sensitive,
                        name, NAME, or nAmE all refer to the
                        same macro.
        
                ,       represents a legal macro separator
                        (comma, space, and/or tab).
        
                dummy   represents a number of legal symbols
               argument that may appear anywhere in the body of
                list    the macro definition,  even as a label.
                        These dummy symbols can be used elsewhere
                        in the program with no conflict of
                        definition.  Multiple dummy arguments
                        specified in this directive may be
                        separated by any legal separator.  The
                        detection of a duplicate or an illegal
                        symbol in a dummy argument list
                        terminates the scan and causes a 'q'
                        error to be generated.


        A  comment may follow the dummy argument list in a .macro direc-
        tive, as shown below:  

                .macro  abs     a,b     ;Defines macro abs


        The  first  statement  of  a  macro  definition must be a .macro
        directive.  Defining a macro with the same name as  an  existing
        macro will generate an 'm' error.  The .mdelete directive should
        be used to delete the previous macro definition before  redefin-
        ing a macro.  




        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-3
        DEFINING MACROS


        2.1.2  .endm Directive 


        Format:
        
                .endm


        The .endm directive should not have a label.  Because the direc-
        tives .irp, .irpc, and .rept may repeat more than once the label
        will  be  defined multiple times resulting in 'm' and/or 'p' er-
        rors.  

           The  .endm  directive  may be followed by a comment field, as
        shown below:  

                .endm           ;end of macro

           A  comment  may  follow  the  dummy argument list in a .macro
        directive, as shown below:  

                .macro  typemsg message ;Type a message.
                jsr     typemsg
                .word   message
                .endm                   ;End of typemsg


        The  final  statement  of every macro definition must be a .endm
        directive.  The .endm directive is also used to terminate  inde-
        finite  repeat  blocks and repeat blocks.  A .endm directive en-
        countered outside a macro definition  is  flagged  with  an  'n'
        error.  


        2.1.3  .mexit Directive 


        Format:
        
                .mexit


        The  .mexit directive may be used to terminate a macro expansion
        before the end of the macro is encountered.  This  directive  is
        also  legal  within  repeat blocks.  It is most useful in nested
        macros.  The .mexit directive terminates the  current  macro  as
        though a .endm directive had been encountered.  Using the .mexit
        directive bypasses the complexities of nested conditional direc-
        tives  and  alternate  assembly paths, as shown in the following
        example:  



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-4
        DEFINING MACROS


                .macro  altr    N,A,B
                  .
                  .
                  .
                .if eq,N        ;Start conditional Block
                  .
                  .
                  .
                .mexit          ;Terminate macro expansion
                .endif          ;End of conditional block
                  .
                  .
                  .
                .endm           ;Normal end of macro


        In  an  assembly  where  the  symbol  N is replaced by zero, the
        .mexit directive would assemble the conditional block  and  ter-
        minate  the  macro  expansion.   When macros ar nested, a .mexit
        directive causes an exit to the next higher level of  macro  ex-
        pansion.  A .mexit directive encountered outside a macro defini-
        tion is flagged with an 'n' error.  


        2.2  CALLING MACROS 


        Format:
        
                [label:]  name  real arguments
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                name    represents the name of the macro, as
                        specified in the macro definition.
        
                real    represent symbolic arguments which
             arguments  replace the dummy arguments listed
                        in the .macro definition.  When
                        multiple arguments occur, they are
                        separated by any legal separator.
                        Arguments to the macro call are
                        treated as character strings, their
                        usage is determined by the macro
                        definition.

        A  macro  definition  must be established by means of the .macro
        directive before the macro can be called and expanded within the
        source program.  

           When a macro name is the same as a user label, the appearance
        of the symbol in the operator field designates the symbol  as  a


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-5
        CALLING MACROS


        macro  call;   the appearance of the symbol in the operand field
        designates it as a label, as shown below:  

        LESS:   mov     @r0,r1          ;LESS is a label
                 .
                 .
                 .
                bra     LESS            ;LESS is considered a label
                 .
                 .
                 .
                LESS    sym1,sym2       ;LESS is a macro call


        2.3  ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS 


           Multiple arguments within a macro must be separated by one of
        the legal separating characters (comma, space, and/or tab).  

           Macro  definition  arguments (dummy) and macro call arguments
        (real) maintain a strict positional relationship.  That is,  the
        first  real  argument in a macro call corresponds with the first
        dummy argument in the macro definition.  

           For  example,  the  following  macro definition and its asso-
        ciated macro call contain multiple arguments:  

                .macro  new     a,b,c
                  .
                  .
                  .
        
                new     phi,sig,^/C1,C2/


        Arguments which themselves contain separating characters must be
        enclosed  within  the  delimiter  construct  ^/   /  where   the
        character  '/'  may be any character not in the argument string.
        For example, the macro call:  

                new     ^/exg    x,y/,#44,ij

        causes the entire expression 

                exg    x,y

        to  replace all occurrances of the symbol a in the macro defini-
        tion.  Real arguments with a macro call  are  considered  to  be
        character  strings  and  are  treated  as a single entity during
        macro expansion.  



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-6
        ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS


           The  up-arrow  (^)  construction also allows another up-arrow
        costruction to be passed as part of  the  argument.   This  con-
        struction,  for example, could have been used in the above macro
        call, as follows:  

                new     ^!^/exg    x,y/!,#44,ij

        causing the entire string ^/exg    x,y/ to be passed as an argu-
        ment.  


        2.3.1  Macro Nesting 


           Macro  nesting  occurs  where  the expansion of one macro in-
        cludes a call to another macro.  The depth of nesting  is  arbi-
        trarily limited to 20.  

           To  pass  an argument containing legal argument delimiters to
        nested macros, enclose the  argument  in  the  macro  definition
        within  an up-arrow construction, as shown in the coding example
        below.  This extra set of delimiters for each level  of  nesting
        is required in the macro definition, not the in the macro call. 

                .macro  level1  dum1,dum2
                level2  ^/dum1/
                level2  ^/dum2/
                .endm
        
                .macro  level2  dum3
                dum3
                add     #10,z
                push    z
                .endm

        A call to the level1 macro, as shown below, for example:  

                level1  ^/leaz    0,x/,^/tfr     x,z/

        causes the following macro expansion to occur:  

                leaz    0,x
                add     #10,z
                push    z
                tfr     x,z
                add     #10,z
                push    z

        When  macro  definitions are nested, the inner definition cannot
        be called until the outer macro has been  called  and  expanded.
        For example, in the following code:  



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-7
        ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS


                .macro  lv1     a,b
                  .
                  .
                  .
                .macro  lv2     c
                  .
                  .
                  .
                .endm
                .endm

        the  lv2 macro cannot be called and expanded until the lv1 macro
        has been expanded.  Likewise, any macro defined within  the  lv2
        macro  definition  cannot  be  called and expanded until lv2 has
        also been expanded.  


        2.3.2  Special Characters in Macro Arguments 


           If  an  argument  does not contain spaces, tabs, or commas it
        may include special  characters  without  enclosing  them  in  a
        delimited construction.  For example:  

                .macro  push    arg
                mov     arg,-(sp)
                .endm
        
        
                push    x+3(%2)

        causes the following code to be generated:  

                mov     x+3(%2),-(sp)


        2.3.3  Passing Numerical Arguments as Symbols 


           If the unary operator backslash (\) precedes an argument, the
        macro treats the argument as a numeric value in the current pro-
        gram  radix.   The  ascii characters representing this value are
        inserted in the macro expansion, and their function  is  defined
        in  the context of the resulting code, as shown in the following
        example:  



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-8
        ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS


                .macro  inc     a,b
                con     a,\b
                b = b + 1
                .endm
        
                .macro  con     a,b
        a'b:    .word   4
                .endm
        
                ...
        
                c = 0           ;Initialize
        
                inc     x,c

        The above macro call (inc) would thus expand to:  

                x0:     .word   4

        In  this  expanded  code,  the  lable x0:  results from the con-
        catenation  of  two  real  arguments.   The  single  quote   (')
        character  in  the  label a'b:  concatenates the real argument x
        and 0 as they are passed during  the  expansion  of  the  macro.
        This type of argument construction is descibed in more detail in
        a following section.  

           A  subsequent  call to the same macro would generate the fol-
        lowing code:  

                x1:     .word   4

        and  so  on,  for  later  calls.   The two macro definitions are
        necessary because the symbol associated with the dummy  argument
        b (that is, symbol c) cannot be updated in the con macro defini-
        tion, because the character 0 has replaced  c  in  the  argument
        string  (inc  x,c).   In  the  con  macro definition, the number
        passed is treated as a string argument.  (Where the value of the
        real  argument  is 0, only a single 0 character is passed to the
        macro expansion.  




        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                     PAGE 2-9
        ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS


        2.3.4  Number of Arguments in Macro Calls 


           A  macro  can  be defined with or without arguments.  If more
        arguments appear in the macro call than in the macro definition,
        a  'q'  error  is  generated.   If fewer arguments appear in the
        macro call than in the macro definition, missing  arguments  are
        assumed to be null values.  The conditional directives .if b and
        .if nb can be used within the macro to detect missing arguments.
        The number of arguments can be determined using the .narg direc-
        tive.  


        2.3.5  Creating Local Symbols Automatically 


           A  label is often required in an expanded macro.  In the con-
        ventional macro facilituies thus far described, a label must  be
        explicitly  specified  as an argument with each macro call.  The
        user must be careful in issuing subsequent  calls  to  the  same
        macro  in  order  avoid duplicating labels.  This concern can be
        eliminated through a feature of the ASxxxx macro  facility  that
        creates a unique symbol where a label is required in an expanded
        macro.  

           ASxxxx  allows temporary symbols of the form n$, where n is a
        decimal integer.  Automatically created symbols are  created  in
        numerical order beginning at 10000$.  

           The  automatic generation of local symbols is invoked on each
        call of a macro whose definition contains a dummy argument  pre-
        ceded  by the question mark (?) character, as shown in the macro
        definition below:  

                .macro  beta    a,?b    ;dummy argument b with ?
                tst     a
                beq     b
                add     #5,a
        b:
                .endm


           A  local symbol is created automatically only when a real ar-
        gument of the macro call is either null or missing, as shown  in
        Example 1 below.  If the real argument is specified in the macro
        call, however, generation of the local symbol is  inhibited  and
        normal argument replacement occurs, as shown in Example 2 below.
        (Examples 1 and 2 are both expansions of the beta macro  defined
        above.) 



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-10
        ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS


        Example 1:  Create a Local Symbol for the Missing Argument
        
                beta    flag    ;Second argument is missing.
                tst     flag
                beq     10000$  ;Local symbol is created.
                add     #5,flag
        10000$:
        
        Example 2:  Do Not Create a Local Symbol
        
                beta    r3,xyz
                tst     r3
                beq     xyz
                add     #5,r3
        xyz:


           Automatically created local symbols resulting from the expan-
        sion of a macro, as described above, do not  establish  a  local
        symbol block in their own right.  

           When  a  macro  has several arguments earmarked for automatic
        local symbol generation, substituting a specific label  for  one
        such  argument  risks  assembly errors because the arguments are
        constructed at the point of macro invocation.  Therefor, the ap-
        pearance of a label in the macro expansion will create a new lo-
        cal symbol block.  The new local symbol block could leave  local
        symbol references in the previous block and their symbol defini-
        tions in the new one, causing error codes in the assembly  list-
        ing.   Furthermore  a  later  macro expansion that creates local
        symbols in the new block may duplicate one  of  the  symbols  in
        question,  causing  an additional error code 'p' in the assembly
        listing.  


        2.3.6  Concatenation of Macro Arguments 


           The  apostrophe  or  single quote character (') operates as a
        legal delimiting character in macro definitions.  A single quote
        that precedes and/or follows a dummy argument in a macro defini-
        tion is removed, and the substitution of the real  argument  oc-
        curs at that point.  For example, in the following statements:  

                .macro  def     A,B,C
        A'B:    asciz   "C"
                .byte   ''A,''B
                .endm

        when the macro def is called through the statement:  



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-11
        ARGUMENTS IN MACRO DEFINITIONS AND MACRO CALLS


                def     x,y,^/V05.00/

        it is expanded, as follows:  

        xy:     asciz   "V05.00"
                .byte   'x,'y

        In  expanding  the  first  line, the scan for the first argument
        terminates upon finding  the  first  apostrophe  (')  character.
        Since  A is a dummy argument, the apostrphe (') is removed.  The
        scan then resumes with B;  B is also noted as another dummy  ar-
        gument.   The  two  real  arguments x and y are then concated to
        form the label xy:.  The third dummy argument is  noted  in  the
        operand field of the .asciz directive, causing the real argument
        V05.00 to be substituted in this field.  

           When  evaluating  the arguments of the .byte directive during
        expansion of the second line, the scan  begins  with  the  first
        apostrophe (') character.  Since it is neither preceded nor fol-
        lowed by a dummy argument, this apostrophe remains in the  macro
        expansion.   The  scan  then  encounters  the second apostrophe,
        which is followed by a dummy argument and is therefor discarded.
        The scan of argument A is terminated upon encountering the comma
        (,).  The third apostrophe is neither preceded nor followed by a
        dummy  argument  and  again remains in the macro expansion.  The
        fourth (and last) apostrophe is followed by another dummy  argu-
        ment and is likewise discarded.  (Four apostrophe (') characters
        were necessary in the macro definition  to  generate  two  apos-
        trophe (') characters in the macro expansion.) 


        2.4  MACRO ATTRIBUTE DIRECTIVES 


           The  ASxxxx  assemblers  have  four directives that allow the
        user to determine certain attributes of macro arguments:  .narg,
        .nchr,  .ntyp,  and  .nval.  The use of these directives permits
        selective modifications of a macro expansion, depending  on  the
        nature  of  the  arguments  being  passed.  These directives are
        described below.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-12
        MACRO ATTRIBUTE DIRECTIVES


        2.4.1  .narg Directive 


        Format:
        
        [label:]        .narg   symbol
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                symbol  represents any legal symbol. This symbol
                        is equated to the number of arguments in
                        the macro call currently being expanded.
                        If a symbol is not specified, the .narg
                        directive is flagged with a 'q' error.

        The .narg directive is used to determine the number of arguments
        in the macro call currently being expanded.   Hence,  the  .narg
        directive  can appear only within a macro definition;  if it ap-
        pears elsewhere, an 'n' error is generated.  

           The  argument  count  includes null arguments as shown in the
        following:  

                .macro  pack    A,B,C
                .narg   cnt
                  .
                  .
                  .
                .endm
        
                pack    arg1,,arg3
                pack    arg1

        When  the  first macro pack is invoked .narg will assign a value
        of three (3) to the number of arguments cnt, which includes  the
        empty  argument.  The second invocation of macro pack has only a
        single argument specified and .narg will assign a value  of  one
        (1) to cnt.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-13
        MACRO ATTRIBUTE DIRECTIVES


        2.4.2  .nchr Directive 


        Format:
        
        [label:]        .nchr   symbol,string
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                symbol  represents any legal symbol. This symbol
                        is equated to the number of characters in
                        the string of the macro call currently
                        being expanded.  If a symbol is not
                        specified, the .nchr  directive is
                        flagged with a 'q' error.
        
                ,       represents any legal separator (comma,
                        space, and/or tab).
        
                string  represents a string of printable 7-bit
                        ascii characters.  If the character
                        string contains a legal separator
                        (comma, space and/or tab) the whole
                        string must be delimited using the
                        up-arrow (^) construct ^/    /.
                        If the delimiting characters do not
                        match or if the ending delimiter
                        cannot be detected because of a
                        syntactical error in the character
                        string, the .nchr directive reports
                        a 'q' error.

        The .nchr directive, which can appear anywhere in an ASxxxx pro-
        gram, is used to determine the number of characters in a  speci-
        fied  character string.  This directive is useful in calculating
        the length of macro arguments.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-14
        MACRO ATTRIBUTE DIRECTIVES


        2.4.3  .ntyp Directive 


        Format:
        
        [label:]        .ntyp   symbol,arg
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                symbol  represents any legal symbol. The symbol
                        is made absolute and equated to 0 if
                        arg is an absolute value or a non
                        relocatable symbol.  The symbol is made
                        absolute and equated to 1 if arg is a
                        relocatable symbol.  If a symbol is not
                        specified then the .ntyp directive is
                        flagged with a 'q' error.
        
                ,       represents any legal separator (comma,
                        space, and/or tab).
        
                arg     represents any legal expression or
                        symbol. If arg is not specified
                        then the .ntyp directive is flagged
                        with a 'q' error.

        The .ntyp directive, which can appear anywhere in an ASxxxx pro-
        gram, is used to determine the symbol or expression type as  ab-
        solute (0) or relocatable (1).  


        2.4.4  .nval Directive 


        Format:
        
        [label:]        .nval   symbol,arg
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                symbol  represents any legal symbol. The symbol
                        is equated to the value of arg and made
                        absolute.  If a symbol is not specified
                        then the .nval directive is flagged
                        with a 'q' error.
        
                ,       represents any legal separator (comma,
                        space, and/or tab).
        
                arg     represents any legal expression or
                        symbol. If arg is not specified
                        then the .nval directive is flagged


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-15
        MACRO ATTRIBUTE DIRECTIVES


                        with a 'q' error.

        The .nval directive, which can appear anywhere in an ASxxxx pro-
        gram, is used to determine the value of arg and make the  result
        an absolute value.  


        2.5  INDEFINITE REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVES 


           An  indefinite  repeat block is similar to a macro definition
        with only one dummy argument.  At each expansion  of  the  inde-
        finite  repeat  range, this dummy argument is replaced with suc-
        cessive elements of a real  argument  list.   Since  the  repeat
        directive  and its associated range are coded in-line within the
        source program, this type of macro definition and expansion does
        not require calling the macro by name, as required in the expan-
        sion of the conventional macros previously described.  

           An  indefinite  repeat  block  can  appear  within or outside
        another macro definition, indefinite  repeat  block,  or  repeat
        block.   The  rules specifying indefinite repeat block arguments
        are the same as for specifying macro arguments.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-16
        INDEFINITE REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVES


        2.5.1  .irp Directive 


        Format:
        
            [label:]    .irp    sym,argument_list
                        .
                        .
                    (range of indefinite repeat block)
                        .
                        .
                        .endm                   
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                sym     represents a dummy argument that is
                        replaced with successive real arguments
                        from the argument list.  If the dummy
                        argument is not specified, the .irp
                        directive is flagged with a 'q' error.
        
                ,       represents any legal separator (comma,
                        space, and/or tab).
        
          argument_list represents a list of real arguments
                        that are to be used in the expansion
                        of the indefinite repeat range. A real
                        argument may consist of one or more
                        7-bit ascii characters; multiple
                        arguments must be separated by any
                        legal separator (comma, space, and/or
                        tab).  If an argument must contain
                        a legal separator then the up-arrow
                        (_^) construct is require for that
                        argument.  If no real arguments are
                        specified, no action is taken.
        
                range   represents the block of code to be
                        repeated once for each occurrence of
                        a real argument in the list.  The
                        range may contain other macro
                        definitions, repeat ranges and/or
                        the .mexit directive.
        
                .endm   indicates the end of the indefinite
                        repeat block range.

        The .irp directive is used to replace a dummy argument with suc-
        cessive real arguments specified  in  an  argument  list.   This
        replacement  process  occurrs  during  the expansion of an inde-
        finite repeat block range.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-17
        INDEFINITE REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVES


        2.5.2  .irpc Directive 


        Format:
        
            [label:]    .irpc   sym,string
                        .
                        .
                    (range of indefinite repeat block)
                        .
                        .
                        .endm                   
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                sym     represents a dummy argument that is
                        replaced with successive real characters
                        from the argument string.  If the dummy
                        argument is not specified, the .irpc
                        directive is flagged with a 'q' error.
        
                ,       represents any legal separator (comma,
                        space, and/or tab).
        
                string  represents a list of 7-bit ascii
                        characters.  If the string contains
                        legal separator characters (comma,
                        space, and/or tab) then the up-arrow
                        (_^) construct must delimit the string.
                        
                range   represents the block of code to be
                        repeated once for each occurrence of
                        a real argument in the list.  The
                        range may contain other macro
                        definitions, repeat ranges and/or
                        the .mexit directive.
        
                .endm   indicates the end of the indefinite
                        repeat block range.

        The .irpc directive is available to permit single character sub-
        stition.  On each iteration of the indefinite repeat range,  the
        dummy  argument  is  replaced  with successive characters in the
        specified string.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-18
        INDEFINITE REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVES


        2.6  REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVE 


           A repeat block is similar to a macro definition with only one
        argument.  The argument specifies the number of times the repeat
        block  is  inserted  into the assembly stream.  Since the repeat
        directive and its associated range are coded in-line within  the
        source program, this type of macro definition and expansion does
        not require calling the macro by name, as required in the expan-
        sion of the conventional macros previously described.  

           A repeat block can appear within or outside another macro de-
        finition, indefinite repeat block, or repeat block.  


        2.6.1  .rept Directive 


        Format:
        
            [label:]    .rept   exp
                        .
                        .
                    (range of repeat block)
                        .
                        .
                        .endm                   
        
        where:  label   represents an optional statement label.
        
                exp     represents any legal expression.
                        This value controls the number of
                        times the block of code is to be assembled
                        within the program.  When the expression
                        value is less than or equal to zero (0),
                        the repeat block is not assembled.  If
                        this value is not an absolute value, the
                        .rept directive is flagged with an 'r'
                        error.
                        
                range   represents the block of code to be
                        repeated. The range may contain other
                        macro definitions, repeat ranges and/or
                        the .mexit directive.
        
                .endm   indicates the end of the repeat block
                        range.

        The .rept directive is used to duplicate a block of code, a cer-
        tain number of times, in line with other source code.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-19
        REPEAT BLOCK DIRECTIVE


        2.7  MACRO DELETION DIRECTIVE 


           The  .mdelete  directive  deletes  the definitions of the the
        specified macro(s).  


        2.7.1  .mdelete Directive 


        Format:
        
                .mdelete        name1,name2,...,namen
        
        where:  name1,  represent legal macro names. When multiple
                name2,  names are specified, they are separated
                ...,    by any legal separator (comma, space, and/or
                namen   tab).



        2.8  MACRO INVOCATION DETAILS 


           The invocation of a macro, indefinite repeat block, or repeat
        block has specific implications for .if-.else-.endif  constructs
        and for .list-.nlist directives.  

           At  the  point  a  macro,  indefinite repeat block, or repeat
        block is called the following occurs:  

                1)      The initial .if-.else-.endif
                        state is saved.
        
                2)      The initial .list-.nlist
                        state is saved.
        
                3)      The macro, indefinite repeat block,
                        or repeat block is inserted into the
                        assembler source code stream.  All
                        argument substitution is performed
                        at this point.

        When  the  macro  completes and after each pass through an inde-
        finite repeat block or repeat  block  the  .if-.else-.endif  and
        .list-.nlist state is reset to the initial state.  

           The  reset of the .if-.else-.endif state means that the invo-
        cation of a macro, indefinite repeat block, or repeat block can-
        not  change the .if-.else-.endif state of the calling code.  For
        example the following code does not change the  .if-.else-.endif
        condition at macro completion:  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-20
        MACRO INVOCATION DETAILS



        
                .macro  fnc     A
                  .if nb,^!A!
                    ...
                    .list (meb)
                    .mexit
                  .else
                    ...
                    .nlist
                    .mexit
                  .endif
                .endm
        
        code:   fnc


           Within the macro the .if condition becomes false but the con-
        dition is not propagated outside the macro.  

           Similarly,  when  the  .list-.nlist state is changed within a
        macro the change is not propogated outside the macro.  

           The  normal  .if-.else-.endif  processing verifies that every
        .if has a corresponding .endif.  When a macro, indefinite repeat
        block,  or repeat block terminates by using the .mexit directive
        the .if-.endif checking is bypassed  because  all  source  lines
        between the .mexit and .endm directives are skipped.  


        2.9  BUILDING A MACRO LIBRARY 


           Using  the macro facilities of the ASxxxx assemblers a simple
        macro library can be built.  The macro library is built by  com-
        bining individual macros, sets of macros, or include file direc-
        tives into a single file.  Each macro entity is enclosed  within
        a .if/.endif block that selects the desired macro definitions.  

           The  selection of specific macros to be imported in a program
        is performed by three macros, .mlib, .mcall,  and  .mload,  con-
        tained in the file mlib.def.  


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-21
        BUILDING A MACRO LIBRARY


        2.9.1  .mlib Macro Directive 


        Format:
        
                .mlib   file
        
        where:  file    represents the macro library file name.
                        If the file name does not include a path
                        then the path of the current assembly
                        file is used.  If the file name (and/or
                        path) contains white space then the
                        path/name must be delimited with the
                        up-arrow (^) construct ^/    /.

        The .mlib directive defines two macros, .mcall and .mload, which
        when invoked will read a file, importing specific macro  defini-
        tions.   Any  previous  .mcall  and/or .mload directives will be
        deleted before the new .mcall and .mload directives are defined. 

           The  .mload  directive  is an internal directive which simply
        includes the macro library file with the listing disabled.  

           The  following  is the mlib.def file which defines the macros
        .mlib, .mcall, and .mload.  



        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-22
        BUILDING A MACRO LIBRARY


        ;************************************************
        ;*                                              *
        ;*    A simple Macro Library Implementation     *
        ;*                                              *
        ;*              December 2008                   *
        ;*                                              *
        ;************************************************
        
        .macro .mlib    FileName
          .if b,^!FileName!
            .error 1    ; File Name Required
            .mexit
          .endif
          .mdelete      .mcall
          .macro        .mcall  a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
            .irp sym    ^!a!,^!b!,^!c!,^!d!,^!e!,^!f!,^!g!,^!h!
              .iif nb,^!sym!    .define    .$$.'sym
            .endm
            .mload
            .irp sym    ^!a!,^!b!,^!c!,^!d!,^!e!,^!f!,^!g!,^!h!
              .if nb,^!sym!
                .iif ndef,sym'.$$.    .error  1  ; macro not found
                .undefine       .$$.'sym
                .undefine       sym'.$$.
              .endif
            .endm
          .endm ;.mcall
          .mdelete      .mload
          .macro        .mload
            .nlist
            .include ^!FileName!
            .list
          .endm ;.mload
        .endm   ;.mlib


        2.9.2  .mcall Macro Directive 


        Format:
        
                .mcall  macro1,macro2,...,macro8
        
        where:
        
                macro1, represents from 1 to 8 macro library
                macro2, references to a macro definition or
                ...,    set of macro definitions included in
                macro8  the file specified with the .mlib macro.

        As  can  be  seen  from the macro definition of .mlib and .mcall
        shown above,  when  .mcall  is  invoked  temporary  symbols  are


        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-23
        BUILDING A MACRO LIBRARY


        defined for each macro or macro set that is to be imported.  The
        macro .mload is then invoked to  load  the  macro  library  file
        specified in the call to .mlib.  

           For example, when the following macros are invoked:  

                .mlib   crossasm.sml    ; Cross Assembler Macros
                .mcall  M6809           ; M6809 Macro Group

        The  .mlib  macro  defines the .mload macro to access the system
        macro file crossasm.sml.  Invoking the .mcall  macro  creates  a
        temporary symbol, '.$$.M6809', and then invokes the macro .mload
        to import the system macro file crossasm.sml.   The  file  cros-
        sasm.sml  contains  conditional  statements  that define the re-
        quired macros and creates  a  temporary  symbol  'M6809.$$.'  to
        indicate  the  macro group was found.  If the macro is not found
        an error message is generated.  

           The  following  is a small portion of the crossasm.sml system
        macro file which shows the M6809 macro group:  

                .title  Cross Assembler Macro Library
        
                ; This MACRO Library is Case Insensitive.
                ;
        
                ...
        
        ; Macro Based 6809 Cross Assembler
        
        .$.SML.$. =: 0
        .if     idn     a,A
          .iif  def,.$$.m6809   .$.SML.$. = -1
        .else
          .iif  def,.$$.m6809   .$.SML.$. = -1
          .iif  def,.$$.M6809   .$.SML.$. =  1
        .endif
        .iif    lt,.$.SML.$.    .define         m6809.$$.
        .iif    gt,.$.SML.$.    .define         M6809.$$.
        .iif    ne,.$.SML.$.    .include        "m6809.mac"
        
                ...
        




        THE MACRO PROCESSOR                                    PAGE 2-24
        EXAMPLE MACRO CROSS ASSEMBLERS


        2.10  EXAMPLE MACRO CROSS ASSEMBLERS 


           The  'ascheck'  subdirectory 'macroasm' contains 7 assemblers
        written using only the general macro processing facility of  the
        ASxxxx assemblers:  

                i8085.mac       -  8085 Microprocessor
                m6800.mac       -  6800 Microprocessor
                m6801.mac       -  6801 Microprocessor
                m6804.mac       -  6804 Microprocessor
                m6805.mac       -  6805 Microprocessor
                m6809.mac       -  6809 Microprocessor
                s2650.mac       -  2650 Microprocessor


           These  absolute  macro  cross  assemblers are included to il-
        lustrate the  functionality  of  the  general  macro  processing
        facility  of  the ASxxxx assemblers.  In general they are useful
        examples of actual macro implementations.  














                                    CHAPTER 3

                                   THE LINKER





        3.1  ASLINK RELOCATING LINKER 


           ASLINK  is  the  companion  linker for the ASxxxx assemblers.
        The linker supports versions 3.xx, 4.xx, and 5.xx of the  ASxxxx
        assemblers.  Object files from version 3, 4, and 5 may be freely
        mixed while linking.  Note that version 3 object  files  contain
        only a subset of the options available in versions 4 and 5.  

           The  program ASLINK is a general relocating linker performing
        the following functions:  

             1.  Bind multiple object modules into a single memory image 

             2.  Resolve inter-module symbol references 

             3.  Combine  code  belonging to the same area from multiple
                 object files into a single contiguous memory region 

             4.  Search and import object module libraries for undefined
                 global variables 

             5.  Perform   byte   and   word  program  counter  relative
                 (pc or pcr) addressing calculations 

             6.  Define absolute symbol values at link time 

             7.  Define absolute area base address values at link time 

             8.  Produce Intel Hex, Motorola S, or Tandy CoCo Disk Basic
                 output files 

             9.  Produce a map of the linked memory image 

            10.  Produce  an updated listing file with the relocated ad-
                 dresses and data 


        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-2
        INVOKING ASLINK


        3.2  INVOKING ASLINK 


           Starting  ASlink without any arguments provides the following
        option list and then exits:  

        Usage: [-Options] [-Option with arg] file
        Usage: [-Options] [-Option with arg] outfile file [file ...]
          -h   or NO ARGUMENTS  Show this help list
          -p   Echo commands to stdout (default)
          -n   No echo of commands to stdout
        Alternates to Command Line Input:
          -c                   ASlink >> prompt input
          -f   file[.lnk]      Command File input
        Librarys:
          -k   Library path specification, one per -k
          -l   Library file specification, one per -l
        Relocation:
          -b   area base address=expression
          -g   global symbol=expression
        Map format:
          -m   Map output generated as (out)file[.map]
          -m1    Linker generated symbols included in (out)file[.map]
          -w   Wide listing format for map file
          -x   Hexidecimal (default)
          -d   Decimal
          -q   Octal
        Output:
          -i   Intel Hex as (out)file[.i--]
          -i1    Legacy: start address record type set to 1
          -s   Motorola S Record as (out)file[.s--]
          -t   Tandy CoCo Disk BASIC binary as (out)file[.bi-]
          -j   NoICE Debug output as (out)file[.noi]
          -y   SDCDB Debug output as (out)file[.cdb]
          -o   Linked file/library object output enable (default)
          -v   Linked file/library object output disable
        List:
          -u   Update listing file(s) with link data as file(s)[.rst]
        Case Sensitivity:
          -z   Disable Case Sensitivity for Symbols
        End:
          -e   or null line terminates input




                                      NOTE

             When  ASlink  is  invoked  with  a single filename the
             created output file will have the same filename as the
             .rel file.  



        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-3
        INVOKING ASLINK


             When  ASlink  is  invoked  with multiple filenames the
             first filename is the output filename and the  remain-
             ing  filenames  are  linked  together  into the output
             filename.  




        Most  sytems  require  the  options to be entered on the command
        line:  

        aslink [-Options] [-Options with args] file
        
        aslink [-Options] [-Options with args] outfile file1 [file2 ...]


        Some  systems  may  request  the  arguments  after the linker is
        started at a system specific prompt:  

        aslink
        argv: -[options] -[options with args] file
        
        aslink
        argv: [-Options] [-Options with args] outfile file1 [file2 ...]


        The linker commands are explained in some more detail:  

             1.  -h        or NO ARGUMENTS Show this help list 
                 Simply prints the help list on stdout.  

             2.  -c        ASlink >> prompt mode.  
                 The  ASlink >>  prompt  mode reads linker commands from
                 stdin.  

             3.  -f file   Command file mode.  
                 The  command file mode imports linker commands from the
                 specified file (extension must be  .lnk),  imported  -c
                 and  -f  commands  are ignored.  If the directory path,
                 for a file to be linked, is not specified in  the  com-
                 mand  file  then  the  path  defaults  to the .lnk file
                 directory path.  

             4.  -p/-n     enable/disable echoing commands to stdout.  

             5.  -i/-s/-t  Intel  Hex (file.i--), Motorola S (file.s--),
                 or Tandy Color Computer  Disk  Basic  (file.bi-)  image
                 output file.  

             6.  -i1       Legacy:  start address record type set to 1 
                 Use the type 1 record to indicate the program start ad-
                 dress instead of record type 3.  Record type 1 was used


        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-4
        INVOKING ASLINK


                 in some older tools.  

             7.  -o/-v     Specifies      that     subsequent     linked
                 files/libraries will generate object  output  (default)
                 or  suppress  object  output.  (if option -i, -s, or -t
                 was specified) 

             8.  -z        Disable Case Sensitivity for Symbols 

             9.  -m        Generate  a  map  file (file.map).  This file
                 contains a list of the symbols (by area) with  absolute
                 addresses, sizes of linked areas, and other linking in-
                 formation.  

            10.  -m1       Linker    generated   symbols   included   in
                 (out)file[.map] 
                 The linker creates internal symbols for each area (area
                 segment) input during the linking process but  normally
                 suppresses  their  inclusion in the map file.  This op-
                 tion enables their inclusion in the map file.  

            11.  -w        Specifies  that a wide listing format be used
                 for the map file.  

            12.  -xdq      Specifies  the  number radix for the map file
                 (Hexidecimal, Decimal, or Octal).  

            13.  -u        Generate  an  updated listing file (file.rst)
                 derived from the relocated addresses and data from  the
                 linker  and  the hint file (file.hlr) output by the as-
                 sembler.  

            14.  file      File(s)  to  be  linked.  Files may be on the
                 same line as the above options or on a separate line(s)
                 one file per line or multiple files separated by spaces
                 or tabs.  

            15.  -b  area=expression 
                 (one definition per line in a linker command file.) 
                 This  specifies  an area base address where the expres-
                 sion may contain constants and/or defined symbols  from
                 the linked files.  

            16.  -g  symbol=expression 
                 (one definition per line in a linker command file.) 
                 This  specifies  the value for the symbol where the ex-
                 pression may contain constants and/or  defined  symbols
                 from the linked files.  

            17.  -k  library directory path 
                 (one definition per line in a linker command file.) 
                 This  specifies one possible path to an object library.


        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-5
        INVOKING ASLINK


                 More than one path is allowed.  

            18.  -l  library file specification 
                 (one definition per line in a linker command file.) 
                 This  specifies a possible library file.  More than one
                 file is allowed.  

            19.  -e  or null line, terminates input to the linker.  



        3.3  LIBRARY PATH(S) AND FILE(S) 


           The process of resolving undefined symbols after scanning the
        input object  files  includes  the  scanning  of  object  module
        libraries.   The  linker will search through all combinations of
        the library path specifications (input by the -k option) and the
        library  file  specifications (input by the -l option) that lead
        to an existing library file.  Each library file contains a  list
        (one  file  per  line)  of  modules  included in this particular
        library.  Each existing object module is scanned for a match  to
        the undefined symbol.  The first module containing the symbol is
        then linked with the previous modules to resolve the symbol  de-
        finition.   The  library  object  modules are rescanned until no
        more symbols can be resolved.   The  scanning  algorithm  allows
        resolution  of  back references.  No errors are reported for non
        existant library files or object modules.  

           The  library  file  specification may be formed in one of two
        ways:  

             1.  If  the  library  file  contained an absolute path/file
                 specification  then  this  is   the   object   module's
                 path/file.  
                 (i.e.  C:\...  or C:/...) 

             2.  If  the  library  file  contains  a  relative path/file
                 specification then the concatenation of  the  path  and
                 this  file  specification  becomes  the object module's
                 path/file.  
                 (i.e.  \...  or /...) 


           As  an example, assume there exists a library file termio.lib
        in the syslib directory specifying the following object modules: 

        \6809\io_disk        first object module 
        d:\special\io_comm   second object module 

        and the following parameters were specified to the linker:  



        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-6
        LIBRARY PATH(S) AND FILE(S)


        -k c:\iosystem\    the first path 
        -k c:\syslib\      the second path 

        -l termio          the first library file 
        -l io              the second library file (no such file) 

        The  linker  will attempt to use the following object modules to
        resolve any undefined symbols:  

        c:\syslib\6809\io_disk.rel     (concatenated path/file) 
        d:\special\io_comm.rel         (absolute path/file) 

        all  other path(s)/file(s) don't exist.  (No errors are reported
        for non existant path(s)/file(s).) 


        3.4  ASLINK PROCESSING 


           The  linker  processes  the  files  in  the  order  they  are
        presented.  The first pass through the input files  is  used  to
        define  all  program  areas, the section area sizes, and symbols
        defined or referenced.  Undefined symbols will initiate a search
        of any specified library file(s) and the importing of the module
        containing the symbol definition.  After the first pass  the  -b
        (area  base  address) definitions, if any, are processed and the
        areas linked.  

           The  area  linking proceeds by first examining the area types
        ABS, CON, REL, OVR and PAG.  Absolute areas (ABS) from  separate
        object modules are always overlayed and have been assembled at a
        specific address, these are not normally relocated (if a -b com-
        mand  is  used  on an absolute area the area will be relocated).
        Relative areas (normally defined as REL|CON) have a base address
        of  0x0000  as read from the object files, the -b command speci-
        fies the beginning address of the area.  All subsequent relative
        areas  will  be  concatenated  with  preceeding  relative areas.
        Where specific ordering is desired, the first linker input  file
        should  have  the area definitions in the desired order.  At the
        completion of the area linking all area  addresses  and  lengths
        have  been determined.  The areas of type PAG are verified to be
        on a 256 byte boundary and that the length does not  exceed  256
        bytes.  Any errors are noted on stderr and in the map file.  



        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-7
        ASLINK PROCESSING


        The  linker  also  automatically  generates two symbols for each
        linked program area:  

            'a_'      The starting address of the area.  

            'l_'      The length of the area.  

        and two symbols for each area segment:  

            'm__n'    The boundary modulus of the area segment.  

            's__n'    The starting address of the area segment.  

        The  appended  '_n'  signifies  the area segment number within a
        linked area.  

           These  symbols  are in general only useful diagnostically and
        are not visible externally.  However if the -m1 linker option is
        used these symbols will be output to the map file.  

           Next  the  global symbol definitions (-g option), if any, are
        processed.  The symbol definitions have been delayed until  this
        point because the absolute addresses of all internal symbols are
        known and can be used in the expression calculations.  

           Before  continuing  with the linking process the symbol table
        is scanned to determine if any symbols have been referenced  but
        not defined.  Undefined symbols are listed on the stderr device.
        if a .module directive was included in the  assembled  file  the
        module  making  the reference to this undefined variable will be
        printed.  

           Constants  defined  as global in more than one module will be
        flagged as multiple definitions if their values are not  identi-
        cal.  

           After  the  preceeding  processes are complete the linker may
        output a map file (-m option).  This file provides the following
        information:  

             1.  Global symbol values and label absolute addresses 

             2.  Defined areas and there lengths 

             3.  Remaining undefined symbols 

             4.  List of modules linked 

             5.  List of library modules linked 

             6.  List of -b and -g definitions 



        THE LINKER                                              PAGE 3-8
        ASLINK PROCESSING





           The final step of the linking process is performed during the
        second pass of the input files.  As the xxx.rel files  are  read
        the code is relocated by substituting the physical addresses for
        the referenced symbols and areas and may  be  output  in  Intel,
        Motorola, or Tandy CoCo Disk Basic formats.  The number of files
        linked and symbols defined/referenced is limited by the  proces-
        sor  space  available to build the area/symbol lists.  If the -u
        option is specified then the listing files (file.lst) associated
        with  the  relocation  files  (file.rel) are scanned and used to
        create a new file (file.rst) which has all  addresses  and  data
        relocated to their final values.  

           The  -o/-v  options  allow the simple creation of loadable or
        overlay modules.  Loadable and overlay modules normally need  to
        be  linked  with  a  main module(s) to resolve external symbols.
        The -o/-v options can be used to enable object  output  for  the
        loadable  or overlay module(s) and suppress the object code from
        the linked main module(s).  The -o/-v  options  can  be  applied
        repeatedly  to specify a single linked file, groups of files, or
        libraries for object code inclusion or suppression.  


        THE LINKER                                              Page 3-9
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


        3.5  ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING 


           The  linkers'  input  object file is an ascii file containing
        the information needed by the linker  to  bind  multiple  object
        modules into a complete loadable memory image.  

        The object module contains the following designators:  

                [XDQ][HL][234]
                        X       Hexidecimal radix
                        D       Decimal radix
                        Q       Octal radix
        
                        H       Most significant byte first
                        L       Least significant byte first
        
                        2       16-Bit Addressing
                        3       24-Bit Addressing
                        4       32-Bit Addressing
        
                H       Header 
                M       Module
                G       Merge Mode
                B       Bank
                A       Area
                S       Symbol
                T       Object code
                R       Relocation information
                P       Paging information


        3.5.1  Object Module Format 


           The   first   line   of   an   object   module  contains  the
        [XDQ][HL][234] format specifier  (i.e.   XH2  indicates  a  hex-
        idecimal  file  with  most significant byte first and 16-bit ad-
        dressing) for the following designators.  




        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-10
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


        3.5.2  Header Line 

                H aa areas gg global symbols 

           The  header  line  specifies  the number of areas(aa) and the
        number of global symbols(gg) defined or referenced in  this  ob-
        ject module segment.  


        3.5.3  Module Line 

                M name 

           The  module  line  specifies  the module name from which this
        header segment was assembled.  The module line will  not  appear
        if the .module directive was not used in the source program.  


        3.5.4  Merge Mode Line 

                G nn ii 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 

           The  mode  structure  contains  the specification (or partial
        specification) of one of the assemblers' merge  modes.   Sixteen
        bits  may  be  specified  on a single line.  Each assembler must
        specify at least one merge mode.  The merging specification  al-
        lows  arbitrarily defined active bits and bit positions.  The 32
        element arrays are indexed from 0 to 31.  Index 0 corresponds to
        bit  0,  ...,  and  31 corresponds to bit 31 of a normal integer
        value.  

             1.   nn is merge mode number 

             2.   ii is the beginning bit position of the following data 

             3.   00 ...  merge mode bit elements 


                    The value of the element specifies if the normal in-
                    teger bit is active (bit <7> is set, 0x80) and  what
                    destination  bit  (bits  <4:0>,  0  -  31) should be
                    loaded with this normal integer bit.  




        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-11
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


        3.5.5  Bank Line 

                B name base nn size nn map nn flags nn fsfx string 

           The  B  line  defines a bank identifier as name.  A bank is a
        structure containing a collection of areas.  The bank is treated
        as  a  unique linking structure seperate from other banks.  Each
        bank can have a unique base  address  (starting  address).   The
        size  specification  may  be  used to signal the overflow of the
        banks' allocated space.  The Linker combines all areas  included
        within  a  bank  as  seperate from other areas.  The code from a
        bank may be output to a unique file by specifying the File  Suf-
        fix  parameter  (fsfx).   This allows the seperation of multiple
        data and code segments into  isolated  output  files.   The  map
        parameter  is  for  NOICE processing.  The flags indicate if the
        parameters have been set.  


        3.5.6  Area Line 

                A label size ss flags ff [bank bb] [bndry mm] 

           The  area  line  defines the area label, the size (ss) of the
        area in bytes, the area  flags  (ff),  the  optional  [bank  bb]
        specifies  the  bank  this area is a member of, and the optional
        [bndry mm] which specifies the boundary modulus  for  this  area
        segment.  The area flags specify the ABS, REL, CON, OVR, and PAG
        parameters:  

                OVR/CON  (0x04/0x00 i.e.  bit position 2) 

                ABS/REL  (0x08/0x00 i.e.  bit position 3) 

                PAG      (0x10 i.e.  bit position 4) 

           The  bank label is optional and only specified if the area is
        to be included within a bank.  

           When  this area (area segment) is linked and their is a boun-
        dary modulus specified then the code/data beginning address will
        be  increased to match the boundary modulus.  This will also in-
        crease the area (area segment) size by the same amount.  




        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-12
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


        3.5.7  Symbol Line 

                S name Defnnnn 

                        or 

                S name Refnnnn 

           The symbol line defines (Def) or references (Ref) the identi-
        fier name with the value nnnn.  The defined value is relative to
        the  current area base address.  References to constants and ex-
        ternal global symbols will always appear before the  first  area
        definition.  References to external symbols will have a value of
        zero.  


        3.5.8  T Line 

                T xx xx nn nn nn nn nn ...  

           The  T  line contains the assembled code output by the assem-
        bler with xx xx being the offset address from the  current  area
        base address and nn being the assembled instructions and data in
        byte format.  (xx xx and nn nn can be 2, 3, or 4 bytes as speci-
        fied by the .REL file header.) 


        3.5.9  R Line 

                R 0 0 nn nn n1 n2 xx xx ...  

           The R line provides the relocation information to the linker.
        The nn nn value is the current area index, i.e.  which area  the
        current  values  were  assembled.  Relocation information is en-
        coded in groups of 4 bytes:  

             1.  n1 is the relocation mode and object format.  
                 1.  bits <1:0> specify the number of bytes to output 
                 2.  bits <2:3> normal(0x00) /   MSB   (0x0C) 
                                signed(0x04) / unsigned(0x08) 
                 3.  bit 4  normal(0x00)/page   '0' (0x10) reference 
                 4.  bit 5  normal(0x00)/page 'nnn' (0x20) reference 
                            PAGX mode if both bits are set (0x30) 
                 5.  bit 6  normal(0x00)/PC relative(0x40) relocation 
                 6.  bit 7  relocatable area(0x00)/symbol(0x80) 

             2.  n2 is a byte index and a merge mode index 
                 1.  bits <3:0>  are a byte index into the corresponding
                     (i.e.  preceeding) T line data (i.e.  a pointer  to
                     the data to be updated by the relocation).  


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-13
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


                 2.  bits <7:4> are an index into a selected merge mode.
                     Currently mode 0 simply specifies to  use  standard
                     byte processing modes and merging is ignored.  

             3.  xx xx  is the area/symbol index for the area/symbol be-
                 ing referenced.  the corresponding area/symbol is found
                 in the header area/symbol lists.  


        The groups of 4 bytes are repeated for each item requiring relo-
        cation in the preceeding T line.  


        3.5.10  P Line 

                P 0 0 nn nn n1 n2 xx xx 

           The  P  line provides the paging information to the linker as
        specified by a .setdp directive.  The format of  the  relocation
        information is identical to that of the R line.  The correspond-
        ing T line has the following information:  
                T xx xx aa aa bb bb 

           Where  aa aa is the area reference number which specifies the
        selected page area and bb bb is the base address  of  the  page.
        bb bb will require relocation processing if the 'n1 n2 xx xx' is
        specified in the P line.  The linker will verify that  the  base
        address is on a 256 byte boundary and that the page length of an
        area defined with the PAG type is not larger than 256 bytes.  

           The  linker  defaults any direct page references to the first
        area defined in the input REL file.  All ASxxxx assemblers  will
        specify the _CODE area first, making this the default page area. 


        3.5.11  24-Bit and 32-Bit Addressing 


           When  24-bit  or  32-bit  addressing is specified in the file
        format line [XDQ][HL][234] then the S and T Lines have  modified
        formats:  
                S name Defnnnnnn                        (24-bit)
                S name Refnnnnnn                        (24-bit)
                T xx xx xx nn nn nn nn nn ...           (24-bit)
        
                S name Defnnnnnnnn                      (32-bit)
                S name Refnnnnnnnn                      (32-bit)
                T xx xx xx xx nn nn nn nn nn ...        (32-bit)

           The  multibyte  formats for byte data replace the 2-byte form
        for 16-bit data with 3-byte or 4-byte data for 24-bit or  32-bit


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-14
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


        data  respectively.  The 2nd byte format (also named MSB) always
        uses the second byte of the 2, 3, or 4-byte data.  


        3.5.12  ASlink V5.xx (V4.xx) Error Messages 


           The linker provides detailed error messages allowing the pro-
        grammer to quickly find the errant code.   As  the  linker  com-
        pletes  pass 1  over  the  input  file(s)  it  reports  any page
        boundary or page length errors as follows:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Paged Area PAGE0 Boundary Error
        
        and/or
        
        ?ASlink-Warning-Paged Area PAGE0 Length Error

        where PAGE0 is the paged area.  

           Also  during  Pass   1  any bank size (length) errors will be
        reported as follows:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Size limit exceeded in bank BANK
        where BANK is the bank name.  

           During  Pass  two the linker reads the T, R, and P lines per-
        forming the necessary relocations and  outputting  the  absolute
        code.  Various errors may be reported during this process 
        The P line processing can produce only one possible error:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Page Definition Boundary Error
                 file        module      pgarea    pgoffset
          PgDef  t6809l      t6809l      PAGE0         0001

        The error message specifies the file and module where the .setdp
        direct was issued and indicates  the  page  area  and  the  page
        offset value determined after relocation.  


        The R line processing produces various error messages:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Signed value error
        ?ASlink-Warning-Unsigned value error
        ?ASlink-Warning-Byte PCR relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-Word PCR relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-3-Byte PCR relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-4-Byte PCR relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-Page0 relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-PageN relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-PageX relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-Signed Merge Bit Range error


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-15
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


        ?ASlink-Warning-Unsigned/Overflow Merge Bit Range error

        These  error  messages  also specify the file, module, area, and
        offset within the area of the code referencing (Refby)  and  de-
        fining (Defin) the symbol:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Signed value error for symbol  two56
                 file        module      area        offset
          Refby  t           Pagetest    PROGRAM     0006
          Defin  t           Pagetest    DIRECT      0100

        If the symbol is defined in the same module as the reference the
        linker is unable to report the symbol name.  The assembler list-
        ing  file(s) should be examined at the offset from the specified
        area to locate the offending code.  

           The errors are:  

             1.  The  Signed value error indicates an indexing value ex-
                 ceeded the maximum negative or maximum  positive  value
                 for the current variable size.  

             2.  The  Unsigned  value  error indicates an indexing value
                 was greater than maximum positive value for the current
                 variable size.  

             3.  The  byte PCR error is caused by exceeding the pc rela-
                 tive byte branch range.  

             4.  The  word PCR error is caused by exceeding the pc rela-
                 tive word branch range.  

             5.  The  3-byte PCR error is caused by exceeding the pc re-
                 lative 3-byte branch range.  

             6.  The  4-byte PCR error is caused by exceeding the pc re-
                 lative 4-byte branch range.  

             7.  The  Page0  error is generated if the direct page vari-
                 able is not in the page0 range of 0 to 255.  

             8.  The  PageN  error is generated if the direct page vari-
                 able is not within the Nth page range of 0 to 255.  

             9.  The  PageX  error is generated if the direct page vari-
                 able is not within the extended page range.  

            10.  The  Signed Merge Bit Range error indicates an indexing
                 value exceeded the maximum negative or maximum positive
                 value for the current signed merge variable size.  



        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-16
        ASXXXX VERSION 5.XX (4.XX) LINKING


            11.  The  Unsigned/Overflow  Merge Bit Range error indicates
                 an indexing value was  greater  than  maximum  positive
                 value for the current unsigned merge variable size.  



        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-17
        ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING


        3.6  ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING 


           The  linkers'  input  object file is an ascii file containing
        the information needed by the linker  to  bind  multiple  object
        modules into a complete loadable memory image.  

        The object module contains the following designators:  

                [XDQ][HL][234]
                        X       Hexidecimal radix
                        D       Decimal radix
                        Q       Octal radix
        
                        H       Most significant byte first
                        L       Least significant byte first
        
                        2       16-Bit Addressing
                        3       24-Bit Addressing
                        4       32-Bit Addressing
        
                H       Header 
                M       Module
                A       Area
                S       Symbol
                T       Object code
                R       Relocation information
                P       Paging information


        3.6.1  Object Module Format 


           The   first   line   of   an   object   module  contains  the
        [XDQ][HL][234] format specifier  (i.e.   XH2  indicates  a  hex-
        idecimal  file  with  most significant byte first and 16-bit ad-
        dressing) for the following designators.  


        3.6.2  Header Line 

                H aa areas gg global symbols 

           The  header  line  specifies  the number of areas(aa) and the
        number of global symbols(gg) defined or referenced in  this  ob-
        ject module segment.  




        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-18
        ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING


        3.6.3  Module Line 

                M name 

           The  module  line  specifies  the module name from which this
        header segment was assembled.  The module line will  not  appear
        if the .module directive was not used in the source program.  


        3.6.4  Area Line 

                A label size ss flags ff 

           The  area  line  defines the area label, the size (ss) of the
        area in bytes, and the area flags (ff).  The area flags  specify
        the ABS, REL, CON, OVR, and PAG parameters:  

                OVR/CON  (0x04/0x00 i.e.  bit position 2) 

                ABS/REL  (0x08/0x00 i.e.  bit position 3) 

                PAG      (0x10 i.e.  bit position 4) 


        3.6.5  Symbol Line 

                S name Defnnnn 

                        or 

                S name Refnnnn 

           The symbol line defines (Def) or references (Ref) the identi-
        fier name with the value nnnn.  The defined value is relative to
        the  current area base address.  References to constants and ex-
        ternal global symbols will always appear before the  first  area
        definition.  References to external symbols will have a value of
        zero.  


        3.6.6  T Line 

                T xx xx nn nn nn nn nn ...  

           The  T  line contains the assembled code output by the assem-
        bler with xx xx being the offset address from the  current  area
        base address and nn being the assembled instructions and data in
        byte format.  




        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-19
        ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING


        3.6.7  R Line 

                R 0 0 nn nn n1 n2 xx xx ...  

           The R line provides the relocation information to the linker.
        The nn nn value is the current area index, i.e.  which area  the
        current  values  were  assembled.  Relocation information is en-
        coded in groups of 4 bytes:  

             1.  n1  is  the  relocation mode and object format, for the
                 adhoc extension modes refer to asxxxx.h or aslink.h 
                 1.  bit 0  word(0x00)/byte(0x01) 
                 2.  bit 1  relocatable area(0x00)/symbol(0x02) 
                 3.  bit 2  normal(0x00)/PC relative(0x04) relocation 
                 4.  bit 3  1-byte(0x00)/2-byte(0x08) object format 
                 5.  bit 4  signed(0x00)/unsigned(0x10) byte data 
                 6.  bit 5  normal(0x00)/page   '0'(0x20) reference 
                 7.  bit 6  normal(0x00)/page 'nnn'(0x40) reference 
                 8.  bit 7  LSB byte(0x00)/MSB byte(0x80) 

             2.  n2  is  a byte index into the corresponding (i.e.  pre-
                 ceeding) T line data (i.e.  a pointer to the data to be
                 updated  by  the  relocation).   The T line data may be
                 1-byte or  2-byte  byte  data  format  or  2-byte  word
                 format.  

             3.  xx xx  is the area/symbol index for the area/symbol be-
                 ing referenced.  the corresponding area/symbol is found
                 in the header area/symbol lists.  


        The groups of 4 bytes are repeated for each item requiring relo-
        cation in the preceeding T line.  


        3.6.8  P Line 

                P 0 0 nn nn n1 n2 xx xx 

           The  P  line provides the paging information to the linker as
        specified by a .setdp directive.  The format of  the  relocation
        information is identical to that of the R line.  The correspond-
        ing T line has the following information:  
                T xx xx aa aa bb bb 

           Where  aa aa is the area reference number which specifies the
        selected page area and bb bb is the base address  of  the  page.
        bb bb will require relocation processing if the 'n1 n2 xx xx' is
        specified in the P line.  The linker will verify that  the  base
        address is on a 256 byte boundary and that the page length of an
        area defined with the PAG type is not larger than 256 bytes.  



        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-20
        ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING


           The  linker  defaults any direct page references to the first
        area defined in the input REL file.  All ASxxxx assemblers  will
        specify the _CODE area first, making this the default page area. 


        3.6.9  24-Bit and 32-Bit Addressing 


           When  24-bit  or  32-bit  addressing is specified in the file
        format line [XDQ][HL][234] then the S and T Lines have  modified
        formats:  
                S name Defnnnnnn                        (24-bit)
                S name Refnnnnnn                        (24-bit)
                T xx xx xx nn nn nn nn nn ...           (24-bit)
        
                S name Defnnnnnnnn                      (32-bit)
                S name Refnnnnnnnn                      (32-bit)
                T xx xx xx xx nn nn nn nn nn ...        (32-bit)

           The  multibyte  formats for byte data replace the 2-byte form
        for 16-bit data with 3-byte or 4-byte data for 24-bit or  32-bit
        data  respectively.  The 2nd byte format (also named MSB) always
        uses the second byte of the 2, 3, or 4-byte data.  


        3.6.10  ASlink V3.xx Error Messages 


           The linker provides detailed error messages allowing the pro-
        grammer to quickly find the errant code.   As  the  linker  com-
        pletes  pass 1  over  the  input  file(s)  it  reports  any page
        boundary or page length errors as follows:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Paged Area PAGE0 Boundary Error
        
        and/or
        
        ?ASlink-Warning-Paged Area PAGE0 Length Error

        where PAGE0 is the paged area.  

           During  Pass  two the linker reads the T, R, and P lines per-
        forming the necessary relocations and  outputting  the  absolute
        code.  Various errors may be reported during this process 


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-21
        ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING


        The P line processing can produce only one possible error:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Page Definition Boundary Error
                 file        module      pgarea      pgoffset
          PgDef  t6809l      t6809l      PAGE0       0001

        The error message specifies the file and module where the .setdp
        direct was issued and indicates  the  page  area  and  the  page
        offset value determined after relocation.  


        The R line processing produces various errors:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Byte PCR relocation error for symbol  bra2
        ?ASlink-Warning-Unsigned Byte error for symbol  two56
        ?ASlink-Warning-Page0 relocation error for symbol  ltwo56
        ?ASlink-Warning-Page Mode relocation error for symbol  two56
        ?ASlink-Warning-Page Mode relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-2K Page relocation error
        ?ASlink-Warning-512K Page relocation error

        These  error  messages  also specify the file, module, area, and
        offset within the area of the code referencing (Refby)  and  de-
        fining (Defin) the symbol:  

        ?ASlink-Warning-Unsigned Byte error for symbol  two56
                 file        module      area        offset
          Refby  t6800l      t6800l      DIRECT      0015
          Defin  tconst      tconst      .  .ABS.    0100

        If the symbol is defined in the same module as the reference the
        linker is unable to report the symbol name.  The assembler list-
        ing  file(s) should be examined at the offset from the specified
        area to locate the offending code.  

           The errors are:  

             1.  The  byte PCR error is caused by exceeding the pc rela-
                 tive byte branch range.  

             2.  The Unsigned byte error indicates an indexing value was
                 negative or larger than 255.  

             3.  The  Page0  error is generated if the direct page vari-
                 able is not in the page0 range of 0 to 255.  

             4.  The page mode error is generated if the direct variable
                 is not within the current direct page (6809).  

             5.  The  2K  Page  relocation  error  is  generated  if the
                 destination is not within the current  2K  page  (8051,
                 DS8xCxxx).  


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-22
        ASXXXX VERSION 3.XX LINKING


             6.  The  512K  Page  relocation  error  is generated if the
                 destination  is  not  within  the  current  512K   page
                 (DS80C390).  



        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-23
        HINT FILE FORMAT FOR RELOCATED LISTINGS


        3.7  HINT FILE FORMAT FOR RELOCATED LISTINGS 


           The hint file is an ascii file containing information to help
        the linker convert the listing file  into  a  relocated  listing
        file.  Each line in the .hlr file coresponds to a single line in
        the listing file.  The text line usually contains 3 or 4 parame-
        ters  in  the  radix  selected for the assembler as shown in the
        following table:  

        Line Position:  123456789012
                        ------------
        Octal:           111 222 333
        Decimal:         111 222 333
        Hex:             11 22 33
        
        Parameter 1 specifies the parameters listed in the line.
        A bit is set for each listing option enabled during the
        assembly of the line.
        
                BIT 0   - LIST_ERR      Error Code(s)
                BIT 1   - LIST_LOC      Location
                BIT 2   - LIST_BIN      Generated Binary Value(s)
                BIT 3   - LIST_EQT      Assembler Equate Value
                BIT 4   - LIST_CYC      Opcode Cycles
                BIT 5   - LIST_LIN      Line Numbers
                BIT 6   - LIST_SRC      Assembler Source Code
                BIT 7   - HLR_NLST      Listing Inhibited
        
        Parameter 2 is the internal assembler listing mode
        value specified for this line during the assembly process:
        
                0 - NLIST       No listing
                1 - SLIST       Source only
                2 - ALIST       Address only
                3 - BLIST       Address only with allocation
                4 - CLIST       Code
                5 - ELIST       Equate only
                6 - ILIST       IF conditional evaluation
        
        Parameter 3 is the number of output bytes listed
        for this line.

           The  4th  parameter  is only output if an equate references a
        value in a different area.  The area name is output in the  fol-
        lowing format following the 3 parameters described above:  

        Line Position:  123456789012
                        ------------
        Area Name:       equatearea



        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-24
        HINT FILE FORMAT FOR RELOCATED LISTINGS


           When the line number is present it is prepended to the 3 or 4
        parameters described  above.   The  line  number  is  always  in
        decimal in the following format:  

        Line Position:  1234567
                        -------
        Decimal:          LLLLL

           Thus the four formats (for each radix) that may be present in
        a .hlr file are:  

        Line Position:  123456789012345678901234567890
                        ------------------------------
                         11 22 33
                         11 22 33 equatearea
                          LLLLL 11 22 33
                          LLLLL 11 22 33 equatearea

           The  linker understands these formats without any user inter-
        action.  

           If  a  hint  file  does not exist then the linker attempts to
        convert the list file to a relocated list file using some  basic
        assumptions  about the parameters listed in each line.  The con-
        version without a hint file  requires  at  least  these  listing
        parameters:   LOC,  BIN,  MEB, and ME.  The 'equate' values will
        not be updated.  


        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-25
        INTEL IHX OUTPUT FORMAT


        3.8  INTEL IHX OUTPUT FORMAT (16-BIT) 

        Record Mark Field    -  This  field  signifies  the  start  of a
                                record, and consists of an  ascii  colon
                                (:).  

        Record Length Field  -  This   field   consists   of  two  ascii
                                characters which indicate the number  of
                                data   bytes   in   this   record.   The
                                characters are the result of  converting
                                the  number  of  bytes  in binary to two
                                ascii characters, high digit first.   An
                                End  of  File  record contains two ascii
                                zeros in this field.  

        Load Address Field   -  This  field  consists  of the four ascii
                                characters which result from  converting
                                the  the  binary value of the address in
                                which to begin loading this record.  The
                                order is as follows:  

                                    High digit of high byte of address. 
                                    Low digit of high byte of address.  
                                    High digit of low byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of low byte of address.  

                                In an End of File record this field con-
                                sists of either four ascii zeros or  the
                                program entry address.  

        Record Type Field    -  This  field  identifies the record type,
                                which is either 0 for data, 1 for an End
                                of  File,  or  3  for  a  start  address
                                record.   It  consists  of   two   ascii
                                characters,  with  the high digit of the
                                record type first, followed by  the  low
                                digit  of  the record type.  The default
                                start address record type is 3,  however
                                the  -i1 option can override the default
                                and use the type 1 record.  

        Data Field           -  This  field consists of the actual data,
                                converted to two ascii characters,  high
                                digit first.  There are no data bytes in
                                the End of File record.  

        Checksum Field       -  The  checksum  field is the 8 bit binary
                                sum of the record length field, the load
                                address  field,  the  record type field,
                                and the data field.  This  sum  is  then
                                negated  (2's  complement) and converted
                                to  two  ascii  characters,  high  digit


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-26
        INTEL IHX OUTPUT FORMAT (16-BIT)


                                first.  


        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-27
        INTEL I86 OUTPUT FORMAT


        3.9  INTEL I86 OUTPUT FORMAT (24 OR 32-BIT) 

        Record Mark Field    -  This  field  signifies  the  start  of a
                                record, and consists of an  ascii  colon
                                (:).  

        Record Length Field  -  This   field   consists   of  two  ascii
                                characters which indicate the number  of
                                data   bytes   in   this   record.   The
                                characters are the result of  converting
                                the  number  of  bytes  in binary to two
                                ascii characters, high digit first.   An
                                End  of  File  record contains two ascii
                                zeros in this field.  

        Load Address Field   -  This  field  consists  of the four ascii
                                characters which result from  converting
                                the  the  binary value of the address in
                                which to begin loading this record.  The
                                order is as follows:  

                                    High digit of high byte of address. 
                                    Low digit of high byte of address.  
                                    High digit of low byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of low byte of address.  

                                In an End of File record this field con-
                                sists of either four ascii zeros or  the
                                program entry address.  

        Record Type Field    -  This  field  identifies the record type,
                                which is either 0 for data, 1 for an End
                                of File, 3 for a start address, or 4 for
                                a segment record.  It  consists  of  two
                                ascii characters, with the high digit of
                                the record type first, followed  by  the
                                low  digit  of  the  record  type.   The
                                default start address record type is  3,
                                however  the -i1 option can override the
                                default and use the type 1 record.  

        Data Field           -  This  field consists of the actual data,
                                converted to two ascii characters,  high
                                digit first.  There are no data bytes in
                                the End of File record.  

        Checksum Field       -  The  checksum  field is the 8 bit binary
                                sum of the record length field, the load
                                address  field,  the  record type field,
                                and the data field.  This  sum  is  then
                                negated  (2's  complement) and converted
                                to  two  ascii  characters,  high  digit


        THE LINKER                                             PAGE 3-28
        INTEL I86 OUTPUT FORMAT (24 OR 32-BIT)


                                first.  


        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-29
        MOTOROLA S1-S9 OUTPUT FORMAT


        3.10  MOTOROLA S1-S9 OUTPUT FORMAT (16-BIT) 

        Record Type Field    -  This  field  signifies  the  start  of a
                                record and  identifies  the  the  record
                                type as follows:  

                                    Ascii S1 - Data Record 
                                    Ascii S9 - End of File Record 

        Record Length Field  -  This  field  specifies the record length
                                which includes the  address,  data,  and
                                checksum   fields.   The  8  bit  record
                                length value is converted to  two  ascii
                                characters, high digit first.  

        Load Address Field   -  This  field  consists  of the four ascii
                                characters which result from  converting
                                the  the  binary value of the address in
                                which to begin loading this record.  The
                                order is as follows:  

                                    High digit of high byte of address. 
                                    Low digit of high byte of address.  
                                    High digit of low byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of low byte of address.  

                                In an End of File record this field con-
                                sists of either four ascii zeros or  the
                                program entry address.  

        Data Field           -  This  field consists of the actual data,
                                converted to two ascii characters,  high
                                digit first.  There are no data bytes in
                                the End of File record.  

        Checksum Field       -  The  checksum  field is the 8 bit binary
                                sum of the record length field, the load
                                address field, and the data field.  This
                                sum is then  complemented  (1's  comple-
                                ment)   and   converted   to  two  ascii
                                characters, high digit first.  


        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-30
        MOTOROLA S2-S8 OUTPUT FORMAT


        3.11  MOTOROLA S2-S8 OUTPUT FORMAT (24-BIT) 

        Record Type Field    -  This  field  signifies  the  start  of a
                                record and  identifies  the  the  record
                                type as follows:  

                                    Ascii S2 - Data Record 
                                    Ascii S8 - End of File Record 

        Record Length Field  -  This  field  specifies the record length
                                which includes the  address,  data,  and
                                checksum   fields.   The  8  bit  record
                                length value is converted to  two  ascii
                                characters, high digit first.  

        Load Address Field   -  This  field  consists  of  the six ascii
                                characters which result from  converting
                                the  the  binary value of the address in
                                which to begin loading this record.  The
                                order is as follows:  

                                    High digit of 3rd byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of 3rd byte of address.  
                                    High digit of high byte of address. 
                                    Low digit of high byte of address.  
                                    High digit of low byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of low byte of address.  

                                In an End of File record this field con-
                                sists of either six ascii zeros  or  the
                                program entry address.  

        Data Field           -  This  field consists of the actual data,
                                converted to two ascii characters,  high
                                digit first.  There are no data bytes in
                                the End of File record.  

        Checksum Field       -  The  checksum  field is the 8 bit binary
                                sum of the record length field, the load
                                address field, and the data field.  This
                                sum is then  complemented  (1's  comple-
                                ment)   and   converted   to  two  ascii
                                characters, high digit first.  


        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-31
        MOTOROLA S3-S7 OUTPUT FORMAT


        3.12  MOTOROLA S3-S7 OUTPUT FORMAT (32-BIT) 

        Record Type Field    -  This  field  signifies  the  start  of a
                                record and  identifies  the  the  record
                                type as follows:  

                                    Ascii S3 - Data Record 
                                    Ascii S7 - End of File Record 

        Record Length Field  -  This  field  specifies the record length
                                which includes the  address,  data,  and
                                checksum   fields.   The  8  bit  record
                                length value is converted to  two  ascii
                                characters, high digit first.  

        Load Address Field   -  This  field  consists of the eight ascii
                                characters which result from  converting
                                the  the  binary value of the address in
                                which to begin loading this record.  The
                                order is as follows:  

                                    High digit of 4th byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of 4th byte of address.  
                                    High digit of 3rd byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of 3rd byte of address.  
                                    High digit of high byte of address. 
                                    Low digit of high byte of address.  
                                    High digit of low byte of address.  
                                    Low digit of low byte of address.  

                                In an End of File record this field con-
                                sists of either eight ascii zeros or the
                                program entry address.  

        Data Field           -  This  field consists of the actual data,
                                converted to two ascii characters,  high
                                digit first.  There are no data bytes in
                                the End of File record.  

        Checksum Field       -  The  checksum  field is the 8 bit binary
                                sum of the record length field, the load
                                address field, and the data field.  This
                                sum is then  complemented  (1's  comple-
                                ment)   and   converted   to  two  ascii
                                characters, high digit first.  


        THE LINKER                                             Page 3-32
        TANDY COLOR COMPUTER DISK BASIC BINARY FORMAT


        3.13  TANDY COLOR COMPUTER DISK BASIC FORMAT 

        Record Preamble      -  This  field  is either $00 (for start of
                                new record) or $FF (for last  record  in
                                file).  

        Record Length Field  -  This  field specifies the number of data
                                bytes which follows the  address  field.
                                The  length  is  in  binary  MSB  to LSB
                                order.  

                                    16-Bit Length - 2-bytes 
                                    24-Bit Length - 3-bytes 
                                    32-Bit Length - 4-bytes 

        Load Address Field   -  This field consists of the address where
                                the record will be loaded  into  memory.
                                The  address  is  in  binary  MSB to LSB
                                order.  

                                    16-Bit Address - 2-bytes 
                                    24-Bit Address - 3-bytes 
                                    32-Bit Address - 4-bytes 

        Data Field           -  This field consists of the actual binary
                                data.  


           After  the  last  code  segment,  a final record like the one
        above is placed.  In this final segment, the Record Preamble  is
        $FF,  the Record Length Field is $0000 and the Load Adress Field
        is the execution address.  














                                    CHAPTER 4

                           BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK




           The assemblers and linker have been successfully compiled for
        Linux, DOS, and various flavors of Windows using the Linux  GCC,
        the Cygwin environment, the DJGPP environment, and the graphical
        user   interfaces   and    command    line    environments    of
        MS Visual C++ V6.0,                       MS Visual Studio 2005,
        MS Visual Studio 2010, MS Visual Studio 2013,  Open Watcom V1.7,
        Symantec C/C++ V7.2, and Turbo C 3.0.  

           Makefiles  for  Linux,  Cygwin,  DJGPP,  project  files and a
        makefile for Turbo C and psuedo makefiles and project files  for
        VC6, VS2005, VS2010, VS2013, Open Watcom and Symantec are avail-
        able to build all the assemblers and the linker.  

           Unpack  the  asxv5pxx.zip  file into an appropriate directory
        using the utility appropriate to your environment.  For  DOS  or
        Windows  the following command line will unpack the distribution
        zip file:  

                pkunzip -d asxv5pxx.zip


        The  distribution  file  has  been  packed with DOS style end of
        lines (CR/LF), and UPPER CASE file names.  The Linux  make  file
        assumes  all  lower  case directories and file names.  For Linux
        the unpacking utility you choose should have an option to  force
        all  lower  case  directories / file names and convert the ascii
        files to local format.  On most systems  the  following  command
        should do the trick:  

                unzip -L -a asxv5pxx.zip

        Some systems may require a -LL option to force all lower case.  

           The  distribution  will  be  unpacked into the base directory
        'asxv5pxx' which will contain source directories for  each  sup-
        ported  processor  (as6800, asz80, ...), the machine independent
        source  (asxxsrc),  the  linker  source   (linksrc),   and   the


        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              Page 4-2
        


        miscellaneous sources (asxxmisc).  Other directories include the
        documentation (asxdoc), test file directory (asxtst),  html  do-
        cumentation  (asxhtml),  NoICE  support  files  (noice), various
        debug monitors that can be assembled with the ASxxxx  assemblers
        (asmasm),  project files for an application that uses the AS6809
        assembler and ASlink linker (project), and the packaging  direc-
        tory (zipper).  


        4.1  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH LINUX 


           The  Linux  build  directory is /asxv5pxx/asxmak/linux/build.
        The makefile in this directory is compatible with the Linux  GNU
        make and GCC.  The command 

                make clean

        will  remove  all  the  current  executable  files  in directory
        /asxv5pxx/asxmak/linux/exe and all the compiled  object  modules
        from the /asxv5pxx/asxmak/linux/build directory.  

           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        4.2  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK UNDER CYGWIN 


           The  Cygwin build directory is \asxv5pxx\asxmak\cygwin\build.
        The makefile in this directory is compatible with the Cygwin GNU
        make and GCC.  The command 

                make clean

        will  remove  all  the  current  executable  files  in directory
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\cygwin\exe and all the compiled object  modules
        from the \asxv5pxx\asxmak\cygwin\build directory.  The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can  make  a  single  program by invoking make with the specific


        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-3
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK UNDER CYGWIN


        assembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        4.3  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH DJGPP 


           The  DJGPP  build  directory is \asxv5pxx\asxmak\djgpp\build.
        The makefile in this directory is compatible with the DJGPP  GNU
        make and GCC.  The command 

                make clean

        will  remove  all  the  current  executable  files  in directory
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\djgpp\exe and all the compiled  object  modules
        from the \asxv5pxx\asxmak\djgpp\build directory.  The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        4.4  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH BORLAND'S TURBO C++ 3.0 


           The  Borland  product  is  available in the Borland Turbo C++
        Suite which contains C++ Builder 1.0, Turbo C++ 4.5 for  Windows
        and  Turbo C++ 3.0 for DOS.  The DOS IDE will install and run on
        x86 (16 or 32 bit) versions of Windows (not x64 versions).  


        4.4.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each   ASxxxx   Assembler  has  two  project  specific  files
        (*.dsk and *.prj)     located      in      the      subdirectory
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\turboc30\build.    You   must  enter  the  .prj
        filename into the Turbo C++ IDE:  enter Options->Directories and
        change  the  include and output directories to match your confi-
        guration.  After these changes have been made you will  be  able
        to compile the selected project.  These changes must be manually
        entered for each project.  




        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-4
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH BORLAND'S TURBO C++ 3.0


        4.4.2  Command Line Interface 


           Before  the  command line interface can be used you must per-
        form the steps outlined in the 'Graphical  User  Interface'  in-
        structions above for each project you wish to build.  

           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\turboc30\build directory.  Assuming the Turbo C
        compiler  has been installed in the default location (C:\TC) the
        file _setpath.bat will set the PATH variable.  If  this  is  not
        the case then the line 

        PATH=C:\TC;C:\TC\BIN;C:\TC\INCLUDE

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object
        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\turboc30\build\  directory  and  the executable
        files will be placed in the \asxv5pxx\asxmak\turboc30\exe direc-
        tory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The Turbo C make utility uses the information in the correspond-
        ing .prj and .dsk files to compile and link the programs.  

           The file _makeall.bat found in the directory can also be used
        to invoke the Turbo C command line compiler.   The  _makeall.bat
        file calls the _setpath.bat file to set the path to the compiler
        directories in the environment variable PATH  and  then  invokes
        'make all'.  




        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-5
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL C++ 6.0


        4.5  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL C++ 6.0 



        4.5.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each  ASxxxx Assembler has a VC6 project file (*.dsw) located
        in a subdirectory of \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vc6\build.   Simply  enter
        this project filename into the VC6 IDE and build/rebuild the as-
        sembler.  


        4.5.2  Command Line Interface 


           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vc6\build directory.  The file  make.bat  found
        in the directory can be used to invoke the VC6 command line com-
        piler.  The make.bat file assumes that the Visual  C++  compiler
        has  been installed in the default location.  If this is not the
        case then the line 

        SET MS$DEV="C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio\
                       Common\MSDev98\Bin\msdev.exe"

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object
        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vc6\build\as----\release directory and the exe-
        cutable files will be  placed  in  the  \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vc6\exe
        directory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The  VC6  command line compiler uses the information in the cor-
        responding .dsw/.dsp files to compile and link the programs.  

           The  command  'make clean' is not required or valid as a make
        of anything does a complete rebuild of the program.  



        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-6
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL STUDIO 2005


        4.6  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL STUDIO 2005 



        4.6.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each  ASxxxx  Assembler  has a VS2005 project file (*.vcproj)
        located in a subdirectory of \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs05\build.   Sim-
        ply  enter  this  project  filename  into  the  VS2005  IDE  and
        build/rebuild the assembler.  


        4.6.2  Command Line Interface 


           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs05\build directory.  The file make.bat  found
        in  the  directory can be used to invoke the VS2005 command line
        compiler.  The make.bat file assumes that the  Visual  C++  com-
        piler  has  been  installed in the default location.  If this is
        not the case then the line 

        SET VC$BUILD="C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\
                         Common\MSDev98\Bin\msdev.exe"

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object
        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs05\build\as----\release directory and the ex-
        ecutable files will be placed in  the  \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs05\exe
        directory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The  VS2005  command  line  compiler uses the information in the
        corresponding .vcproj file to compile and link the programs.  

           The  command  'make clean' is not required or valid as a make
        of anything does a complete rebuild of the program.  



        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-7
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL STUDIO 2010


        4.7  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL STUDIO 2010 



        4.7.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each  ASxxxx  Assembler has a VS2010 project file (*.vcxproj)
        located in a subdirectory of \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs10\build.   Sim-
        ply  enter  this  project  filename  into  the  VS2010  IDE  and
        build/rebuild the assembler.  


        4.7.2  Command Line Interface 


           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs10\build directory.  The file make.bat  found
        in  the  directory can be used to invoke the VS2010 command line
        compiler.  The make.bat file assumes that the  Visual  C++  com-
        piler  has  been  installed in the default location.  If this is
        not the case then the line 

        call "c:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 10.0\
                         VC\bin\vcvars32.bat"

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object
        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs10\build\as----\release directory and the ex-
        ecutable files will be placed in  the  \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs10\exe
        directory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The  VS2010  command  line  compiler uses the information in the
        corresponding .vcxproj file to compile and link the programs.  

           The  command  'make clean' is not required or valid as a make
        of anything does a complete rebuild of the program.  



        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-8
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL STUDIO 2013


        4.8  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH MS VISUAL STUDIO 2013 



        4.8.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each  ASxxxx  Assembler has a VS2013 project file (*.vcxproj)
        located in a subdirectory of \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs13\build.   Sim-
        ply  enter  this  project  filename  into  the  VS2013  IDE  and
        build/rebuild the assembler.  


        4.8.2  Command Line Interface 


           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs13\build directory.  The file make.bat  found
        in  the  directory can be used to invoke the VS2013 command line
        compiler.  The make.bat file assumes that the  Visual  C++  com-
        piler  has  been  installed in the default location.  If this is
        not the case then the line 

        call "c:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\
                         VC\bin\vcvars32.bat"

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object
        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs13\build\as----\release directory and the ex-
        ecutable files will be placed in  the  \asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs13\exe
        directory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The  VS2013  command  line  compiler uses the information in the
        corresponding .vcxproj file to compile and link the programs.  

           The  command  'make clean' is not required or valid as a make
        of anything does a complete rebuild of the program.  



        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                              PAGE 4-9
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH OPEN WATCOM V1.9


        4.9  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH OPEN WATCOM V1.9 



        4.9.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each ASxxxx Assembler has a set of project files (.prj, .tgt,
        .mk,   .mk1,   and   .lk1)   located   in    the    subdirectory
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\watcom\build.   You  will have to edit the pro-
        ject files to match your local file locations.  


        4.9.2  Command Line Interface 


           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\watcom\build directory.   Assuming  the  Watcom
        compiler  has been installed in the default location (C:\WATCOM)
        the file _setpath.bat will set the PATH variable.   If  this  is
        not the case then the line 

        PATH=C:\WATCOM\BINNT;C:\WATCOM\BINW

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object
        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\watcom\build\   directory  and  the  executable
        files will be placed in the  \asxv5pxx\asxmak\watcom\exe  direc-
        tory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The  Watcom command line compiler wmake.exe uses the information
        in the corresponding project files to compile and link the  pro-
        grams.  

           The file _makeall.bat found in the directory can also be used
        to invoke the Watcom command line  compiler.   The  _makeall.bat
        file calls the _setpath.bat file to set the path to the compiler


        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                             PAGE 4-10
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH OPEN WATCOM V1.9


        directories in the environment variable PATH  and  then  invokes
        'make all'.  

           The  command  'make clean' is not required or valid as a make
        of anything does a complete rebuild of the program.  


        4.10  BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH SYMANTEC C/C++ V7.2 


           The  Symantec  product is no longer available but is included
        for historical reasons (the final version, 7.5,  was  introduced
        in  1996).   The  product had an excellent graphical user inter-
        face, built in editor, project manager, and supported  DOS,  Ex-
        tended  DOS  (the  executable  contained a built in DOS extender
        which was rendered unusable in Windows 2000, after service  pack
        2, or in Windows XP), Win95, and Windows NT.  


        4.10.1  Graphical User Interface 


           Each  ASxxxx Assembler has a series of project specific files
        (*.bro, *.def, *.dpd, *.lnk, *.mak, *.opn, and *.prj) located in
        in  the  subdirectory \asxv5pxx\asxmak\symantec\build.  You must
        enter the .prj filename into the Symantec IDE  and  then  select
        Project->Settings->Directories  and  change the include, target,
        and compiler output directories  to  match  your  configuration.
        After  these  changes have been made you will be able to compile
        the selected project.  These changes must  be  manually  entered
        for each project.  


        4.10.2  Command Line Interface 


           Before  the  command line interface can be used you must per-
        form the steps outlined in the 'Graphical  User  Interface'  in-
        structions above for each project you wish to build.  

           Open      a      command     prompt     window     in     the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\symantec\build directory.   The  file  make.bat
        found  in  the directory can be used to invoke the Symantec com-
        mand line compiler.  The make.bat file assumes that the path  to
        the  compiler  directories has been set in the environment vari-
        able PATH.  Assuming the Symantec compiler has been installed in
        the  default location (C:\SC) the file _setpath.bat will set the
        PATH variable.  If this is not the case then the line 

        PATH=C:\SC;C:\SC\BIN;C:\SC\INCLUDE;C:\SC\LIB

        must  be changed to match your environment.  The compiled object


        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK                             PAGE 4-11
        BUILDING ASXXXX AND ASLINK WITH SYMANTEC C/C++ V7.2


        code      modules      will      be      placed      in      the
        \asxv5pxx\asxmak\symantec\build  directory  and  the  executable
        files will be placed in the \asxv5pxx\asxmak\symantec\exe direc-
        tory.  



           The command 

                make all

        will compile and link all the ASxxxx assemblers, the ASlink pro-
        gram, and the utility programs asxscn and asxcnv.  The make file
        can make a single program by invoking make with the specific as-
        sembler, linker, or utility you wish to build:  

                make aslink


        The  Symantec  make utility , smake.exe, uses the information in
        the corresponding .mak files to compile and link the programs.  

           The file _makeall.bat found in the directory can also be used
        to invoke the Symantec command line compiler.  The  _makeall.bat
        file calls the _setpath.bat file to set the path to the compiler
        directories in the environment variable PATH  and  then  invokes
        'make all'.  


        4.11  THE _CLEAN.BAT AND _PREP.BAT FILES 


           Each  of  the  build  directories have two maintenance files:
        _prep.bat and _clean.bat.  The command file  _prep.bat  prepares
        the particular compiler directories for distribution by removing
        all exteraneous files but keeping  the  final  compiled  execut-
        ables.   The  _clean.bat command file performs the same function
        as _prep.bat and removes the compiled executables.  














                                   APPENDIX A

                           ASXSCN LISTING FILE SCANNER




           The  program  ASXSCN  is  a debugging utility program used to
        verify ASxxxx assembler code generation.  The program may be in-
        voked with any of the following options:  

                Usage: [-dqx234i] file
                  d    decimal listing
                  q    octal   listing
                  x    hex     listing (default)
                  2    16-Bit  address (default)
                  3    24-Bit  address
                  4    32-Bit  address
                  i    ignore relocation flags


           Select  one of the -d, -q, or -x options to match the listing
        file format and select only one of the -2, -3, or -4 options  to
        match  the  addressing range of the listing file.  The -i option
        inhibits the verification  of  the  assembler  relocation  flags
        generated by the ASxxxx assemblers -f or -ff options.  

           Each  source assembly line selected for verification must in-
        clude the expected output code in the comment field of the line.
        The  following  has  been  extracted  from the ASF2MC8 test file
        tf2mc8.asm:  

                reti            ; 30
                call  ext       ; 31s12r34
                subc  a         ; 32
                subcw a         ; 33
                subc  a,#v22    ; 34r22
                subc  a,*dir    ; 35*33
                subc  a,@ix+off ; 36r44
                subc  a,@ep     ; 37

        The  r,  s,  and * are specific address relocation flags created
        when the -ff option is specified with any ASxxxx assembler.  



        ASXSCN LISTING FILE SCANNER                             Page A-2
        


           Invoking the assembler:  

                asf2mc8 -gloaxff tf2mc8

        produces a listing file:  

        033B 30          677    reti            ; 30
        033C 31s12r34    678    call  ext       ; 31s12r34
        033F 32          679    subc  a         ; 32
        0340 33          680    subcw a         ; 33
        0341 34r22       681    subc  a,#v22    ; 34r22
        0343 35*33       682    subc  a,*dir    ; 35*33
        0345 36r44       683    subc  a,@ix+off ; 36r44
        0347 37          684    subc  a,@ep     ; 37

           The  expected code can be compared with the generated code by
        invoking the scanning program:  

                asxscn tf2mc8.lst
                0 code error(s) found in file tf2mc8.lst

        The assembled code can also be linked:  

                aslink -u ...options... t2fc8

        to create an updated listing file:  

        033B 30          677    reti            ; 30
        033C 31 12 34    678    call  ext       ; 31s12r34
        033F 32          679    subc  a         ; 32
        0340 33          680    subcw a         ; 33
        0341 34 22       681    subc  a,#v22    ; 34r22
        0343 35 33       682    subc  a,*dir    ; 35*33
        0345 36 44       683    subc  a,@ix+off ; 36r44

        which resolves all relocations and removes the relocation flags.
        This file can also be verified:  

                asxscn -i tf2mc8.rst
                0 code error(s) found in file tf2mc8.rst


           The  verification  of  both  the .lst and .rst files from the
        same assembler test file requires careful definition of external
        variables  so  that  the  assembler  listing file and the linker
        listing file have the same code values.  














                                   APPENDIX B

                            ASXCNV LISTING CONVERTER




           The  program  ASXCNV  is  a debugging utility program used to
        create an assembler file with verification  data.   The  program
        may be invoked with any of the following options:  

                Usage: [-dqx234] file
                  d    decimal listing
                  q    octal   listing
                  x    hex     listing (default)
                  2    16-Bit  address (default)
                  3    24-Bit  address
                  4    32-Bit  address


           Select  one of the -d, -q, or -x options to match the listing
        file format and select only one of the -2, -3, or -4 options  to
        match the addressing range of the listing file.  

           Each source assembly line which creates output data will have
        the data appended to the source line as a comment.  The appended
        comment will contain the relocation codes if they are present in
        the listing file.  Any existing comment  on  the  line  will  be
        overwritten.  

           Given an existing listing file, a.lst, containing:  

        033B 30          677    reti
        033C 31s12r34    678    call  ext
        033F 32          679    subc  a
        0340 33          680    subcw a
        0341 34r22       681    subc  a,#v22
        0343 35*33       682    subc  a,*dir
        0345 36r44       683    subc  a,@ix+off
        0347 37          684    subc  a,@ep

        A  converted  listing  file  can  be created using the following
        command:  



        ASXCNV LISTING CONVERTER                                Page B-2
        


                asxcnv -d2 a.lst

        The  created output file, a.out, is a new assembly file now con-
        tain the verification data in the comments:  

                reti            ; 30
                call  ext       ; 31s12r34
                subc  a         ; 32
                subcw a         ; 33
                subc  a,#v22    ; 34r22
                subc  a,*dir    ; 35*33
                subc  a,@ix+off ; 36r44
                subc  a,@ep     ; 37














                                   APPENDIX C

                            S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY





        C.1  BACKGROUND 


           OS9  is  an  Operating System for the TRS-80/Tandy Color Com-
        puters based on the 6809/6309 processors.  The open source  ver-
        sion  of  the  OS9 operating system is NitrOS-9 and is available
        at:  

            The NitrOS-9 Project
            http://www.nitros9.org
        
        
        The s19os9 utility package contains the following:
        
           1)  OS9  definition files and an  OS9 assembler module
               which creates the OS9 header, code and data areas,
               and the module CRC block:
        
                    os9_mod.def       OS9 Module Definitions
                    os9_sys.def       OS9 Sytem  Definitions
                    os9_mod.asm       OS9 Module Begin / End Code
        
           2)  a program, s19os9, to post-process  assembled  OS9
               modules from S19 format into  binary  OS9  modules
               with the appropriate  header  checksum  and module
               CRC values calculated.


           The  file os9_mod.def contains module definitions used in the
        header of OS9 binary files and was  derived  from  the  NitrOS-9
        file os9_mod.def.  

           The  file  os9_sys.def contains system definitions pertaining
        to system service request codes, system reserved calls, I/O ser-
        vice  request  calls,  file  access modes, signal codes, get/put


        S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                               PAGE C-2
        BACKGROUND


        status codes, module offsets, and error codes.   This  file  was
        derived from the NitrOS-9 file os9defs.a.  


        C.2  CREATING AN OS9 MODULE 


           This  section describes how to create an OS9 module using the
        files os9_mod.def, os9_sys.def, and os9_mod.asm.  

           When  creating  an OS9 module certain parameters are required
        by the os9_mod.asm file to create the appropriate headers.   The
        list of supported parameters is listed here:  

           Basic Header:
        
               .define OS9_ModNam,     "Module_Name"
               .define OS9_Typ,        "Type_Value"
               .define OS9_Lng,        "Language_Value"
               .define OS9_Att,        "Attributes_Value"
               .define OS9_Rev,        "Revision_Value"
        
           General Parameters:
               .define OS9_ModExe,     "Module Entry Point Offset"
               .define OS9_ModMem,     "Module Permanent Storage"
        
           Device Driver Parameters:
        
               .define OS9_Mod,        "Module Mode"
        
           Descriptor Parameters:
        
               .define OS9_FMN,        "Device Driver Name Label"
               .define OS9_DDR,        "Device Driver Name Label"
               .define OS9_AbsAdr02,   "Device Absolute Address <23:16>"
               .define OS9_AbsAdr01,   "Device Absolute Address <15:08>"
               .define OS9_AbsAdr00,   "Device Absolute Address <07:00>"
               .define OS9_Opt,        "Descriptor Option"
               .define OS9_DType,      "Descriptor Data Type"


           The  OS9 Module file os9_mod.asm supports the creation of the
        following simple module types:  

          SYSTM         -       System Module
          PRGRM         -       Program Module
          SBTRN         -       Subroutine Module
          DRIVR         -       Device Driver Module
          FLMGR         -       File Manager Module
          DEVIC         -       Device Descriptor Module




        S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                               PAGE C-3
        CREATING AN OS9 MODULE


           The  following code shows the steps required when creating an
        OS9 program using the os9_mod.asm file.  os9_mod.asm  loads  the
        os9_mod.def  and  os9_sys.def files, defines the software inter-
        rupt macro os9, and creates  the  os9  program  header  and  crc
        blocks.  


        C.2.1  Step 1:  Define Header Values 

                ;****
                ; Step 1:
                ; Use the .define assembler directive
                ; to insert the parameters into the
                ; os9_mod.asm's header structure.
                ;
                ;       Note:   See the file os9_mod.asm for
                ;               parameter names and definitions.
                ;
                .title          List Program
        
                .sbttl          Header Definitions
                
                .define OS9_ModNam,     "LSTNAM"
                .define OS9_Typ,        "PRGRM"
                .define OS9_Lng,        "OBJCT"
                .define OS9_Att,        "REENT"
                .define OS9_Rev,        "1"
                .define OS9_ModExe,     "LSTENT"
                .define OS9_ModMem,     "LSTMEM"


        C.2.2  Step 2:  Create The Module Header 

                ; Step 2:
                ; Set the symbol OS9_Module equal to 1
                ; and .include the file os9_mod.asm.
        
                OS9_Module = 1          ; OS9 Module Begin (==1)
        ;       .include        "os9_mod.asm"
                .nlist
                .include        "os9_mod.asm"
                .list



           With  OS9_Module = 1  the following code is inserted into the
        code stream:  

                .define os9,    "swi2   .byte"  ; os9 macro
        
                ; Include OS9 Definition Files
                ; os9_sys.def Listing Disabled


        S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                               PAGE C-4
        CREATING AN OS9 MODULE


                .nlist
                .include        "os9_sys.def"
                .list
                ; os9_mod.def Listing Disabled
                .nlist
                .include        "os9_mod.def"
                .list
        
                ; Define The OS9 Module Bank and Areas.
                ;
                ; Place the module program code in area OS9_Module
                ; and the module data in area OS9_Data.
                ;
        
                .bank   OS9_Module      (BASE=0,FSFX=_OS9)
                .area   OS9_Module      (REL,CON,BANK=OS9_Module)
        
                .bank   OS9_Data        (BASE=0,FSFX=_DAT)
                .area   OS9_Data        (REL,CON,BANK=OS9_Data)
        
        
                .area   OS9_Module
        
                OS9_ModBgn = .
        
                .byte   OS9_ID0, OS9_ID1
                                ; OS9 Module Sync Bytes
                .word   OS9_ModEnd - OS9_ModBgn
                                ; Length (Includes 3 CRC Bytes)
                .word   OS9_ModNam - OS9_ModBgn
                                ; Offset to Module Name String
                .byte   OS9_Typ | OS9_Lng
                                ; Type / Language
                .byte   OS9_Att | OS9_Rev
                                ; Attributes / Revision
                .byte   0xFF
                                ; Header Parity
                .word   OS9_ModExe - OS9_ModBgn
                                ; Execution Entry Offset
                .word   OS9_ModMem
                                ; Storage Requirement
                ;       OS9_ModData
                                ; Module Data




        S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                               PAGE C-5
        CREATING AN OS9 MODULE


        C.2.3  Step 3:  Allocate Storage 


           The  next  step  is to add the program data storage space for
        the program.  Note that the space is only allocated here and  no
        initialization is done.  

                ;*****-----*****-----*****-----*****-----*****-----*****
                ;  LIST UTILITY COMMAND
                ;  Syntax: list  
                ;  COPIES INPUT FROM SPECIFIED FILE TO STANDARD OUTPUT
        
                ; Step 3:
                ; Allocate the storage in .area OS9_Data
        
                .area   OS9_Data
        
                ; STATIC STORAGE OFFSETS 
                
                BUFSIZ  .equ    200     ; size of input buffer
                
                Base = .
        IPATH = . - Base
                .rmb    1               ; input path number
        PRMPTR = . - Base
                .rmb    2               ; parameter pointer
        BUFFER = . - Base
                .rmb    BUFSIZ          ; allocate line buffer
                .rmb    200             ; allocate stack
                .rmb    200             ; room for parameter list
        LSTMEM = . - Base


        C.2.4  Step 4:  Insert The Program Code 


           Once  the data storage space has been allocated then the pro-
        gram code is added to .area OS9_Module:  

                ; Step 4:
                ; Insert the Module Code into .area OS9_Module
        
                .area   OS9_Module
        
        LSTNAM: .strs   "List"          ; String with last byte
                                        ; or'd with 0x80
        LSTENT: stx     *PRMPTR         ; save parameter ptr
                lda     #READ.          ; select read access mode
                os9     I$OPEN          ; open input file
                bcs     LIST50          ; exit if error
                sta     *IPATH          ; save input path number
                stx     *PRMPTR         ; save updated param ptr


        S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                               PAGE C-6
        CREATING AN OS9 MODULE


        LIST20: lda     *IPATH          ; load input path number
                leax    *BUFFER,U       ; load buffer pointer
                ldy     #BUFSIZ         ; maximum bytes to read
                os9     I$READLN        ; read line of input
                bcs     LIST30          ; exit if error
                lda     #1              ; load std. out. path #
                os9     I$WRITLN        ; output line
                bcc     LIST20          ; Repeat if no error
                bra     LIST50          ; exit if error
        
        LIST30: cmpb    #E$EOF          ; at end of file?
                bne     LIST50          ; branch if not
                lda     *IPATH          ; load input path number
                os9     I$CLOSE         ; close input path
                bcs     LIST50          ; ..exit if error
                ldx     *PRMPTR         ; restore parameter ptr
                lda     ,X
                cmpa    #0x0D           ; End of parameter line?
                bne     LSTENT          ; ..no, list next file
                clrb
        LIST50: os9     F$EXIT          ; ... terminate


        C.2.5  Step 5:  End Assembly By Inserting CRC 

                ; Step 5:
                ; Set the symbol OS9_Module equal to 0
                ; and .include the file os9_mod.asm.
        
                OS9_Module = 0          ; OS9 Module End (==0)
        ;       .include        "os9_mod.asm"
                .nlist
                .include        "os9_mod.asm"
                .list
        
                .end



           With  OS9_Module = 0  the following code is the last code in-
        serted into the code stream:  

                .area   OS9_Module
        
                ; The 3-Byte Module CRC
                .byte   OS9_CRC0, OS9_CRC1, OS9_CRC2
        
                OS9_ModEnd = .          ; End of OS9 Module




        S19OS9 CONVERSION UTILITY                               PAGE C-7
        THE CONVERSION UTILITY:  S19OS9


        C.3  THE CONVERSION UTILITY:  S19OS9 


           Once you have assembled your module into an .S19 file use the
        program s19os9 to create the binary OS9 module file.  

        The  program s19os9 is invoked from the command line:
        
                s19os9 mod.s19 -o mod.bin

           where  mod.s19  is  the input S19 file and mod.bin is the OS9
        binary output file.  

           The conversion utility s19os9 reads the .S19 file into an in-
        ternal buffer (48K bytes maximum).  As each line  is  read  from
        the  .S19  file  the  record length, address, data, and checksum
        values are processed checking for invalid characters and a valid
        checksum.  

           After  the .S19 file has been loaded into the internal buffer
        the OS9 module is checked for correct length, and the OS9 Module
        ID,  OS9 Initial Header Checksum, and OS9 Initial Module CRC are
        verified.  After these parameters have been checked then the ac-
        tual  header  checksum  and module CRC values are calculated and
        replace the Initial Module Checksum and CRC values.  The  final-
        ized module is then written to the file mod.bin.  














                                   APPENDIX D

                                   CHANGE LOG





        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-2
        


           Asxxxx/ASlink version 5.20 is considered a major release ver-
        sion.  


        January 2017 Version 5.20
        
           (1)  Completed the functionality for propagating
                the boundary specifications .odd, .even, and
                .bndry processed during assembly to the linker.
        
           (2)  Restored the correct functionality of the
                .org directive in areas of REL type.
        
           (3)  Added Intel Hex legacy start address record
                type 1 as an option.



        Summary  of changes/additions to the ASxxxx Assemblers from Ver-
        sion 5.11 to Version 4.11.  



        2015_06_27 Version 5.10 Update 1
        
           This update for Version 5.10 of the ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers includes fixes for the following errors:
        
           (1)  The as6500 assembler incorrectly assembled
                cpx # and cpy # instructions.
        
           (2)  An error in asmain.c inhibited the listing of
                all .if.. assembly directives.



        2014_10_31 Version 5.10
        
           (1)  Rewrite of listing to relocated listing translation
                code in the assembler and the linker base code.
                The Assemblers now create a .lst to .rst hint file
                with the extension .hlr (when both .lst and .rel
                files are created by the assembler).
        
           (2)  Add as6100 assembler (Intersil IM6100 / Harris HM6100)
        
           (3)  Add as78k0s assembler (Renesas/NEC 78K/0S) 



        2013_05_12 Version 5.00 Update 6
        


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-3
        


           This  update  for  Version  5.00  of the  ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers rolls up updates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 with fixes
        for the following:
        
           (1)  Fix asscmp assembler (pre-increment on fetch).
        
           (2)  Fix aslink error reporting for PC relative modes.



        2012_08_01 Version 5.00 Update 5
        
        Update_05 for the ASxxxx Assembler and Linker Version 5.00
        (use 'pkunzip -d u05500.zip' for extraction with MS-DOS)
        (use 'unzip -L -a u05500.zip' for extraction with Linux)
        
               See the note about merging
               this update with the
               asxv5pxx distribution.
        
           This  update  for  Version  5.00  of the  ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers rolls up updates 1, 2, 3, and 4 with the addition of
        a new assembler and fixes:
        
           (1)  A new cross assembler for the Fairchild
                F8 microprocessor (or Mostek 3870).
        
           (2)  Minor syntactical changes for ANSI C compatability,
                fix type conversion warnings, and update the
                various build, make, and test files.
        
        
           Update 4 Items
        
           (1)  The AS8048 base opcode value for the JMPP
                instruction should be B3 and NOT 83.
        
           (2)  The AS8051 assembler calculates incorrect
                offsets when using the program counter, ".",
                as a destination in the instructions having
                a PC-Relative addressing mode.  These
                instructions include: jbc, jb, jbn, jc,
                jnc, jz, jnz, cjne, and djnz.
        
        
           Update 3 Items
        
           (1)  A new cross assembler for the Fairchild
                F8 microprocessor (or Mostek 3870).
        
           (2)  Minor syntactical changes for ANSI C compatability,
                fix type conversion warnings, and update the


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-4
        


                various build, make, and test files.
        
           (1)  New cross assemblers for STMicroelectronics
                ST6, ST7, and STM8 microprocessors.
        
           (2)  An ASlink list file update error fix (-u option)
                causing some errors not to be inserted into the
                created .rst file.
        
           (3)  An additional ASxxxx assembler option (-v) which
                enables checking for out of range signed / unsigned
                values in symbol equates and arithmetic operations.
                This option has some ambiguities as internally the
                assemblers use unsigned arithmetic for calculations.
                (e.g. for a 2-byte machine -32768 and 32768 are both
                represented as 0x8000)
        
        
           Update 2 Items
        
           (1)  When using the assembler directive .end to specify
                the code entry address the assembler fails to set
                the variable .__.END. as a global.  Therefor the
                value of .__.END. is not passed to the linker and
                the start address frame is always zero.
        
           (2)  The linker will fail to create a start address frame
                when there is no code generated within the area/bank
                referenced by the .__.END. variable.
        
        
           Update 1 Items
        
           (1)  The newest versions of gcc (and perhaps other
                compilers) give warnings about missing arguments
                in the fprintf() function.  This update replaces
                fprintf(arg1, arg2) with fprintf(arg1, "%s", arg2)
                in each affected line of code.
        
           (2)  The newest versions of gcc (and perhaps other
                compilers) have defined 'getline' as a standard
                function in 'stdio.h'.  This conflicts with the
                function 'getline()' in the ASxxxx package.
                All references to 'getline()' have been changed
                to 'nxtline()'.
        
        
           Before merging the asxv5pxx directory and subdirectories with
        the V5.00 distribution the following files/directories must be
        deleted:
        
                [asxv5pxx\asf2mc8\f8mch.c


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-5
        


                [asxv5pxx\asf2mc8\f8adr.c
                [asxv5pxx\asf2mc8\f8pst.c
                [asxv5pxx\asf2mc8\f8.h
        
                [asxv5pxx\asxmak\vc6\asf2mc8]
                [asxv5pxx\asxmak\vs05\asf2mc8]



        2011_07_24 Version 5.00 Update 4
        
           This  update  for  Version  5.00  of the  ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers includes fixes for the following errors:
        
           (1)  The AS8048 base opcode value for the
                JMPP instruction should be B3 and NOT 83.
        
           (2)  The AS8051 assembler calculates incorrect
                offsets when using the program counter, ".",
                as a destination in the instructions having
                a PC-Relative addressing mode.  These
                instructions include: jbc, jb, jbn, jc,
                jnc, jz, jnz, cjne, and djnz.



        2010_10_31 Version 5.00 Update 3
        
           This  update  for  Version  5.00  of the  ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers rolls up updates 1 and 2 with the addition of
        three new assemblers and fixes:
        
           (1)  New cross assemblers for STMicroelectronics
                ST6, ST7, and STM8 microprocessors.
        
           (2)  An ASlink list file update error fix (-u option)
                causing some errors not to be inserted into the
                created .rst file.
        
           (3)  An additional ASxxxx assembler option (-v) which
                enables checking for out of range signed / unsigned
                values in symbol equates and arithmetic operations.
                This option has some ambiguities as internally the
                assemblers use unsigned arithmetic for calculations.
                (e.g. for a 2-byte machine -32768 and 32768 are both
                represented as 0x8000)
        
        
           Update 2 Items
        
           (1)  When using the assembler directive .end to specify
                the code entry address the assembler fails to set


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-6
        


                the variable .__.END. as a global.  Therefor the
                value of .__.END. is not passed to the linker and
                the start address frame is always zero.
        
           (2)  The linker will fail to create a start address frame
                when there is no code generated within the area/bank
                referenced by the .__.END. variable.
        
        
           Update 1 Items
        
           (1)  The newest versions of gcc (and perhaps other
                compilers) give warnings about missing arguments
                in the fprintf() function.  This update replaces
                fprintf(arg1, arg2) with fprintf(arg1, "%s", arg2)
                in each affected line of code.
        
           (2)  The newest versions of gcc (and perhaps other
                compilers) have defined 'getline' as a standard
                function in 'stdio.h'.  This conflicts with the
                function 'getline()' in the ASxxxx package.
                All references to 'getline()' have been changed
                to 'nxtline()'.



        2010_04_01 Version 5.00 Update 2
        
           This  update  for  Version  5.00  of the  ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers includes fixes for the following errors:
        
           (1)  When using the assembler directive .end to specify
                the code entry address the assembler fails to set
                the variable .__.END. as a global.  Therefor the
                value of .__.END. is not passed to the linker and
                the start address frame is always zero.
        
           (2)  The linker will fail to create a start address frame
                when there is no code generated within the area/bank
                referenced by the .__.END. variable.



        2010_03_03 Version 5.00 Update 1
        
           This  update  for  Version  5.00  of the  ASxxxx Cross
        Assemblers includes fixes for the following errors:
        
           (1)  The newest versions of gcc (and perhaps other
                compilers) give warnings about missing arguments
                in the fprintf() function.  This update replaces
                fprintf(arg1, arg2) with fprintf(arg1, "%s", arg2)


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-7
        


                in each affected line of code.
        
        
           (2)  The newest versions of gcc (and perhaps other
                compilers) have defined 'getline' as a standard
                function in 'stdio.h'.  This conflicts with the
                function 'getline()' in the ASxxxx package.
                All references to 'getline()' have been changed
                to 'nxtline()'.



        2009_04_01 (Version 5.00)


           Added  a general purpose macro processor to the ASxxxx assem-
        blers.  

           Added  true (t), false (f), and true or false (tf) condition-
        als to the  .if / .else / .endif  construct.   The  conditionals
        .ift,  .iff,  and .iftf allow replacement of the .else directive
        making the .if / .endif construct more readable.  

        e.g.    .ift    if condition is true


           An  alternate  .if  construction has been added to the ASxxxx
        assemblers:  

        e.g.    .if    eq,...   if argument == 0


           The  immediate  conditional statements have been added to the
        ASxxxx  assemblers.   These   conditionals   can   replace   the
        .if / ... / .endif construct for a single assembler source line: 

        e.g.    .iifeq  arg     label:  .word   0x1234


           The alternate immediate conditional statements have also been
        added to the ASxxxx assemblers:  

        e.g.    .iif    eq,arg  label:  .word   0x1234


           The  listing  options  for the ASxxxx assemblers has been up-
        dated to enable/disable any of the following parameters from be-
        ing output to a generated listing file:  

            err         error codes
            loc         code location
            bin         assembler binary code


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-8
        


            eqt         symbolic equates / if evaluations
            cyc         machine cycles
            lin         assembler source line number
            src         assembler source code
            pag         paging control
            lst         listing of .list / .nlist
            md          macro definition
            me          macro expansion
            meb         macro expansion binary code
        
            !           sets the listing mode to
                        !(.list) or !(.nlist) before
                        applying the sublist options
        
        e.g.    .nlist  (lst,pag)       ; disable .list/.nlist listing
                                        ; and pagination


           The  NOT parameter, !, is used to set the listing mode to the
        opposite sense of the .list or .nlist directive.  For example:  

            .nlist (!)  is equivalent to .list and
            .list  (!)  is equivalent to .nlist

        To enable listing and simultaneously disable the cycle count use
        the directive:  

            .nlist  (!,cyc)

        or  if  you  wish  to suppress the listing of the .list / .nlist
        directives:  

            .nlist              ; disables all listing
            .nlist  (!,lst)     ; enables  all listing except
                                : .list (...) and .nlist


           Normally  the  .list  and .nlist directives are not evaluated
        when encountered within a FALSE conditional block.  This default
        behavior  can  be  modified by specifying a non zero argument in
        the .list or .nlist directive:  

            .nlist   1,(!,lst)  ; enables listing even within
                                ; a FALSE conditional block



           The .bndry assembler directive has been added to ASxxxx.  The
        .bndry directive changes the  current  location  address  to  be
        evenly divisible by a specified integer value.  

        e.g.    .org    0


        CHANGE LOG                                              Page D-9
        


                .bndry  4
                ; . == 0
        
                .org    1
                .bndry  4
                ; . == 4



        2009_02
           Added the Cypress PSoc (M8C) ASM8C assembler
           to ASxxxx.
        
        
        2008_09
           Added the 8048 (8021, 8022, and 8041) AS8048
           assembler to Asxxxx.
        
        
        2008_02
           Added the SC/MP ASSCMP assembler to ASxxxx.


        CHANGE LOG                                             Page D-10
        


        2008_02_03 (Version 4.11 Update 4)
        
           An update to the AS2650 assembler to
           fix the following errors:
        
           1)  The indexed addressing mode generates invalid
               code by using the first argument register as
               the index register: (addr = 0x1234)
        
                   loda    r0,[addr,r1]          0C F2 34
                           this should give      0D F2 34
        
           2)  The index addressing mode did not generate
               an addressing error when the first argument
               register was not r0:
        
                   stra    r1,[addr,r2]  should give an 'a'
                           error, the source must be r0
        
        
                   loda    r2,[addr,r3]  should give an 'a'
                           error, the destination must be r0
        
           3)  The S2650 auto increment and decrement indexing 
               modes always perform the register update before
               the register is used. i.e. +Rn or -Rn.  The
               assembler now accepts +Rn or Rn+ as meaning
               pre-increment and -Rn or Rn- as meaning
               pre-decrement.
        
        
           The AS2650 assembler tstscn files have been updated
           for testing the assemblers.
        
        
        
        2007_10_21 (Version 4.11 Fix)
        
           In the AS6816 assembler the instruction ANDP gives
           wrong object code. Changed from 37 2A  to  37 3A.


        CHANGE LOG                                             Page D-11
        


        2007_04_01 (Version 4.11 Update 3)
        
           An update to the ASPIC assembler and
           associated fix to ASLINK:
        
           1)  Change the pic addressing to lo/hi from hi/lo
               byte ordering.
        
           2)  The update fixes an error in the pic17 series
               LCALL instruction.
        
           3)  A rewrite of the pic18 series assembler to change
               the PC addressing from 1 per 16-bit word to 1 per
               8-bit byte and add the extended instruction set.
        
           4)  Modify the Linker Merge Mode processing to take into
               account the discarded low order bits for PC Relative
               Addressing.
        
           5)  New  tstscn files for testing the assemblers.
        
        
        
        2006_11_01 (Version 4.11 Optional Update 2)
        
           1)  OS9  definition files and an  OS9 assembler module
               which creates the OS9 header, code and data areas,
               and the module CRC block:
        
                    os9_mod.def       OS9 Module Definitions
                    os9_sys.def       OS9 Sytem  Definitions
                    os9_mod.asm       OS9 Module Begin / End Code
        
           2)  a program, s19os9, to post-process  assembled  OS9
               modules in  S19  format into  binary  OS9  modules
               with the appropriate  header  checksum  and module
               CRC values calculated.
        
           3)  new  make  and  project files which may be used to
               compile the s19os9 program.


        CHANGE LOG                                             Page D-12
        


        2006_11_01 (Version 4.11 Optional Update 01)
        
           The .list  and  .nlist  directives  are  now  modified
           by .if / .else / .endif  processing  so  that they are
           active only in a TRUE clause.
        
           The  .page  and  .include  directives are now modified
           by the .list and .nlist  directives so that pagination
           occurs only when listing is active.
        
           The new  default functionality for the  .list,  .nlist
           and .page directives may  be  modified by including an
           optional argument  in the  directive as shown here for
           the the .list directive:
        
              .list    arg
        
           a non-zero argument invokes the directive irrespective
           of the .if / .else / .endif status.
        
        
        
        2006_07_26 (Version 4.11 Patch 01)
        
           The  assembly  of  a  direct  page  instruction with a
           numeric  constant  causes a program  crash when a .rel
           file is created. e.g.:
        
                andb    *0x02
        
        
           The  use  of  a  symbolic  constant  or  symbol plus a
           a constant compiles normally.
        
                val = 0x02
        
                andb    *val
                andb    *extern+0x01
        
        
           The assemblers effected are:
        
                as6809
                as6812
                ash8
                aspic


        CHANGE LOG                                             Page D-13
        


           Summary  of  changes/additions  to the ASxxxx Assemblers from
        Version 4.10 to Version 4.11.  

             1.  Incorporated  the patches contained in p01410.zip which
                 corrected a coding error that affected BANKS containing
                 multiple ABS areas or mixed AREA types.  

             2.  Incorporated  the patches contained in p02410.zip which
                 corrected improper use of  R_USGN  in  most  addressing
                 modes  in AS6500.  This caused unexpected 'a' errors in
                 V4.xx because of the ASxxxx core change to  32-bit  in-
                 tegers and arithmetic.  

             3.  Incorporated  the patches contained in p03410.zip which
                 corrected errors in the  .local  and  .globl  assembler
                 directive  processing  routine that introduced unwanted
                 side effects for variable and symbol definition  files.
                 These  effects included improper definitions and incor-
                 rect error warnings.  

             4.  The  following  new subdirectories and their files have
                 been added to the asxtst directory:  

                  *  areabank     Area and Bank Processing Test 
                     This  directory  contains  several  test  programs:
                     ts.asm (single file - multiple areas), tm1.asm  and
                     tm2.asm  (multiple  file  -  multiple  areas),  and
                     tbm.asm, tbm1.asm, and tbm2.asm ( multiple  file  -
                     multiple  areas  within  a  bank) and several other
                     files which verify the  correct  operation  of  the
                     linker  when used with a single linked file, multi-
                     ple linked files having no  banking,  and  multiple
                     linked  files  with banking.  These reference files
                     show in detail how the .area and  .bank  directives
                     work together.  

                  *  equtst       Equate Processing Test 
                     This  directory  contains a test file for verifying
                     the operation of the .globl, .local, .equ, .gblequ,
                     and  .lclequ  directives  and  the  =,  ==,  and =:
                     equalities.  

                  *  inctst       Nested Include File Test 

                  *  itst         Include File Error Reporting Test 


             5.  Incorporated  the updates contained in u01410.zip which
                 added 10 undocumented 8085 instructions to  the  AS8085
                 assembler.  



        CHANGE LOG                                             Page D-14
        







           Summary  of  changes/additions  to the ASxxxx Assemblers from
        Version 4.00 to Version 4.10.  

             1.  Added new assemblers for the Zilog EZ80, Zilog Z8, Sig-
                 netics 2650, and Fujitsu F2MC8(L,FX) processors.  

             2.  Added the processor cycle count option (-c) to all pro-
                 cessors.  

             3.  Several   of  the  assemblers  (ASZ80,  ASRAB,  AS6805,
                 AS6808, AS6812, ASF2MC8, ...) now  support  subsets  or
                 supersets  of  their basic opcodes by the use of assem-
                 bler specific directives.  

             4.  Added .ifeq, .ifne, .iflt, .ifgt, .ifle, and .ifge con-
                 ditional assembly directives.  

             5.  Added  support  for the Tandy Color Computer Disc Basic
                 binary file format to ASLINK.  

             6.  Problem:  
                 When  an area size is equal to the 'address space size'
                 the size parameter is reported as 0.  (A normal  condi-
                 tion  caused  by  address rollover to 0.) Aslink inter-
                 preted this as a 0 size.  

                 Fix:  
                 A  new area 'Output Code Flag' bit was defined to indi-
                 cate when data is  defined  in  an  area.   ASxxxx  and
                 Aslink  have  been updated to set and process this area
                 flag bit.  

             7.  Problem:  
                 The  use  of  the .end assembler directive in an Asxxxx
                 assembler would cause Aslink  to  output  the  optional
                 start address in all output files.  

                 Fix:  
                 Updated  Aslink  to  output  the optional start address
                 only in the output file associated with  the  area/bank
                 containing the .end directive.  

             8.  Problem:  
                 Aslink  creates  output  files for banks with no output
                 data.  

                 Fix:  


        CHANGE LOG                                             Page D-15
        


                 Aslink  now  deletes  any created output file for banks
                 with no data.  

             9.  Incorporated  the  patches  contained in p01400.zip for
                 files t1802.asm and 1802pst.c to correct for  an  error
                 in  the  opcodes  generated  for  the  BM,  BL, and BNF
                 mnemonics.  

            10.  Incorporated  the  patches  contained in p02400.zip for
                 file ds8adr.c to correct for an  error  in  the  direct
                 page addressing mode of AS8xCxxx.  

            11.  Incorporated  the  patches  contained in p03400.zip for
                 file rabmch.c to correct for an error in the processing
                 of the "ret cc" instruction.  

            12.  Made many corrections to internal code comments.  















                                   APPENDIX AA

                                ASCHECK ASSEMBLER




           The  ASxxxx assembler ASCHECK is used to test the machine in-
        dependent features of the ASxxxx assemblers.  The  source  files
        for  the ASCHECK assembler are also useful as a template for the
        development of a new ASxxxx assembler.  

           The  ASCHECK  assembler has all the ASxxxx directives enabled
        for testing all features of the assemblers.  


        AA.1  .opcode DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .opcode    n 

        The  .opcode  directive creates a single byte of code having the
        value n and having cycle counts defined in the following table: 

        /*--*--* 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  A  B  C  D  E  F */
        /*--*--* -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - */
        /*00*/   0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,10,11,12,13,14,15,
        /*10*/  UN, 1,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*20*/  UN,UN, 2,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*30*/  UN,UN,UN, 3,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*40*/  UN,UN,UN,UN, 4,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*50*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN, 5,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*60*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN, 6,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*70*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN, 7,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*80*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN, 8,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*90*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN, 9,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*A0*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,10,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*B0*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,11,UN,UN,UN,UN,
        /*C0*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,12,UN,UN,UN,
        /*D0*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,13,UN,UN,
        /*E0*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,14,UN,
        /*F0*/  UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,UN,15



        ASCHECK ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AA-2
        .opcode DIRECTIVE


        The  UN symbols indicate 'undefined cycles' where no cycle count
        will be output.  














                                   APPENDIX AB

                                AS1802 ASSEMBLER





        AB.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


           Thanks  to  Shujen  Chen  for  his contribution of the AS1802
        cross assembler.  

                Shujen Chen
                DeVry University
                Tinley Park, IL
                schen at tp dot devry dot edu


        AB.2  1802 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 1802 registers used by AS1802:  

                r0-r15  -       8-bit registers
                sp      -       register r2
                pc      -       register r3
                call    -       register r4
                return  -       register r5
                argr    -       register r6


        AB.3  1802 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 1802 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS1802 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS1802:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                expr            expression


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-2
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        
                Rn              register addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The terms data, expr, and label may be expressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 1802 technical data for valid modes.  


        AB.3.1  1802 Inherent Instructions 

                adc             add             and
                dis             idl             irx
                ldx             ldxa            lsdf
                lsie            lskp            lsnf
                lsnq            lsnz            lsq
                lsz             mark            nop
                or              req             ret
                rshl            rshr            sav
                sd              sdb             seq
                shl             shlc            shr
                shrc            skp             sm
                smb             stxd            xor


        AB.3.2  1802 Short Branch Instructions 

                b1      label           b2      label
                b3      label           b4      label
                bdf     label           bge     label
                bl      label           bm      label
                bn1     label           bn2     label
                bn3     label           bn4     label
                bnf     label           bnq     label
                bnz     label           bpz     label
                bq      label           br      label
                bz      label           nbr     label




        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-3
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        AB.3.3  1802 Long Branch Instructions 

                lbdf    label           lbnf    label
                lbnq    label           lbnz    label
                lbq     label           lbr     label
                lbz     label           nlbr    label


        AB.3.4  1802 Immediate Instructions 

                adci    #data           adi     #data
                ani     #data           ldi     #data
                ori     #data           sdbi    #data
                sdi     #data           smbi    #data
                smi     #data           xri     #data


        AB.3.5  1802 Register Instructions 

                dec     Rn              ghi     Rn
                glo     Rn              inc     Rn
                lda     Rn              ldn     Rn
                phi     Rn              plo     Rn
                sep     Rn              sex     Rn
                str     Rn


        AB.3.6  1802 Input and Output Instructions 

                inp     expr
                out     expr


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-4
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        AB.3.7  CDP1802 COSMAC Microprocessor Instruction Set Summary 

        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        |                                                              |
        |                                                              |
        |                             RCA                              |
        |                                                              |
        |               1     88888      000      22222                |
        |              11    8     8    0   0    2     2               |
        |               1    8     8   0   0 0        2                |
        |               1     88888    0  0  0     222                 |
        |               1    8     8   0 0   0    2                    |
        |               1    8     8    0   0    2                     |
        |              111    88888      000     2222222               |
        |                                                              |
        |    CDP1802 COSMAC Microprocessor Instruction Set Summary     |
        |                                                              |
        |                                                              |
        |                                                              |
        |                                                              |
        |Written by     Jonathan Bowen                                 |
        |               Programming Research Group                     |
        |               Oxford University Computing Laboratory         |
        |               8-11 Keble Road                                |
        |               Oxford OX1 3QD                                 |
        |               England                                        |
        |                                                              |
        |               Tel +44-865-273840                             |
        |                                                              |
        |Created        August 1981                                    |
        |Updated        April 1985                                     |
        |Issue          1.3                Copyright (C) J.P.Bowen 1985|
        ----------------------------------------------------------------


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-5
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        |                                                              |
        |             CDP1802 COSMAC Microprocessor Pinout             |
        |                                                              |
        |                    _________    _________                    |
        |                  _|         \__/         |_                  |
        |       --> CLOCK |_|1                   40|_| Vdd             |
        |            ____  _|                      |_  ____            |
        |        --> WAIT |_|2                   39|_| XTAL -->        |
        |           _____  _|                      |_  ______          |
        |       --> CLEAR |_|3                   38|_| DMA IN <--      |
        |                  _|                      |_  _______         |
        |           <-- Q |_|4                   37|_| DMA OUT <--     |
        |                  _|                      |_  _________       |
        |         <-- SC1 |_|5                   36|_| INTERRUPT <--   |
        |                  _|                      |_  ___             |
        |         <-- SC0 |_|6                   35|_| MWR <--         |
        |             ___  _|                      |_                  |
        |         <-- MRD |_|7                   34|_| TPA -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 7 |_|8                   33|_| TPB -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 6 |_|9                   32|_| MA7 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 5 |_|10       1802       31|_| MA6 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 4 |_|11                  30|_| MA5 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 3 |_|12                  29|_| MA4 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 2 |_|13                  28|_| MA3 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 1 |_|14                  27|_| MA2 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |      <--> BUS 0 |_|15                  26|_| MA1 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_                  |
        |             Vcc |_|16                  25|_| MA0 -->         |
        |                  _|                      |_  ___             |
        |          <-- N2 |_|17                  24|_| EF1 <--         |
        |                  _|                      |_  ___             |
        |          <-- N1 |_|18                  23|_| EF2 <--         |
        |                  _|                      |_  ___             |
        |          <-- N0 |_|19                  22|_| EF3 <--         |
        |                  _|                      |_  ___             |
        |             Vss |_|20                  21|_| EF4 <--         |
        |                   |______________________|                   |
        |                                                              |
        |                                                              |
        ----------------------------------------------------------------


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-6
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        |Mnem. |Op|F|Description                 |Notes                |
        |------+--+-+----------------------------+---------------------|
        |ADC   |74|*|Add with Carry              |{DF,D}=mx+D+DF       |
        |ADCI i|7C|*|Add with Carry Immediate    |{DF,D}=mp+D+DF,p=p+1 |
        |ADD   |F4|*|Add                         |{DF,D}=mx+D          |
        |ADI  i|FC|*|Add Immediate               |{DF,D}=mp+D,p=p+1    |
        |AND   |F2|*|Logical AND                 |D={mx}&D             |
        |ANI  i|FA|*|Logical AND Immediate       |D={mp}&D,p=p+1       |
        |B1   a|34|-|Branch if EF1               |If EF1=1 BR else NBR |
        |B2   a|35|-|Branch if EF2               |If EF2=1 BR else NBR |
        |B3   a|36|-|Branch if EF3               |If EF3=1 BR else NBR |
        |B4   a|37|-|Branch if EF4               |If EF4=1 BR else NBR |
        |BDF  a|33|-|Branch if DF                |If DF=1 BR else NBR  |
        |BGE  a|33|-|Branch if Greater or Equal  |See BDF              |
        |BL   a|38|-|Branch if Less              |See BNF BR else NBR  |
        |BM   a|38|-|Branch if Minus             |See BNF              |
        |BN1  a|3C|-|Branch if Not EF1           |If EF1=0 BR else NBR |
        |BN2  a|3D|-|Branch if Not EF2           |If EF2=0 BR else NBR |
        |BN3  a|3E|-|Branch if Not EF3           |If EF3=0 BR else NBR |
        |BN4  a|3F|-|Branch if Not EF4           |If EF4=0 BR else NBR |
        |BNF  a|38|-|Branch if Not DF            |If DF=0 BR else NBR  |
        |BNQ  a|39|-|Branch if Not Q             |If Q=0 BR else NBR   |
        |BNZ  a|3A|-|Branch if D Not Zero        |If D=1 BR else NBR   |
        |BPZ  a|33|-|Branch if Positive or Zero  |See BDF              |
        |BQ   a|31|-|Branch if Q                 |If Q=1 BR else NBR   |
        |BR   a|30|-|Branch                      |pl=mp                |
        |BZ   a|32|-|Branch if D Zero            |If D=0 BR else NBR   |
        |DEC  r|2N|-|Decrement register N        |n=n-1                |
        |DIS   |71|-|Disable                     |{X,P}=mx,x=x+1,IE=0  |
        |GHI  r|9N|-|Get High register N         |D=nh                 |
        |GLO  r|8N|-|Get Low register N          |D=nl                 |
        |IDL   |00|-|Idle (wait for DMA or int.) |Bus=m0               |
        |INC  r|1N|-|Increment register N        |n=n+1                |
        |INP  d|6N|-|Input (N=d+8=9-F)           |mx=Bus,D=Bus,Nlines=d|
        |IRX   |60|-|Increment register X        |x=x+1                |
        |LBDF a|C3|-|Long Branch if DF           |If DF=1 LBR else LNBR|
        |LBNF a|C8|-|Long Branch if Not DF       |If DF=0 LBR else LNBR|
        |LBNQ a|C9|-|Long Branch if Not Q        |If Q=0 LBR else LNBR |
        |LBNZ a|CA|-|Long Branch if D Not Zero   |If D=1 LBR else LNBR |
        |LBQ  a|C1|-|Long Branch if Q            |If Q=1 LBR else LNBR |
        |LBR  a|C0|-|Long Branch                 |p=mp                 |
        |LBZ  a|C2|-|Long Branch if D Zero       |If D=0 LBR else LNBR |
        |LDA  r|4N|-|Load advance                |D=mn,n=n+1           |
        |LDI  i|F8|-|Load Immediate              |D=mp,p=p+1           |
        |LDN  r|0N|-|Load via N (except N=0)     |D=mn                 |
        |LDX   |F0|-|Load via X                  |D=mx                 |
        |LDXA  |72|-|Load via X and Advance      |D=mx,x=x+1           |
        |LSDF  |CF|-|Long Skip if DF             |If DF=1 LSKP else NOP|
        ----------------------------------------------------------------


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-7
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        |Mnem. |Op|F|Description                 |Notes                |
        |------+--+-+----------------------------+---------------------|
        |LSIE  |CC|-|Long Skip if IE             |If IE=1 LSKP else NOP|
        |LSKP  |C8|-|Long Skip                   |See NLBR             |
        |LSNF  |C7|-|Long Skip if Not DF         |If DF=0 LSKP else NOP|
        |LSNQ  |C5|-|Long Skip if Not Q          |If Q=0 LSKP else NOP |
        |LSNZ  |C6|-|Long Skip if D Not Zero     |If D=1 LSKP else NOP |
        |LSQ   |CD|-|Long Skip if Q              |If Q=1 LSKP else NOP |
        |LSZ   |CE|-|Long Skip if D Zero         |If D=0 LSKP else NOP |
        |MARK  |79|-|Push X,P to stack  (T={X,P})|m2={X,P},X=P,r2=r2-1 |
        |NBR   |38|-|No short Branch (see SKP)   |p=p+1                |
        |NLBR a|C8|-|No Long Branch (see LSKP)   |p=p+2                |
        |NOP   |C4|-|No Operation                |Continue             |
        |OR    |F1|*|Logical OR                  |D={mx}vD             |
        |ORI  i|F9|*|Logical OR Immediate        |D={mp}vD,p=p+1       |
        |OUT  d|6N|-|Output (N=d=1-7)            |Bus=mx,x=x+1,Nlines=d|
        |PLO  r|AN|-|Put Low register N          |nl=D                 |
        |PHI  r|BN|-|Put High register N         |nh=D                 |
        |REQ   |7A|-|Reset Q                     |Q=0                  |
        |RET   |70|-|Return                      |{X,P}=mx,x=x+1,IE=1  |
        |RSHL  |7E|*|Ring Shift Left             |See SHLC             |
        |RSHR  |76|*|Ring Shift Right            |See SHRC             |
        |SAV   |78|-|Save                        |mx=T                 |
        |SDB   |75|*|Subtract D with Borrow      |{DF,D}=mx-D-DF       |
        |SDBI i|7D|*|Subtract D with Borrow Imm. |{DF,D}=mp-D-DF,p=p+1 |
        |SD    |F5|*|Subtract D                  |{DF,D}=mx-D          |
        |SDI  i|FD|*|Subtract D Immediate        |{DF,D}=mp-D,p=p+1    |
        |SEP  r|DN|-|Set P                       |P=N                  |
        |SEQ   |7B|-|Set Q                       |Q=1                  |
        |SEX  r|EN|-|Set X                       |X=N                  |
        |SHL   |FE|*|Shift Left                  |{DF,D}={DF,D,0}<-    |
        |SHLC  |7E|*|Shift Left with Carry       |{DF,D}={DF,D}<-      |
        |SHR   |F6|*|Shift Right                 |{D,DF}=->{0,D,DF}    |
        |SHRC  |76|*|Shift Right with Carry      |{D,DF}=->{D,DF}      |
        |SKP   |38|-|Short Skip                  |See NBR              |
        |SMB   |77|*|Subtract Memory with Borrow |{DF,D}=D-mx-{~DF}    |
        |SMBI i|7F|*|Subtract Mem with Borrow Imm|{DF,D}=D-mp-~DF,p=p+1|
        |SM    |F7|*|Subtract Memory             |{DF,D}=D-mx          |
        |SMI  i|FF|*|Subtract Memory Immediate   |{DF,D}=D-mp,p=p+1    |
        |STR  r|5N|-|Store via N                 |mn=D                 |
        |STXD  |73|-|Store via X and Decrement   |mx=D,x=x-1           |
        |XOR   |F3|*|Logical Exclusive OR        |D={mx}.D             |
        |XRI  i|FB|*|Logical Exclusive OR Imm.   |D={mp}.D,p=p+1       |
        |      |  |-|Interrupt action            |T={X,P},P=1,X=2,IE=0 |
        |------+--+-+--------------------------------------------------|
        |      |??| |8-bit hexadecimal opcode                          |
        |      |?N| |Opcode with register/device in low 4/3 bits       |
        |      |  |-|DF flag unaffected                                |
        |      |  |*|DF flag affected                                  |
        ----------------------------------------------------------------


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-8
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        |Arguments  |                     Notes                        |
        |-----------+--------------------------------------------------|
        | mn        |Register addressing                               |
        | mx        |Register-indirect addressing                      |
        | mp        |Immediate addressing                              |
        | R( )      |Stack addressing (implied addressing)             |
        |-----------+--------------------------------------------------|
        | D         |Data register (accumulator, 8-bit)                |
        | DF        |Data Flag (ALU carry, 1-bit)                      |
        | I         |High-order instruction digit (4-bit)              |
        | IE        |Interrupt Enable (1-bit)                          |
        | N         |Low-order instruction digit (4-bit)               |
        | P         |Designates Program Counter register (4-bit)       |
        | Q         |Output flip-flop (1-bit)                          |
        | R         |1 of 16 scratchpad Registers(16-bit)              |
        | T         |Holds old {X,P} after interrupt (X high, 8-bit)   |
        | X         |Designates Data Pointer register (4-bit)          |
        |-----------+--------------------------------------------------|
        | mn        |Memory byte addressed by R(N)                     |
        | mp        |Memory byte addressed by R(P)                     |
        | mx        |Memory byte addressed by R(X)                     |
        | m?        |Memory byte addressed by R(?)                     |
        | n         |Short form for R(N)                               |
        | nh        |High-order byte of R(N)                           |
        | nl        |Low-order byte of R(N)                            |
        | p         |Short form for R(P)                               |
        | pl        |Low-order byte of R(P)                            |
        | r?        |Short form for R(?)                               |
        | x         |Short form for R(X)                               |
        |-----------+--------------------------------------------------|
        | R(N)      |Register specified by N                           |
        | R(P)      |Current program counter                           |
        | R(X)      |Current data pointer                              |
        | R(?)      |Specific register                                 |
        ----------------------------------------------------------------


        AS1802 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AB-9
        1802 INSTRUCTION SET


        ----------------------------------------------------------------
        |Arguments  |                     Notes                        |
        |-----------+--------------------------------------------------|
        | a         |Address expression                                |
        | d         |Device number (1-7)                               |
        | i         |Immediate expression                              |
        | n         |Expression                                        |
        | r         |Register (hex digit or an R followed by hex digit)|
        |-----------+--------------------------------------------------|
        | +         |Arithmetic addition                               |
        | -         |Arithmetic subtraction                            |
        | *         |Arithmetic multiplication                         |
        | /         |Arithmetic division                               |
        | &         |Logical AND                                       |
        | ~         |Logical NOT                                       |
        | v         |Logical inclusive OR                              |
        | .         |Logical exclusive OR                              |
        | <-        |Rotate left                                       |
        | ->        |Rotate right                                      |
        | { }       |Combination of operands                           |
        | ?         |Hexadecimal digit (0-F)                           |
        | -->       |Input pin                                         |
        | <--       |Output pin                                        |
        | <-->      |Input/output pin                                  |
        ----------------------------------------------------------------














                                   APPENDIX AC

                                AS2650 ASSEMBLER





        AC.1  2650 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 2650 registers used by AS2650:  

                r0,r1   -       8-bit accumulators
                r2,r3


        AC.2  2650 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 2650 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS2650 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The designation CC refers to a re-
        quired condition code argument:   .eq.,  .gt.,  .lt.,  .un.,  or
        value  of 0-3.  The following list specifies the format for each
        addressing mode supported by AS2650:  

                #data           immediate byte data
        
                r0,r1,r2,r3     registers
        
                addr            location/branch address
        
                [addr]     or   indirect addressing
                @addr
        
                [addr,r0]  or   register indexed
                @addr,r0        indirect addressing
        
                [addr,-r0] or   autodecrement register indexed
                @addr,-r0       indirect addressing
        
                [addr,r0+] or   autoincrement register indexed
                @addr,r0+       indirect addressing
        


        AS2650 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AC-2
        2650 INSTRUCTION SET


                .eq.            CC: equal               (== 0)
                .gt.            CC: greater than        (== 1)
                .lt.            CC: less than           (== 2)
                .un.            CC: unconditional       (== 3)

        The terms data, label, and addr may all be expressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 2650 technical data for valid modes.  


        AC.2.1  Load / Store Instructions 

                lodz    r               lodi    #data
                lodr    []              loda    []
        
                stoz    r
                stor    []              stoa    []


        AC.2.2  Arithmetic / Compare Instructions 

                addz    r               addi    #data
                addr    []              adda    []
        
                subz    r               subi    #data
                subr    []              suba    []
        
                comz    r               comi    #data
                comr    []              coma    []
        
                dar     r


        AC.2.3  Logical / Rotate Instructions 

                andz    r               andi    #data
                andr    []              anda    []
        
                iorz    r               iori    #data
                iorr    []              iora    []
        
                eorz    r               eori    #data
                eorr    []              eora    []
        
                rrr     r
                rrl     r


        AS2650 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AC-3
        2650 INSTRUCTION SET


        AC.2.4  Condition Code Branches 

                bctr    CC,[]           bcta    CC,[]
        
                bcfr    CC,[]           bcfa    CC,[]
        
                bstr    CC,[]           bsta    CC,[]
        
                bsfr    CC,[]           bsta    CC,[]


        AC.2.5  Register Test Branches 

                brnr    r,[]            brna    r,[]
        
                birr    r,[]            bira    r,[]
        
                bdrr    r,[]            bdra    r,[]
        
                bsnr    r,[]            bsna    r,[]


        AC.2.6  Branches (to Subroutines) / Returns 

                bxa     []              bsxa    []
        
                zbrr    []              zbsr    []
        
                retc    CC              rete    CC


        AC.2.7  Input / Output 

                redc    r               wrtc    r
                redd    r               wrtd    r
                rede    r,addr          wrte    r,addr


        AC.2.8  Miscellaneos 

                halt                    nop
                tmi     r,#data




        AS2650 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AC-4
        2650 INSTRUCTION SET


        AC.2.9  Program Status 

                lpsl                    lpsu
                spsl                    spsu
                cpsl    #data           cpsu    #data
                ppsl    #data           ppsu    #data
                tpsl    #data           tpsu    #data














                                   APPENDIX AD

                                 AS430 ASSEMBLER




           


        AD.1  MPS430 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the MPS430 registers used by AS430:  

        Sixteen 16-bit registers provide adddress, data, and
        special functions:
                pc  /   r0      -       program counter
                sp  /   r1      -       stack pointer
                sr  /   r2      -       status register
                cg1 /   r2      -       constant generator 1
                cg2 /   r3      -       constant generator 2
                        r4      -       working register r4
                        r5      -       working register r5
                        ...
                        r14     -       working register r14
                        r15     -       working register r15

           


        AS430 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AD-2
        MPS430 REGISTER SET


        AD.2  MPS430 ADDRESSING MODES 

        The following list specifies the format for each addressing mode
        supported by AS430:  

        Source/Destination Operand Addressing Modes
        As/Ad   Addressing Mode Syntax  Description
        -----   --------------- ------  -----------
        00/0    Register mode   Rn      Register contents are operand.
        01/1    Indexed mode    X(Rn)   (Rn + X) points to the operand,
                                        X is stored in the next word.
        01/1    Symbolic mode   ADDR    (PC + X) points to the operand,
                                        X is stored in the next word,
                                        Indexed mode X(PC) is used.
        01/1    Absolute mode   &ADDR   The word following the
                                        instruction, contains the
                                        absolute address.
        10/-    Indirect        @Rn     Rn is used as a pointer to the
                register mode           operand.
        11/-    Indirect        @Rn+    Rn is used as a pointer to the
                autoincrement           operand. Rn is incremented
                                        afterwards.
        11/-    Immediate mode  #N      The word following the
                                        instruction contains the
                                        immediate constant N. Indirect
                                        autoincrement mode @PC+ is used.

        The  terms  ADDR, X and N may all be expressions.  Note that not
        all addressing modes are valid with every instruction, refer  to
        the MPS430 technical data for valid modes.  


        AS430 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AD-3
        MPS430 ADDRESSING MODES


        AD.2.1  MPS430 Instruction Mnemonics 

        The following table lists all MPS430 family mnemonics recognized
        by the AS430 assembler.  The designations src and dst  refer  to
        required source and/or destination addressing mode arguments.  

        * ADC[.W];ADC.B  dst        dst + C -> dst
          ADD[.W];ADD.B  src,dst    src + dst -> dst
          ADDC[.W];ADDC.B           src,dst src + dst + C -> dst
          AND[.W];AND.B  src,dst    src .and. dst -> dst
          BIC[.W];BIC.B src,dst     .not.src .and. dst -> dst
          BIS[.W];BIS.B src,dst     src .or. dst -> dst
          BIT[.W];BIT.B src,dst     src .and. dst
        * BR dst                Branch to .......
        * BRANCH dst            Branch to .......
          CALL dst              PC+2 -> stack, dst -> PC
        * CLR[.W];CLR.B dst     Clear destination
        * CLRC                  Clear carry bit
        * CLRN                  Clear negative bit
        * CLRZ                  Clear zero bit
          CMP[.W];CMP.B src,dst     dst - src
        * DADC[.W];DADC.B dst       dst + C -> dst (decimal)
          DADD[.W];DADD.B src,dst   src + dst + C -> dst (decimal)
        * DEC[.W];DEC.B dst     dst - 1 -> dst
        * DECD[.W];DECD.B dst   dst - 2 -> dst
        * DINT                  Disable interrupt
        * EINT                  Enable interrupt
        * INC[.W];INC.B dst     dst + 1 -> dst
        * INCD[.W];INCD.B dst   dst + 2 -> dst
        * INV[.W];INV.B dst     Invert destination
          JC/JHS Label          Jump to Label if Carry-bit is set
          JEQ/JZ Label          Jump to Label if Zero-bit is set
          JGE Label             Jump to Label if (N .XOR. V) = 0
          JL Label              Jump to Label if (N .XOR. V) = 1
          JMP Label             Jump to Label unconditionally
          JN Label              Jump to Label if Negative-bit is set
          JNC/JLO Label         Jump to Label if Carry-bit is reset
          JNE/JNZ Label         Jump to Label if Zero-bit is reset
          MOV[.W];MOV.B src,dst     src -> dst
        * NOP                   No operation

           


        AS430 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AD-4
        MPS430 ADDRESSING MODES


        * POP[.W];POP.B dst     Item from stack, SP+2 -> SP
          PUSH[.W];PUSH.B src   SP - 2 -> SP, src -> @SP
          RETI                  Return from interrupt
                                    TOS -> SR, SP + 2 -> SP
                                    TOS -> PC, SP + 2 -> SZP
        * RET                   Return from subroutine
                                    TOS -> PC, SP + 2 -> SP
        * RLA[.W];RLA.B dst     Rotate left arithmetically
        * RLC[.W];RLC.B dst     Rotate left through carry
          RRA[.W];RRA.B dst     MSB -> MSB . ....LSB -> C
          RRC[.W];RRC.B dst     C -> MSB . ......LSB -> C
        * SBC[.W];SBC.B dst     Subtract carry from destination
        * SETC                  Set carry bit
        * SETN                  Set negative bit
        * SETZ                  Set zero bit
          SUB[.W];SUB.B src,dst     dst + .not.src + 1 -> dst
          SUBC[.W];SUBC.B src,dst   dst + .not.src + C -> dst
          SBB[.W];SBB.B src,dst     dst + .not.src + C -> dst
          SWPB dst              swap bytes
          SXT dst               Bit7 -> Bit8 ........ Bit15
        * TST[.W];TST.B dst     Test destination
          XOR[.W];XOR.B src,dst     src .xor. dst -> dst
                Note: Asterisked Instructions
                Asterisked (*) instructions are emulated.
                They are replaced with coreinstructions
                by the assembler.














                                   APPENDIX AE

                                AS6100 ASSEMBLER





        AE.1  6100 MACHINE DESCRIPTION 


           The IM6100 (Intersil) and HM6100 (Harris) microprocessors are
        12-bit word addressable machines having three 12-bit program ac-
        cessible  registers  and one single bit register.  These are the
        Accumulator (AC), MQ Register (MQ), Program  Counter  (PC),  and
        the Link (L) respectively.  

           The  6100  is basically a clone of the Digital Equipment Cor-
        poration PDP-8E minicomputer  architecture.   This  architecture
        predates  all  microprocessors  and labeled the bits from 0 (the
        most significant) to 11 (the least significant) rather than from
        least  to  most  significant.  The actual labelling is arbitrary
        and the as6100 assembler uses the now more common labelling.  

           The  output  generated from the assembler/linker is two bytes
        per word ordered as MSB then LSB with the upper 4  bits  of  the
        MSB always zero.  


        AE.2  ASSEMBLER SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           Because  the  6100  microprocessor  has  no  concept of bytes
        several of the cross assembler directives have  their  operation
        changed to reflect the 12-Bit nature of the microprocessor.  

        These are:
                .byte           (.db and .fcb are aliases)
                                output an 8-Bit value
                                into a 12-bit word
                .word           (.dw and .fdb are aliases)
                                output a 12-Bit value
                                into a 12-Bit word
                .ascii          (.asciz and ascis also)


        AS6100 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AE-2
        ASSEMBLER SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


                                output a sequence of 8-Bit
                                characters in 12-bit words

           A double precision integer (24-Bits) mnemonic has been added: 

                .dubl           (.4byte and .quad are aliases)
                                output a 24-Bit value
                                into two 12-bit words

           Two  new  directives  have  been  added  to  implement  6-bit
        character string operations.  The characters A-Z and  [/]^_  are
        masked  to values of 0x01 to 0x1F, the characters a-z are masked
        to values of 0x01 to 0x1A, and the characters from  ' '  (space)
        to  '?'  are masked to 0x20 to 0x3F.  All other ascii characters
        become a space (0x20).  

        These are:
                .text           output upto two characters per 12-bit
        word
                .textz          output upto two characters per 12-bit
        word
                                followed by a 6-bit zero value.


        AE.3  MACHINE SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           The  6100  microprocessor  memory architecture consists of 32
        pages each having 128 words for  a  total  of  4096  addressable
        words.   The  6100  instruction set allows direct access only to
        the current page and to page 0.  Three machine  specific  direc-
        tives  provide  differing  methods  to  select  the memory page.
        These directives are:  


        AE.3.1  .setpg 

        Format:  

                .setpg          ; . = next page boundary
                .setpg  N       ; . = Nth page boundary
        
        where:  N       is the page number from 0 to 31

           The .setpg directive is used to set the current program loca-
        tion counter to a specific 128 word page boundary or to the next
        128  word  page boundary and inform the assembler/linker of this
        boundary.  




        AS6100 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AE-3
        MACHINE SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        AE.3.2  .mempn 

        Format:  

                .mempn N        ; . = Nth page boundary
        
        where:  N       is the page number from 0 to 31

           The .mempn directive is used to set the current program loca-
        tion counter to a specific 128 word page boundary and inform the
        assembler/linker of this boundary.  


        AE.3.3  .mempa 

        Format:  

                .mempa A        ; . = A (a page boundary)
        
        where:  A       is a 128 word page address boundary

           The .mempa directive is used to set the current program loca-
        tion counter to a specific page boundary address and inform  the
        assembler/linker of this boundary.  


        AE.4  6100 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 6100 family mnemonics recog-
        nized by the AS6100 assembler.  The instruction set is described
        in 3 major groupings:  Basic Instructions, Operate Microinstruc-
        tions, and IOT Instructions.  


        AE.4.1  Basic Instructions 


           The basic instructions are:  

                and     Logical AND
                tad     Binary ADD
                isz     Increment and skip if zero
                dca     Deposit and clear AC
                jms     Jump to subroutine
                jmp     Jump

           These instructions have two paging addressing modes:  

                addr            current page address
                *addr           page 0 address



        AS6100 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AE-4
        6100 INSTRUCTION SET 


        which  can  be  combined with an indirect mode signified by an i
        argument or enclosing brackets []:  

                i addr          indirect current page
                [addr]
        
                i *addr         indirect page 0
                [*addr] or *[addr]

        The  6100  implements  an auto-increment mode when accessing ad-
        dresses 0x08 - 0x0F in page 0 by incrementing  the  contents  of
        the location before using the value as an address.  


        AE.4.2  Operate Instructions 


           The  operate  instructions are split into three groups of mu-
        tually exclusive micro operations.  The single  micro  operation
        in common with all three groups is:  

                CLA     Clear Accumulator


        AE.4.2.1  Group 1 Operate Instructions  - 

           The  group  1 microinstructions are used primarily to perform
        logical operations on the contents of the accumulator and link: 

                CLL     Clear Link
                CMA     Complement Accumulator
                CML     Complement Link
                IAC     Increment Accumulator
        
                RAL     Rotate Accumulator Left
                RTL     Rotate Two Left
                RAR     Rotate Accumulator Right
                RTR     Rotate Two Right
                BSW     Byte Swap

        A group 1 microinstruction can contain one or all of the mnemon-
        ics CLA, CLL, CMA, CML, IAC, but only one of the RAL, RTL,  RAR,
        RTR,  or BSW mnemonics (RAL, RTL, RAR, RTR, and BSW are mutually
        exclusive).  

           The  NOP  (No  Operation) functionality can be implemented in
        all three operate instruction groups but is specified by the as-
        sembler as a group 1 instruction.  

           Several  common  group 1 operations have been given their own
        mnemonics:  



        AS6100 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AE-5
        6100 INSTRUCTION SET 


                NOP     NO Operation
                CIA     Complement and Increment Accumulator
                GLT     Get Link
                STA     Set Accumulator


        AE.4.2.2  Group 2 Operate Instructions  - 

           The  group 2 microinstructions are used primarily to test the
        contents of the accumulator and/or link and  then  conditionally
        skip the next sequential instruction:  

                HLT     Halt
                OSR     Or With Switch Register
        
                SKP     Skip
                SNL     Skip On Non-Zero Link
                SZL     Skip On Zero Link
                SZA     Skip On Zero Accumulator
                SNA     Skip On Non-Zero Accumulator
                SMA     Skip On Minus Accumulator
                SPA     Skip On Plus Accumulator

        A group 2 microinstruction can contain one or all of the mnemon-
        ics CLA, HLT, OSR, but only one of the SKP, SNL, SZL, SZA,  SNA,
        SMA, or SPA mnemonics (SKP, SNL, SZL, SZA, SNA, SMA, and SPA are
        mutually exclusive).  

           One common group 2 operation has been given its own mnemonic: 

                LAS     Load Accumulator With Switch Register


        AE.4.2.3  Group 3 Operate Instructions  - 

           The  group  3 microinstructions perform logical operations on
        the contents of AC and MQ.  

                MQL     MQ Register Load
                MQA     MQ Register Into Accumulator

        A group 3 microinstruction can contain one or all of the mnemon-
        ics CLA, MQL, and MQA.  

           Several  common  group 3 operations have been given their own
        mnemonics:  

                SWP     Swap Accumulator and MQ Register
                CAM     Clear Accumulator and MQ Register
                ACL     Clear Accumulator and Load
                        MQ Register into Accumulator



        AS6100 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AE-6
        6100 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AE.4.2.4  Group Errors  - 

           The 6100 assembler has three additional error codes which oc-
        cur when the group 1, 2, or 3 operations are mixed.   The  error
        code  will  be  a 1, 2, or 3 based upon the first group type en-
        countered followed by any other type of  group  operation.   The
        CLA operation is valid with all groups and does not cause an er-
        ror code to be generated.  


        AE.4.3  Input/Output (IOT) Instructions 


           The  input/output  transfer  instructions are used to control
        the operation of peripherals and  transfer  data  between  peri-
        pherals and the 6100 microprocessor.  Of the lower 9 bits of the
        instruction used for device selection and control typically  the
        3  LSBs  are  the  I/O  operation  bits and the remaining 6 bits
        select the peripheral device.  

                IOT     DEV,CMND
        
                where DEV is the device select code and
                CMND is the command code.

        Specifying  a  device select code of zero in the IOT instruction
        allows the user program to control the  interrupt  mechanism  of
        the 6100 microprocessor.  These instructions are:  

                SKON    Skip If Interrupt On
                ION     Interrupt Turn On
                IOF     Interrupt Turn Off
                SRQ     Skip If Int Request
                GTF     GetFlags
                RTF     Return Flags
                SGT     Defined By Device Logic
                CAF     Clear All Flags














                                   APPENDIX AF

                                AS61860 ASSEMBLER





        AF.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


           Thanks  to  Edgar  Puehringer  for  his  contribution  of the
        AS61860 cross assembler.  

                Edgar Peuhringer
                edgar_pue at yahoo dot com

           

           


        AF.2  61860 REGISTER SET 


           
        The  SC61860  from  Sharp has 96 bytes of internal RAM which are
        used as registers and hardware stack.  The last  four  bytes  of
        the  internal  RAM  are  special  purpose registers (I/O, timers
        ...).  Here is a list of the 61860 registers:  

                Reg     Address         Common use
                ---     -------         ----------
                i, j    0, 1            Length of block operations
                a, b    2, 3            Accumulator       
                xl, xh  4, 5            Pointer for read operations
                yl, yh  6, 7            Pointer for write operations
                k - n   8 - 0x0b        General purpose (counters ...)
                  -     0x0c - 0x5b     Stack
                ia      0x5c            Inport A
                ib      0x5d            Inport B
                fo      0x5e            Outport F
                cout    0x5f            Control port



        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-2
        61860 REGISTER SET


           Other  parts of the 61860 are the 16 bit program counter (pc)
        and 16 bit data pointer (dp).  The ALU has a carry flag (c)  and
        a zero flag (z).  There is an internal register d which can't be
        accessed with machine instructions.  It is filled from  i  or  j
        when executing block operations.  

           In addition there are three 7 bit registers p, q, and r which
        are used to address the internal RAM (r is the stack pointer,  p
        and q are used for block operations).  


        AF.3  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           The  AS61860  cross  assembler has two (2) processor specific
        assembler directives which are used for the etc mnemonic  (which
        is a kind of a built-in switch/case statement):  

                .default        A 16 bit address (same as .dw)
                .case           One byte followed by a 16 bit address
        
        Here is an example how this should be used (cut from a lst
        file)::
        
           022B 7A 05 02 18         614         PTC     0x05,   CONT16
           022F 69                  615         DTC
           0230 4C 01 25            616         .CASE   0x4C,   SLOADI
           0233 4D 01 2F            617         .CASE   0x4D,   SMERGI
           0236 51 01 D2            618         .CASE   0x51,   QUITI   
           0239 53 00 CD            619         .CASE   0x53,   LLISTI
           023C 56 01 D5            620         .CASE   0x56,   VERI
           023F 01 D1               621         .DEFAULT        CONT9


        AF.4  61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables list all 61860 family mnemonics recog-
        nized by the AS61860 assembler.  Most of the mnemonics are  con-
        verted  into  8  bit  machine instructions with no argument or a
        one- or two-byte argument.  There are some exceptions for this: 

                Mnemonic        Description
                --------        -----------
                jp              2 bit instruction, 6 bit argument
                cal             3 bit instruction, 13 bit argument
                ptc *)          1 byte instruction, 3 byte argument
                dtc *)          1 byte instruction, n bytes argument
        
                *) Not mentioned in the CPU specification from Sharp


        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-3
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.1  Load Immediate Register 


                LII n           (n --> I)
                LIJ n
                LIA n
                LIB n
                LIP n
                LIQ n
                LIDP nm
                LIDL n          (DL is the low byte of DP)
                LP              (One byte version of LIP)
                RA              (Same as LIA 0, but only one byte)
                CLRA            (synonym for RA)


        AF.4.2  Load Accumulator 


                LDP             (P --> A)
                LDQ
                LDR
                LDM             ((P) --> A)
                LDD             ((DP) --> A)


        AF.4.3  Store Accumulator 


                STP             (A --> P)
                STQ
                STR
                STD             (A --> (DP))


        AF.4.4  Move Data 


                MVDM            ((P) --> (DP))
                MVMD            ((DP) --> (P))




        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-4
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.5  Exchange Data 


                EXAB            (A <--> B)
                EXAM            (A <--> (P))


        AF.4.6  Stack Operations 


                PUSH            (R - 1 --> R, A --> (R))
                POP             ((R) --> A, R + 1 --> R)
                LEAVE           (0 --> (R))


        AF.4.7  Block Move Data 


                MVW             ((Q) --> (P), I+1 bytes)
                MVB             ((Q) --> (P), J+1 bytes)
                MVWD            ((DP) --> (P), I+1 bytes)
                MVBD            ((DP) --> (P), J+1 bytes)
                DATA            ((B,A) --> (P), I+1 bytes,
                                reads CPU ROM also)


        AF.4.8  Block Exchange Data 


                EXW             ((Q) <--> (P), I+1 bytes)
                EXB             ((Q) <--> (P), J+1 bytes)
                EXWD            ((DP) <--> (P), I+1 bytes)
                EXBD            ((DP) <--> (P), J+1 bytes)


        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-5
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.9  Increment and Decrement 


                INCP            (P + 1 --> P)
                DECP
                INCI
                DECI
                INCJ
                DECJ
                INCA
                DECA
                INCB
                DECB
                INCK
                DECK
                INCL
                DECL
                IX              (X + 1 --> X, X --> DP)
                DX
                IY
                DY
                INCM *)
                DECM *)
                INCN *)
                DECN *)
        
                *) Not mentioned in the CPU specification from Sharp


        AF.4.10  Increment/Decrement with Load/Store 


                IXL             (Same as IX plus LDD)
                DXL
                IYS             (Same as IY plus STD)
                DYS


        AF.4.11  Fill 


                FILM            (A --> (P), I+1 bytes)
                FILD            (A --> (DP), I+1 bytes)


        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-6
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.12  Addition and Subtraction 


                ADIA n          (A + n --> A)
                SBIA n
                ADIM n          ((P) + n --> (P))
                SBIM n
                ADM n           ((P) + A --> (P))
                SBM n
                ADCM n          ((P) + A --> (P), with carry)
                SBCM
                ADB             (like ADM, but 16 bit)
                SBB
                ADN             (like ADM, BCD addition, I+1 bytes)
                SBN
                ADW             ((P) + (Q) --> (P), BCD, I+1 bytes)
                SBW


        AF.4.13  Shift Operations 


                SRW             (shift I+1 bytes in (P) 4 bits right)
                SLW
                SR              (shift A 1 bit, with carry)
                SL
                SWP             (exchange low and high nibble of A)


        AF.4.14  Boolean Operations 


                ANIA n          (A & n --> A)
                ORIA n
                ANIM n          ((P) & n --> (P))
                ORIM n
                ANID n          ((DP) & n --> (DP))
                ORID n
                ANMA            ((P) & A --> (P))
                ORMA




        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-7
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.15  Compare 


                CPIA n          (A - n --> c,z)
                CPIM n          ((P) - n --> c,z)
                CPMA            ((P) - A --> c,z)
                TSIA n          (A & n --> z)
                TSIM n          ((P) & n --> z)
                TSID n          ((DP) & n --> z)
                TSIP            ((P) & A --> z)


        AF.4.16  CPU Control 


                SC              (Set carry)
                RC
                NOPW            (no op)
                NOPT
                WAIT n          (wait 6+n cycles)
                WAITJ           (wait 5+4*I cycles)
                CUP             (synonym for WAITJ)


        AF.4.17  Absolute Jumps 


                JP nm
                JPZ nm          (on zero)
                JPNZ nm
                JPC nm
                JPNC nm
                PTC/DTC         (see 'Processor Specific Directives')
                PTJ/DTJ         (synonym for PTD/DTC)
                CPCAL/DTLRA     (synonym for PTC/DTC)
                CASE1/CASE2     (synonym for PTC/DTC)
                SETT/JST        (synonym for PTC/DTC)


        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-8
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.18  Relative Jumps 


           These  operations  handle  a  jump relative to PC forward and
        back with  a  maximum  distance  of  255  byte.   The  assembler
        resolves 16 bit addresses to to 8 bit relative adresses.  If the
        target address is to far away, an error will be generated.  Note
        that relative jumps need 1 byte less than absolute jumps.  

                JRP nm
                JRZP nm
                JRNZP nm        (jump relative non zero plus direction)
                JRCP nm
                JRNCP nm
                JRM nm
                JRZM nm
                JRNZM nm
                JRCM nm         (jump relative on carry minus direction)
                JRNCM nm
                LOOP nm         (decrements (R) and makes a JRNCM)


        AF.4.19  Calls 


                CALL nm
                CAL nm          (nm must be <= 0x1fff,
                                1 byte less code than CALL)
                RTN


        AF.4.20  Input and output 


                INA             (IA --> A)
                INB
                OUTA
                OUTB
                OUTF            (A --> FO)
                OUTC            (control port)
                TEST n          (timers, pins & n --> z)




        AS61860 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AF-9
        61860 INSTRUCTION SET 


        AF.4.21  Unknown Commands 


                READ            ((PC+1) -> A)
                READM           ((PC+1) -> (P))
                WRIT            (???)














                                   APPENDIX AG

                                AS6500 ASSEMBLER





        AG.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


           Thanks  to  Marko  Makela  for his contribution of the AS6500
        cross assembler.  

                Marko Makela
                Sillitie 10 A
                01480 Vantaa
                Finland
                Internet: Marko dot Makela at Helsinki dot Fi
                EARN/BitNet: msmakela at finuh

           Several  additions and modifications were made to his code to
        support the following families of 6500 processors:  

                (1)     650X and 651X processor family
                (2)     65F11 and 65F12 processor family
                (3)     65C00/21 and 65C29 processor family
                (4)     65C02, 65C102, and 65C112 processor family

           The  instruction  syntax of this cross assembler contains two
        peculiarities:  (1) the addressing indirection is denoted by the
        square  brackets  []  and (2) the `bbrx' and `bbsx' instructions
        are written `bbr0 memory,label'.  




        AS6500 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AG-2
        6500 REGISTER SET


        AG.2  6500 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 6500 registers used by AS6500:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                x,y     -       index registers


        AG.3  6500 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 6500 family mnemonics recog-
        nized by the AS6500 assembler.  The designation [] refers  to  a
        required addressing mode argument.  The following list specifies
        the format for each addressing mode supported by AS6500:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                offset,x        indexed addressing
                offset,y        indexed addressing
                                address = (offset + (x or y))
        
                [offset,x]      pre-indexed indirect addressing
                                0 <= offset <= 255
                                address = contents of location
                                    (offset + (x or y)) mod 256
        
                [offset],y      post-indexed indirect addressing
                                address = contents of location at offset
                                    plus the value of the y register
        
                [address]       indirect addressing
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label
        
                address,label   direct page memory location
                                branch label
                                bbrx and bbsx instruction addressing

        The  terms data, dir, offset, address, ext, and label may all be
        expressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 65xx technical data for valid modes.  


        AS6500 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AG-3
        6500 INSTRUCTION SET


        AG.3.1  Processor Specific Directives 


           The  AS6500  cross  assembler has four (4) processor specific
        assembler directives which  define  the  target  65xx  processor
        family:  

                .r6500          Core 650X and 651X family (default)
                .r65f11         Core plus 65F11 and 65F12
                .r65c00         Core plus 65C00/21 and 65C29
                .r65c02         Core plus 65C02, 65C102, and 65C112


        AG.3.2  65xx Core Inherent Instructions 

                brk                     clc
                cld                     cli
                clv                     dex
                dey                     inx
                iny                     nop
                pha                     php
                pla                     plp
                rti                     rts
                sec                     sed
                sei                     tax
                tay                     tsx
                txa                     txs
                tya


        AG.3.3  65xx Core Branch Instructions 

                bcc     label           bhs     label
                bcs     label           blo     label
                beq     label           bmi     label
                bne     label           bpl     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label


        AG.3.4  65xx Core Single Operand Instructions 

                asl     []
                dec     []
                inc     []
                lsr     []
                rol     []
                ror     []


        AS6500 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AG-4
        6500 INSTRUCTION SET


        AG.3.5  65xx Core Double Operand Instructions 

                adc     []
                and     []
                bit     []
                cmp     []
                eor     []
                lda     []
                ora     []
                sbc     []
                sta     []


        AG.3.6  65xx Core Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []


        AG.3.7  65xx Core Miscellaneous X and Y Register Instructions 

                cpx     []
                cpy     []
                ldx     []
                stx     []
                ldy     []
                sty     []


        AS6500 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AG-5
        6500 INSTRUCTION SET


        AG.3.8  65F11 and 65F12 Specific Instructions 

                bbr0    [],label                bbr1    [],label
                bbr2    [],label                bbr3    [],label
                bbr4    [],label                bbr5    [],label
                bbr6    [],label                bbr7    [],label
        
                bbs0    [],label                bbs1    [],label
                bbs2    [],label                bbs3    [],label
                bbs4    [],label                bbs5    [],label
                bbs6    [],label                bbs7    [],label
        
                rmb0    []                      rmb1    []
                rmb2    []                      rmb3    []
                rmb4    []                      rmb5    []
                rmb6    []                      rmb7    []
        
                smb0    []                      smb1    []
                smb2    []                      smb3    []
                smb4    []                      smb5    []
                smb6    []                      smb7    []


        AG.3.9  65C00/21 and 65C29 Specific Instructions 

                bbr0    [],label                bbr1    [],label
                bbr2    [],label                bbr3    [],label
                bbr4    [],label                bbr5    [],label
                bbr6    [],label                bbr7    [],label
        
                bbs0    [],label                bbs1    [],label
                bbs2    [],label                bbs3    [],label
                bbs4    [],label                bbs5    [],label
                bbs6    [],label                bbs7    [],label
        
                bra     label
        
                phx                             phy
                plx                             ply
        
                rmb0    []                      rmb1    []
                rmb2    []                      rmb3    []
                rmb4    []                      rmb5    []
                rmb6    []                      rmb7    []
        
                smb0    []                      smb1    []
                smb2    []                      smb3    []
                smb4    []                      smb5    []
                smb6    []                      smb7    []


        AS6500 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AG-6
        6500 INSTRUCTION SET


        AG.3.10  65C02, 65C102, and 65C112 Specific Instructions 

                bbr0    [],label                bbr1    [],label
                bbr2    [],label                bbr3    [],label
                bbr4    [],label                bbr5    [],label
                bbr6    [],label                bbr7    [],label
        
                bbs0    [],label                bbs1    [],label
                bbs2    [],label                bbs3    [],label
                bbs4    [],label                bbs5    [],label
                bbs6    [],label                bbs7    [],label
        
                bra     label
        
                phx                             phy
                plx                             ply
        
                rmb0    []                      rmb1    []
                rmb2    []                      rmb3    []
                rmb4    []                      rmb5    []
                rmb6    []                      rmb7    []
        
                smb0    []                      smb1    []
                smb2    []                      smb3    []
                smb4    []                      smb5    []
                smb6    []                      smb7    []
        
                stz     []
                trb     []
                tsb     []

           Additional  addressing  modes for the following core instruc-
        tions are also available with the 65C02, 65C102, and 65C112 pro-
        cessors.  

                adc     []                      and     []
                cmp     []                      eor     []
                lda     []                      ora     []
                sbc     []                      sta     []
        
                bit     []                      jmp     []
        
                dec                             inc














                                   APPENDIX AH

                                AS6800 ASSEMBLER





        AH.1  6800 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 6800 registers used by AS6800:  

                a,b     -       8-bit accumulators
                x       -       index register


        AH.2  6800 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The following tables list all 6800/6802/6808 mnemonics recog-
        nized by the AS6800 assembler.  The designation [] refers  to  a
        required addressing mode argument.  The following list specifies
        the format for each addressing mode supported by AS6800:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                ,x              register indirect addressing
                                zero offset
        
                offset,x        register indirect addressing
                                0 <= offset <= 255
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The  terms  data, dir, offset, ext, and label may all be expres-
        sions.  



        AS6800 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AH-2
        6800 INSTRUCTION SET


           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 6800 technical data for valid modes.  


        AH.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                aba                     cba
                clc                     cli
                clv                     daa
                des                     dex
                ins                     inx
                nop                     rti
                rts                     sba
                sec                     sei
                sev                     swi
                tab                     tap
                tba                     tpa
                tsx                     txs
                wai
        
                psha                    pshb
                psh a                   psh b
                pula                    pulb
                pul a                   pul b


        AH.2.2  Branch Instructions 

                bra     label           bhi     label
                bls     label           bcc     label
                bhs     label           bcs     label
                blo     label           bne     label
                beq     label           bvc     label
                bvs     label           bpl     label
                bmi     label           bge     label
                blt     label           bgt     label
                ble     label           bsr     label


        AS6800 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AH-3
        6800 INSTRUCTION SET


        AH.2.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                asla                    aslb
                asl a                   asl b
                asl     []
        
                asra                    asrb
                asr a                   asr b
                asr     []
        
                clra                    clrb
                clr a                   clr b
                clr     []
        
                coma                    comb
                com a                   com b
                com     []
        
                deca                    decb
                dec a                   dec b
                dec     []
        
                inca                    incb
                inc a                   inc b
                inc     []
        
                lsla                    lslb
                lsl a                   lsl b
                lsl     []
        
                lsra                    lsrb
                lsr a                   lsr b
                lsr     []
        
                nega                    negb
                neg a                   neg b
                neg     []
        
                rola                    rolb
                rol a                   rol b
                rol     []
        
                rora                    rorb
                ror a                   ror b
                ror     []
        
                tsta                    tstb
                tst a                   tst b
                tst     []


        AS6800 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AH-4
        6800 INSTRUCTION SET


        AH.2.4  Double Operand Instructions 

                adca    []              adcb    []
                adc a   []              adc b   []
        
                adda    []              addb    []
                add a   []              add b   []
        
                anda    []              andb    []
                and a   []              and b   []
        
                bita    []              bitb    []
                bit a   []              bit b   []
        
                cmpa    []              cmpb    []
                cmp a   []              cmp b   []
        
                eora    []              eorb    []
                eor a   []              eor b   []
        
                ldaa    []              ldab    []
                lda a   []              lda b   []
        
                oraa    []              orab    []
                ora a   []              ora b   []
        
                sbca    []              sbcb    []
                sbc a   []              sbc b   []
        
                staa    []              stab    []
                sta a   []              sta b   []
        
                suba    []              subb    []
                sub a   []              sub b   []


        AH.2.5  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []




        AS6800 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AH-5
        6800 INSTRUCTION SET


        AH.2.6  Long Register Instructions 

                cpx     []
                lds     []              sts     []
                ldx     []              stx     []














                                   APPENDIX AI

                                AS6801 ASSEMBLER





        AI.1  .hd6303 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .hd6303 

        The  .hd6303 directive enables processing of the HD6303 specific
        mnemonics not included in  the  6801  instruction  set.   HD6303
        mnemonics  encountered  without  the  .hd6303  directive will be
        flagged with an 'o' error.  


        AI.2  6801 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 6801 registers used by AS6801:  

                a,b     -       8-bit accumulators
                d       -       16-bit accumulator 
                x       -       index register


        AI.3  6801 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The following tables list all 6801/6803/6303 mnemonics recog-
        nized by the AS6801 assembler.  The designation [] refers  to  a
        required addressing mode argument.  The following list specifies
        the format for each addressing mode supported by AS6801:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        


        AS6801 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AI-2
        6801 INSTRUCTION SET


                ,x              register indirect addressing
                                zero offset
        
                offset,x        register indirect addressing
                                0 <= offset <= 255
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The  terms  data, dir, offset, ext, and label may all be expres-
        sions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to  the  6801/6303  technical  data  for  valid
        modes.  


        AI.3.1  Inherent Instructions 

                aba             abx
                cba             clc
                cli             clv
                daa             des
                dex             ins
                inx             mul
                nop             rti
                rts             sba
                sec             sei
                sev             swi
                tab             tap
                tba             tpa
                tsx             txs
                wai


        AI.3.2  Branch Instructions 

                bra     label           brn     label
                bhi     label           bls     label
                bcc     label           bhs     label
                bcs     label           blo     label
                bne     label           beq     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label
                bpl     label           bmi     label
                bge     label           blt     label
                bgt     label           ble     label
                bsr     label


        AS6801 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AI-3
        6801 INSTRUCTION SET


        AI.3.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                asla            aslb            asld
                asl a           asl b           asl d
                asl     []
        
                asra            asrb
                asr a           asr b
                asr     []
        
                clra            clrb
                clr a           clr b
                clr     []
        
                coma            comb
                com a           com b
                com     []
        
                deca            decb
                dec a           dec b
                dec     []
        
                eora            eorb
                eor a           eor b
                eor     []
        
                inca            incb
                inc a           inc b
                inc     []
        
                lsla            lslb            lsld
                lsl a           lsl b           lsl d
                lsl     []
        
                lsra            lsrb            lsrd
                lsr a           lsr b           lsr d
                lsr     []
        
                nega            negb
                neg a           neg b
                neg     []
        
                psha            pshb            pshx
                psh a           psh b           psh x
        
                pula            pulb            pulx
                pul a           pul b           pul x
        
                rola            rolb
                rol a           rol b
                rol     []
        


        AS6801 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AI-4
        6801 INSTRUCTION SET


                rora            rorb
                ror a           ror b
                ror     []
        
                tsta            tstb
                tst a           tst b
                tst     []


        AI.3.4  Double Operand Instructions 

                adca    []      adcb    []
                adc a   []      adc b   []
        
                adda    []      addb    []      addd    []
                add a   []      add b   []      add d   []
        
                anda    []      andb    []
                and a   []      and b   []
        
                bita    []      bitb    []
                bit a   []      bit b   []
        
                cmpa    []      cmpb    []
                cmp a   []      cmp b   []
        
                ldaa    []      ldab    []
                lda a   []      lda b   []
        
                oraa    []      orab    []
                ora a   []      ora b   []
        
                sbca    []      sbcb    []
                sbc a   []      sbc b   []
        
                staa    []      stab    []
                sta a   []      sta b   []
        
                suba    []      subb    []      subd    []
                sub a   []      sub b   []      sub d   []




        AS6801 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AI-5
        6801 INSTRUCTION SET


        AI.3.5  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []      jsr     []


        AI.3.6  Long Register Instructions 

                cpx     []      ldd     []
                lds     []      ldx     []
                std     []      sts     []
                stx     []


        AI.3.7  6303 Specific Instructions 

                aim     #data, []       eim     #data, []
                oim     #data, []       tim     #data, []
        
                xgdx            slp














                                   APPENDIX AJ

                                AS6804 ASSEMBLER




           Requires the .setdp directive to specify the ram area.  


        AJ.1  6804 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 6804 registers used by AS6804:  

                x,y     -       index registers


        AJ.2  6804 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 6804 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS6804 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS6804:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                ,x              register indirect addressing
        
                dir             direct addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The  terms data, dir, and ext may be expressions.  The label for
        the short branchs beq, bne, bcc, and bcs must not be external.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 6804 technical data for valid modes.  


        AS6804 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AJ-2
        6804 INSTRUCTION SET


        AJ.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                coma            decx
                decy            incx
                incy            rola
                rti             rts
                stop            tax
                tay             txa
                tya             wait


        AJ.2.2  Branch Instructions 

                bne     label           beq     label
                bcc     label           bcs     label


        AJ.2.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                add     []
                and     []
                cmp     []
                dec     []
                inc     []
                lda     []
                sta     []
                sub     []


        AJ.2.4  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jsr     []
                jmp     []


        AJ.2.5  Bit Test Instructions 

                brclr   #data,[],label
                brset   #data,[],label
        
                bclr    #label,[]
                bset    #label,[]




        AS6804 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AJ-3
        6804 INSTRUCTION SET


        AJ.2.6  Load Immediate data Instruction 

                mvi     [],#data


        AJ.2.7  6804 Derived Instructions 

                asla
                bam     label
                bap     label
                bxmi    label
                bxpl    label
                bymi    label
                bypl    label
                clra
                clrx
                clry
                deca
                decx
                decy
                inca
                incx
                incy
                ldxi    #data
                ldyi    #data
                nop
                tax
                tay
                txa
                tya














                                   APPENDIX AK

                              AS68(HC)05 ASSEMBLER





        AK.1  .6805 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .6805 

        The  .6805 directive selects the MC6805 specific cycles count to
        be output.  


        AK.2  .hc05 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .hc05 

        The  .hc05 directive selects the MC68HC05/146805 specific cycles
        count to be output.  


        AK.3  THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values  for  the  ASZ80
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                    .6805                        0
                    .hc05                        1




        AS68(HC)05 ASSEMBLER                                   PAGE AK-2
        THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        AK.4  6805 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 6805 registers used by AS6805:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                x       -       index register


        AK.5  6805 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 6805 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS6805 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS6805:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                ,x              register indirect addressing
                                zero offset
        
                offset,x        register indirect addressing
                                  0 <= offset <= 255   --- byte mode
                                256 <= offset <= 65535 --- word mode
                                (an externally defined offset uses the
                                 word mode)
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The terms data, dir, offset, and ext may all be expressions.  



        AS68(HC)05 ASSEMBLER                                   PAGE AK-3
        6805 INSTRUCTION SET


           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 6805 technical data for valid modes.  


        AK.5.1  Control Instructions 

                clc             cli
                nop             rsp
                rti             rts
                sec             sei
                stop            swi
                tax             txa
                wait


        AK.5.2  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                brset   #data,*dir,label
                brclr   #data,*dir,label
        
                bset    #data,*dir
                bclr    #data,*dir


        AK.5.3  Branch Instructions 

                bra     label           brn     label
                bhi     label           bls     label
                bcc     label           bcs     label
                bne     label           beq     label
                bhcc    label           bhcs    label
                bpl     label           bmi     label
                bmc     label           bms     label
                bil     label           bih     label
                bsr     label


        AS68(HC)05 ASSEMBLER                                   PAGE AK-4
        6805 INSTRUCTION SET


        AK.5.4  Read-Modify-Write Instructions 

                nega            negx
                neg     []
        
                coma            comx
                com     []
        
                lsra            lsrx
                lsr     []
        
                rora            rorx
                ror     []
        
                asra            asrx
                asr     []
        
                lsla            lslx
                lsl     []
        
                rola            rolx
                rol     []
        
                deca            decx
                dec     []
        
                inca            incx
                inc     []
        
                tsta            tstx
                tst     []
        
                clra            clrx
                clr     []


        AK.5.5  Register\Memory Instructions 

                sub     []              cmp     []
                sbc     []              cpx     []
                and     []              bit     []
                lda     []              sta     []
                eor     []              adc     []
                ora     []              add     []
                ldx     []              stx     []


        AS68(HC)05 ASSEMBLER                                   PAGE AK-5
        6805 INSTRUCTION SET


        AK.5.6  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []














                                   APPENDIX AL

                             AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER





        AL.1  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           The MC68HC(S)08 processor is a superset of the MC6805 proces-
        sors.  The AS6808 assembler supports the HC08, HCS08, 6805,  and
        HC05 cores.  


        AL.1.1  .hc08 Directive 

        Format:  

                .hc08 

        The .hc08 directive enables processing of only the HC08 specific
        mnemonics.  6805/HC05/HCS08 mnemonics  encountered  without  the
        .hc08 directive will be flagged with an 'o' error.  

           The  .hc08  directive  also  selects the HC08 specific cycles
        count to be output.  


        AL.1.2  .hcs08 Directive 

        Format:  

                .hcs08 

        The  .hcs08  directive  enables processing of the HCS08 specific
        mnemonics.  

           The  .hcs08  directive also selects the HCS08 specific cycles
        count to be output.  




        AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AL-2
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        AL.1.3  .6805 Directive 

        Format:  

                .6805 

        The  .6805  directive  enables  processing of only the 6805/HC05
        specific mnemonics.  HC08/HCS08  mnemonics  encountered  without
        the .hc08/.hcs08 directives will be flagged with an 'o' error.  

           The  .6805  directive also selects the MC6805 specific cycles
        count to be output.  


        AL.1.4  .hc05 Directive 

        Format:  

                .hc05 

        The  .hc05  directive  enables  processing of only the 6805/HC05
        specific mnemonics.  HC08/HCS08  mnemonics  encountered  without
        the .hc08/.hcs08 directives will be flagged with an 'o' error.  

           The .hc05 directive also selects the MC68HC05/146805 specific
        cycles count to be output.  


        AL.1.5  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values for  the  AS6808
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                    .hc08                        0
                    .hcs08                       1
                    .6805                        2
                    .hc05                        3


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to


        AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AL-3
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        AL.2  68HC(S)08 REGISTER SET 

        The  following  is  a  list  of  the 68HC(S)08 registers used by
        AS6808:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                x       -       index register  
                s       -       stack pointer


        AL.3  68HC(S)08 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following tables list all 68HC(S)08 mnemonics recognized
        by the AS6808 assembler.  The designation []  refers  to  a  re-
        quired  addressing  mode argument.  The following list specifies
        the format for each addressing mode supported by AS6808:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                ,x              register indexed addressing
                                zero offset
        
                offset,x        register indexed addressing
                                  0 <= offset <= 255   --- byte mode
                                256 <= offset <= 65535 --- word mode
                                (an externally defined offset uses the
                                 word mode)
        
                ,x+             register indexed addressing
                                zero offset with post increment
        
                offset,x+       register indexed addressing
                                unsigned byte offset with post increment
        
                offset,s        stack pointer indexed addressing
                                  0 <= offset <= 255   --- byte mode
                                256 <= offset <= 65535 --- word mode
                                (an externally defined offset uses the
                                 word mode)


        AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AL-4
        68HC(S)08 INSTRUCTION SET


        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The terms data, dir, offset, and ext may all be expressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to  the  68HC(S)08  technical  data  for  valid
        modes.  


        AL.3.1  Control Instructions 

                clc             cli             daa             div
                mul             nop             nsa             psha
                pshh            pshx            pula            pulh
                pulx            rsp             rti             rts
                sec             sei             stop            swi
                tap             tax             tpa             tsx
                txa             txs             wait


        AL.3.2  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                brset   #data,*dir,label
                brclr   #data,*dir,label
        
                bset    #data,*dir
                bclr    #data,*dir


        AL.3.3  Branch Instructions 

                bra     label           brn     label
                bhi     label           bls     label
                bcc     label           bcs     label
                bne     label           beq     label
                bhcc    label           bhcs    label
                bpl     label           bmi     label
                bmc     label           bms     label
                bil     label           bih     label
                bsr     label           bge     label
                blt     label           bgt     label
                ble     label


        AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AL-5
        68HC(S)08 INSTRUCTION SET


        AL.3.4  Complex Branch Instructions 

                cbeqa   [],label
                cbeqx   [],label
                cbeq    [],label
                dbnza   label
                dbnzx   label
                dbnz    [],label


        AL.3.5  Read-Modify-Write Instructions 

                nega                    negx
                neg     []
        
                coma                    comx
                com     []
        
                lsra                    lsrx
                lsr     []
        
                rora                    rorx
                ror     []
        
                asra                    asrx
                asr     []
        
                asla                    aslx
                asl     []
        
                lsla                    lslx
                lsl     []
        
                rola                    rolx
                rol     []
        
                deca                    decx
                dec     []
        
                inca                    incx
                inc     []
        
                tsta                    tstx
                tst     []
        
                clra                    clrx
                clr     []              clrh
        
                aix     #data
        
                ais     #data


        AS68(HC[S])08 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AL-6
        68HC(S)08 INSTRUCTION SET


        AL.3.6  Register\Memory Instructions 

                sub     []              cmp     []
                sbc     []              cpx     []
                and     []              bit     []
                lda     []              sta     []
                eor     []              adc     []
                ora     []              add     []
                ldx     []              stx     []


        AL.3.7  Double Operand Move Instruction 

                mov     [],[]


        AL.3.8  16-Bit  Index Register Instructions 

                cphx    []
                ldhx    []
                sthx    []


        AL.3.9  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []














                                   APPENDIX AM

                                AS6809 ASSEMBLER





        AM.1  6809 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 6809 registers used by AS6809:  

                a,b     -       8-bit accumulators
                d       -       16-bit accumulator 
                x,y     -       index registers
                s,u     -       stack pointers
                pc      -       program counter
                cc      -       condition code
                dp      -       direct page


        AM.2  6809 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 6809 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS6809 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS6809:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                label           branch label
        
                r,r1,r2         registers
                                cc,a,b,d,dp,x,y,s,u,pc
        
                ,-x     ,--x    register indexed
                                autodecrement
        


        AS6809 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AM-2
        6809 INSTRUCTION SET


                ,x+     ,x++    register indexed
                                autoincrement
        
                ,x              register indexed addressing
                                zero offset
        
                offset,x        register indexed addressing
                                   -16 <= offset <= 15    ---  5-bit
                                  -128 <= offset <= -17   ---  8-bit
                                    16 <= offset <= 127   ---  8-bit
                                -32768 <= offset <= -129  --- 16-bit
                                   128 <= offset <= 32767 --- 16-bit
                                (external definition of offset
                                 uses 16-bit mode)
        
                a,x             accumulator offset indexed addressing
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                ext,pc          pc addressing ( pc <- pc + ext )
        
                ext,pcr         pc relative addressing
                                
                [,--x]          register indexed indirect
                                autodecrement
        
                [,x++]          register indexed indirect
                                autoincrement
        
                [,x]            register indexed indirect addressing
                                zero offset
        
                [offset,x]      register indexed indirect addressing
                                  -128 <= offset <= 127   ---  8-bit
                                -32768 <= offset <= -129  --- 16-bit
                                   128 <= offset <= 32767 --- 16-bit
                                (external definition of offset
                                 uses 16-bit mode)
        
                [a,x]           accumulator offset indexed
                                indirect addressing
        
                [ext]           extended indirect addressing
        
                [ext,pc]        pc indirect addressing
                                ( [pc <- pc + ext] )
        
                [ext,pcr]       pc relative indirect addressing

        The  terms  data, dir, label, offset, and ext may all be expres-
        sions.  



        AS6809 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AM-3
        6809 INSTRUCTION SET


           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 6809 technical data for valid modes.  


        AM.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                abx             daa
                mul             nop
                rti             rts
                sex             swi
                swi1            swi2
                swi3            sync


        AM.2.2  Short Branch Instructions 

                bcc     label           bcs     label
                beq     label           bge     label
                bgt     label           bhi     label
                bhis    label           bhs     label
                ble     label           blo     label
                blos    label           bls     label
                blt     label           bmi     label
                bne     label           bpl     label
                bra     label           brn     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label
                bsr     label


        AM.2.3  Long Branch Instructions 

                lbcc    label           lbcs    label
                lbeq    label           lbge    label
                lbgt    label           lbhi    label
                lbhis   label           lbhs    label
                lble    label           lblo    label
                lblos   label           lbls    label
                lblt    label           lbmi    label
                lbne    label           lbpl    label
                lbra    label           lbrn    label
                lbvc    label           lbvs    label
                lbsr    label


        AS6809 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AM-4
        6809 INSTRUCTION SET


        AM.2.4  Single Operand Instructions 

                asla            aslb
                asl     []
        
                asra            asrb
                asr     []
        
                clra            clrb
                clr     []
        
                coma            comb
                com     []
        
                deca            decb
                dec     []
        
                inca            incb
                inc     []
        
                lsla            lslb
                lsl     []
        
                lsra            lsrb
                lsr     []
        
                nega            negb
                neg     []
        
                rola            rolb
                rol     []
        
                rora            rorb
                ror     []
        
                tsta            tstb
                tst     []


        AS6809 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AM-5
        6809 INSTRUCTION SET


        AM.2.5  Double Operand Instructions 

                adca    []              adcb    []
        
                adda    []              addb    []
        
                anda    []              andb    []
        
                bita    []              bitb    []
        
                cmpa    []              cmpb    []
        
                eora    []              eorb    []
        
                lda     []              ldb     []
        
                ora     []              orb     []
        
                sbca    []              sbcb    []
        
                sta     []              stb     []
        
                suba    []              subb    []


        AM.2.6  D-register Instructions 

                addd    []              subd    []
                cmpd    []              ldd     []
                std     []


        AM.2.7  Index/Stack Register Instructions 

                cmps    []              cmpu    []
                cmpx    []              cmpy    []
        
                lds     []              ldu     []
                ldx     []              ldy     []
        
                leas    []              leau    []
                leax    []              leay    []
        
                sts     []              stu     []
                stx     []              sty     []
        
                pshs    r               pshu    r
                puls    r               pulu    r


        AS6809 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AM-6
        6809 INSTRUCTION SET


        AM.2.8  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []


        AM.2.9  Register - Register Instructions 

                exg     r1,r2           tfr     r1,r2


        AM.2.10  Condition Code Register Instructions 

                andcc   #data           orcc    #data
                cwai    #data


        AM.2.11  6800 Compatibility Instructions 

                aba             cba
                clc             cli
                clv             des
                dex             ins
                inx
                ldaa    []      ldab    []
                oraa    []      orab    []
                psha            pshb
                pula            pulb
                sba             sec
                sei             sev
                staa    []      stab    []
                tab             tap
                tba             tpa
                tsx             txs
                wai














                                   APPENDIX AN

                                AS6811 ASSEMBLER





        AN.1  68HC11 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 68HC11 registers used by AS6811: 

                a,b     -       8-bit accumulators
                d       -       16-bit accumulator 
                x,y     -       index registers


        AN.2  68HC11 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following tables list all 68HC11 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS6811 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS6811:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                ,x              register indirect addressing
                                zero offset
        
                offset,x        register indirect addressing
                                0 <= offset <= 255
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                label           branch label

        The terms data, dir, offset, and ext may all be expressions.  



        AS6811 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AN-2
        68HC11 INSTRUCTION SET


           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 68HC11 technical data for valid modes.  


        AN.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                aba             abx
                aby             cba
                clc             cli
                clv             daa
                des             dex
                dey             fdiv
                idiv            ins
                inx             iny
                mul             nop
                rti             rts
                sba             sec
                sei             sev
                stop            swi
                tab             tap
                tba             tpa
                tsx             txs
                wai             xgdx
                xgdy
        
                psha            pshb
                psh a           psh b
                pshx            pshy
                psh x           psh y
        
                pula            pulb
                pul a           pul b
                pulx            puly
                pul x           pul y


        AN.2.2  Branch Instructions 

                bra     label           brn     label
                bhi     label           bls     label
                bcc     label           bhs     label
                bcs     label           blo     label
                bne     label           beq     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label
                bpl     label           bmi     label
                bge     label           blt     label
                bgt     label           ble     label
                bsr     label


        AS6811 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AN-3
        68HC11 INSTRUCTION SET


        AN.2.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                asla            aslb            asld
                asl a           asl b           asl d
                asl     []
        
                asra            asrb
                asr a           asr b
                asr     []
        
                clra            clrb
                clr a           clr b
                clr     label
        
                coma            comb
                com a           com b
                com     []
        
                deca            decb
                dec a           dec b
                dec     []
        
                inca            incb
                inc a           inc b
                inc     []
        
                lsla            lslb            lsld
                lsl a           lsl b           lsl d
                lsl     []
        
                lsra            lsrb            lsrd
                lsr a           lsr b           lsr d
                lsr     []
        
                nega            negb
                neg a           neg b
                neg     []
        
                rola            rolb
                rol a           rol b
                rol     []
        
                rora            rorb
                ror a           ror b
                ror     []
        
                tsta            tstb
                tst a           tst b
                tst     []


        AS6811 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AN-4
        68HC11 INSTRUCTION SET


        AN.2.4  Double Operand Instructions 

                adca    []              adcb    []
                adc a   []              adc b   []
        
                adda    []      addb    []      addd    []
                add a   []      add b   []      add d   []
        
                anda    []              andb    []
                and a   []              and b   []
        
                bita    []              bitb    []
                bit a   []              bit b   []
        
                cmpa    []              cmpb    []
                cmp a   []              cmp b   []
        
                eora    []              eorb    []
                eor a   []              eor b   []
        
                ldaa    []              ldab    []
                lda a   []              lda b   []
        
                oraa    []              orab    []
                ora a   []              ora b   []
        
                sbca    []              sbcb    []
                sbc a   []              sbc b   []
        
                staa    []              stab    []
                sta a   []              sta b   []
        
                suba    []      subb    []      subd    []
                sub a   []      sub b   []      sub d   []


        AN.2.5  Bit Manupulation Instructions 

                bclr    [],#data
                bset    [],#data
        
                brclr   [],#data,label
                brset   [],#data,label




        AS6811 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AN-5
        68HC11 INSTRUCTION SET


        AN.2.6  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []


        AN.2.7  Long Register Instructions 

                cpx     []              cpy     []
        
                ldd     []              lds     []
                ldx     []              ldy     []
        
                std     []              sts     []
                stx     []              sty     []














                                   APPENDIX AO

                             AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER





        AO.1  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           The   AS6812  assembler  supports  the  68HC(S)12  series  of
        microprocessors which includes  the  68HC(S)8xx  and  68HC(S)9xx
        series.  


        AO.1.1  .hc12 Directive 

        Format:  

                .hc12 

        The  .hc12 directive selects the HC12 core specific cycles count
        to be output.  


        AO.1.2  .hcs12 Directive 

        Format:  

                .hcs12 

        The  .hcs12  directive  selects  the  HCS12 core specific cycles
        count to be output.  




        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-2
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        AO.1.3  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values for  the  AS6812
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                    .hc12                        0
                    .hcs12                       1


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        AO.2  68HC(S)12 REGISTER SET 

        The  following  is  a  list  of  the 68HC(S)12 registers used by
        AS6812:  

                a,b     -       8-bit accumulators
                d       -       16-bit accumulator 
                x,y     -       index registers
                sp,s    -       stack pointer
                pc      -       program counter
                ccr,cc  -       condition code register




        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-3
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        AO.3  68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following tables list all 68HC(S)12 mnemonics recognized
        by the AS6812 assembler.  The designation []  refers  to  a  re-
        quired  addressing  mode argument.  The following list specifies
        the format for each addressing mode supported by AS6812:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                pg              memory page number
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                label           branch label
        
                r,r1,r2         registers
                                ccr,a,b,d,x,y,sp,pc
        
                -x      x-      register indexed, pre or
                ,-x     ,x-     post autodecrement by 1
        
                n,-x    n,x-    register indexed, pre or
                                post autodecrement by 1 - 8
        
                +x      x+      register indexed, pre or
                ,+x     ,x+     post autoincrement by 1
        
                n,+x    n,x+    register indexed, pre or
                                post autoincrement by 1 - 8
        
                offset,x        register indexed addressing
                                   -16 <= offset <= 15    ---  5-bit
                                  -256 <= offset <= -17   ---  9-bit
                                    16 <= offset <= 255   ---  9-bit
                                -32768 <= offset <= -257  --- 16-bit
                                   256 <= offset <= 32767 --- 16-bit
                                (external definition of offset
                                 uses 16-bit mode)
        
                [offset,x]      register indexed indirect addressing
                                -32768 <= offset <= 32767 --- 16-bit
        
                [,x]            register indexed indirect addressing
                                zero offset
        
                a,x             accumulator offset indexed addressing


        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-4
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        
                [d,x]           d accumulator offset indexed
                                indirect addressing

        The  terms  data, dir, label, offset, and ext may all be expres-
        sions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to  the  68HC(S)12  technical  data  for  valid
        modes.  


        AO.3.1  Inherent Instructions 

                aba             bgnd            cba
                daa             dex             dey
                ediv            edivs           emul
                emuls           fdiv            idiv
                idivs           inx             iny
                mem             mul             nop
                psha            pshb            pshc
                pshd            pshx            pshy
                pula            pulb            pulc
                puld            pulx            puly
                rev             revw            rtc
                rti             rts             sba
                stop            swi             tab
                tba             wai             wav
                wavr


        AO.3.2  Short Branch Instructions 

                bcc     label           bcs     label
                beq     label           bge     label
                bgt     label           bhi     label
                bhis    label           bhs     label
                ble     label           blo     label
                blos    label           bls     label
                blt     label           bmi     label
                bne     label           bpl     label
                bra     label           brn     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label
                bsr     label


        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-5
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        AO.3.3  Long Branch Instructions 

                lbcc    label           lbcs    label
                lbeq    label           lbge    label
                lbgt    label           lbhi    label
                lbhis   label           lbhs    label
                lble    label           lblo    label
                lblos   label           lbls    label
                lblt    label           lbmi    label
                lbne    label           lbpl    label
                lbra    label           lbrn    label
                lbvc    label           lbvs    label


        AO.3.4  Branch on Decrement, Test, or Increment 

                dbeq    r,label         dbne    r,label
                ibeq    r,label         ibne    r,label
                tbeq    r,label         tbne    r,label


        AO.3.5  Bit Clear and Set Instructions 

                bclr    [],#data
                bset    [],#data


        AO.3.6  Branch on Bit Clear or Set 

                brclr   [],#data,label
                brset   [],#data,label


        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-6
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        AO.3.7  Single Operand Instructions 

                asla            aslb
                asl     []
        
                asra            asrb
                asr     []
        
                clra            clrb
                clr     []
        
                coma            comb
                com     []
        
                deca            decb
                dec     []
        
                inca            incb
                inc     []
        
                lsla            lslb
                lsl     []
        
                lsra            lsrb
                lsr     []
        
                nega            negb
                neg     []
        
                rola            rolb
                rol     []
        
                rora            rorb
                ror     []
        
                tsta            tstb
                tst     []


        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-7
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        AO.3.8  Double Operand Instructions 

                adca    []              adcb    []
        
                adda    []              addb    []
        
                anda    []              andb    []
        
                bita    []              bitb    []
        
                cmpa    []              cmpb    []
        
                eora    []              eorb    []
        
                ldaa    []      <=>     lda     []
        
                ldab    []      <=>     ldb     []
        
                oraa    []      <=>     ora     []
        
                orab    []      <=>     orb     []
        
                sbca    []              sbcb    []
        
                staa    []      <=>     sta     []
        
                stab    []      <=>     stb     []
        
                suba    []              subb    []


        AO.3.9  Move Instructions 

                movb    [],[]           movw    [],[]


        AO.3.10  D-register Instructions 

                addd    []              subd    []
                cpd     []      <=>     cmpd    []
                ldd     []              std     []


        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-8
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        AO.3.11  Index/Stack Register Instructions 

                cps     []      <=>     cmps    []
                cpx     []      <=>     cmpx    []
                cpy     []      <=>     cmpy    []
        
                lds     []
                ldx     []              ldy     []
        
                leas    []
                leax    []              leay    []
        
                sts     []
                stx     []              sty     []


        AO.3.12  Jump and Jump/Call to Subroutine Instructions 

                call    [],pg
                jmp     []              jsr     []


        AO.3.13  Other Special Instructions 

                emacs   []
                emaxd   []              emaxm   []
                emind   []              eminm   []
                etbl    []
                maxa    []              maxm    []
                mina    []              minm    []
                tbl     []              trap    #data


        AO.3.14  Register - Register Instructions 

                exg     r1,r2           sex     r1,r2
                tfr     r1,r2


        AO.3.15  Condition Code Register Instructions 

                andcc   #data           orcc    #data


        AS68(HC[S])12 ASSEMBLER                                PAGE AO-9
        68HC(S)12 INSTRUCTION SET


        AO.3.16  M68HC11 Compatibility Mode Instructions 

                abx             aby             clc
                cli             clv             des
                ins             sec             sei
                sev             tap             tpa
                tsx             tsy             txs
                tys             xgdx            xgdy














                                   APPENDIX AP

                                AS6816 ASSEMBLER





        AP.1  68HC16 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 68HC16 registers used by AS6816: 

                a,b     -       8-bit accumulators
                d       -       16-bit accumulator 
                e       -       16-bit accumulator
                x,y,z   -       index registers
                k       -       address extension register
                s       -       stack pointer
                ccr     -       condition code


        AP.2  68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following tables list all 68HC16 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS6816 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS6816:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                #xo,#yo         local immediate data (mac / rmac)
        
                label           branch label
        
                r               register
                                ccr,a,b,d,e,x,y,z,s
        
                ,x              zero offset register indexed addressing
                ,x8
                ,x16
        
                offset,x        register indexed addressing


        AS6816 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AP-2
        68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET


                                     0 <= offset <= 255   ---  8-bit
                                -32768 <= offset <= -1    --- 16-bit
                                   256 <= offset <= 32767 --- 16-bit
                                (external definition of offset
                                 uses 16-bit mode)
        
                offset,x8       unsigned 8-bit offset indexed addressing
                offset,x16      signed 16-bit offset indexed addressing
        
                e,x             accumulator offset indexed addressing
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                bank            64K bank number (jmp / jsr)

        The  terms data, label, offset, bank, and ext may all be expres-
        sions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 6816 technical data for valid modes.  


        AP.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                aba             abx             aby             abz
                ace             aced            ade             adx
                ady             adz             aex             aey
                aez             bgnd            cba             daa
                ediv            edivs           emul            emuls
                fdiv            fmuls           idiv            ldhi
                lpstop          mul             nop             psha
                pshb            pshmac          pula            pulb
                pulmac          rtr             rts             sba
                sde             sted            swi             sxt
                tab             tap             tba             tbek
                tbsk            tbxk            tbyk            tbzk
                tde             tdmsk           tdp             ted
                tedm            tekb            tem             tmer
                tmet            tmxed           tpa             tpd
                tskb            tsx             tsy             tsz
                txkb            txs             txy             txz
                tykb            tys             tyx             tyz
                tzkb            tzs             tzx             tzy
                wai             xgab            xgde            xgdx
                xgdy            xgdz            xgex            xgey
                xgez


        AS6816 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AP-3
        68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET


        AP.2.2  Push/Pull Multiple Register Instructions 

                pshm    r,...           pulm    r,...


        AP.2.3  Short Branch Instructions 

                bcc     label           bcs     label
                beq     label           bge     label
                bgt     label           bhi     label
                bhis    label           bhs     label
                ble     label           blo     label
                blos    label           bls     label
                blt     label           bmi     label
                bne     label           bpl     label
                bra     label           brn     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label
                bsr     label


        AP.2.4  Long Branch Instructions 

                lbcc    label           lbcs    label
                lbeq    label           lbge    label
                lbgt    label           lbhi    label
                lbhis   label           lbhs    label
                lble    label           lblo    label
                lblos   label           lbls    label
                lblt    label           lbmi    label
                lbne    label           lbpl    label
                lbra    label           lbrn    label
                lbvc    label           lbvs    label
                lbsr    label


        AP.2.5  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bclr    [],#data
                bset    [],#data
        
                brclr   [],#data,label
                brset   [],#data,label


        AS6816 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AP-4
        68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET


        AP.2.6  Single Operand Instructions 

                asla                    aslb
                asld                    asle
                aslm
                asl     []              aslw    []
        
                asra                    asrb
                asrd                    asre
                asrm
                asr     []              asrw    []
        
                clra                    clrb
                clrd                    clre
                                        clrm
                clr     []              clrw    []
        
                coma                    comb
                comd                    come
                com     []              comw    []
        
                deca                    decb
                dec     []              decw    []
        
                inca                    incb
                inc     []              incw    []
        
                lsla                    lslb
                lsld                    lsle
                lslm
                lsl     []              lslw    []
        
                lsra                    lsrb
                lsrd                    lsre
                lsr     []              lsrw    []
        
                nega                    negb
                negd                    nege
                neg     []              negw    []
        
                rola                    rolb
                rold                    role
                rol     []              rolw    []
        
                rora                    rorb
                rord                    rore
                ror     []              rorw    []
        
                tsta                    tstb
                tsta                    tste
                tst     []              tstw    []


        AS6816 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AP-5
        68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET


        AP.2.7  Double Operand Instructions 

                adca    []              adcb    []
                adcd    []              adce    []
        
                adda    []              addb    []
                addd    []              adde    []
        
                anda    []              andb    []
                andd    []              ande    []
        
                bita    []              bitb    []
        
                cmpa    []              cmpb    []
                cpd     []              cpe     []
        
                eora    []              eorb    []
                eord    []              eore    []
        
                ldaa    []              ldab    []
                ldd     []              lde     []
        
                oraa    []              orab    []
                ord     []              ore     []
        
                sbca    []              sbcb    []
                sbcd    []              sbce    []
        
                staa    []              stab    []
                std     []              ste     []
        
                suba    []              subb    []
                subd    []              sube    []


        AP.2.8  Index/Stack Register Instructions 

                cps     []              cpx     []
                cpy     []              cpz     []
        
                lds     []              ldx     []
                ldy     []              ldz     []
        
                sts     []              stx     []
                sty     []              stz     []


        AS6816 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AP-6
        68HC16 INSTRUCTION SET


        AP.2.9  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     bank,[]         jsr     bank,[]


        AP.2.10  Condition Code Register Instructions 

                andp    #data           orp     #data


        AP.2.11  Multiply and Accumulate Instructions 

                mac     #data           rmac    #data
                mac     #xo,#yo         rmac    #xo,#yo














                                   APPENDIX AQ

                                 AS740 ASSEMBLER





        AQ.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


           Thanks to Uwe Steller for his contribution of the AS740 cross
        assembler.  

                Uwe Stellar
                Uwe dot Steller at t-online dot de



           The  instruction  syntax  of  this  cross  assembler uses the
        square brackets [] to denote addressing indirection.  


        AQ.2  740 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 740 registers used by AS740:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                x,y     -       index registers


        AQ.3  740 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list  all 740 family mnemonics recog-
        nized by the AS740 assembler.  The designation []  refers  to  a
        required addressing mode argument.  The following list specifies
        the format for each addressing mode supported by AS740:  

                #data           immediate data byte
        
                #data,*zp       immediate data to zero page
        
                a               accumulator addressing


        AS740 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AQ-2
        740 INSTRUCTION SET


        
                *zp             zero page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                *zp,x           zero page x addressing
                *zp,y           zero page y addressing
                                address = (offset + (x or y))
        
                [*zp,x]         indirect x addressing
                                0 <= offset <= 255
                                address = 2 bytes at location
                                    [(offset + (x or y)) mod 256]
        
                [*zp],y         indirect y addressing
                                address = 2 byte value at offset
                                    plus the value of the y register
        
                abs             absolute addressing (2 byte)
                abs,x           absolute x addressing (2 byte + x)
                abs,y           absolute y addressing (2 byte + y)
        
                [abs]           indirect addressing (2 byte)
        
                label           branch label
        
                \special        low order byte of address 0xFFnn
        
                BIT#,*zp        bit set/clear zero page
                BIT#,A          bit set/clear accumulator
        
                BIT#,*zp,label  branch on bit set/clear in zero page
                BIT#,A,label    branch on bit set/clear in accumulator

        The terms data, zp, abs, BIT , special, and label may all be ex-
        pressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 740 technical data for valid modes.  


        AS740 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AQ-3
        740 INSTRUCTION SET


        AQ.3.1  Inherent Instructions 

                brk                     clc
                cld                     cli
                clt                     clv
                dex                     dey
                inx                     iny
                nop                     pha
                php                     pla
                plp                     rti
                rts                     sec
                sed                     sei
                set                     stp
                tax                     tay
                tsx                     txa
                txs                     tya
                wit


        AQ.3.2  Branch Instructions 

                bcc     label           bhs     label
                bcs     label           blo     label
                beq     label           bmi     label
                bne     label           bpl     label
                bvc     label           bvs     label
                bra     label


        AQ.3.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                asl     []
                dec     []
                inc     []
                lsr     []
                rol     []
                ror     []


        AS740 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AQ-4
        740 INSTRUCTION SET


        AQ.3.4  Double Operand Instructions 

                adc     []
                and     []
                bit     []
                cmp     []
                eor     []
                lda     []
                ora     []
                sbc     []
                sta     []


        AQ.3.5  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     []              jsr     []


        AQ.3.6  Miscellaneous X and Y Register Instructions 

                cpx     []
                cpy     []
                ldx     []
                stx     []
                ldy     []
                sty     []


        AQ.3.7  Bit Instructions 

                bit     []
                bbc     BIT#,[],label           bbs     BIT#,[],label
                clb     BIT#,[]                 seb     BIT#,[]


        AQ.3.8  Other Instructions 

                div     []                      mul     []
                ldm     #imm,[]                 com     []
                tst     []                      rrf     []














                                   APPENDIX AR

                                AS78K0S ASSEMBLER





        AR.1  78K/0S REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 78K/0S registers used by AS78K0S: 

                x(r0), a(r1),   8-bit registers
                c(r2), b(r3),
                e(r4), d(r5),
                l(r6), h(r7)
        
                ax(rp0),        16-bit registers
                bc(rp1),
                de(rp2),
                hl(rp3)
        
                sp              Stack pointer
                psw             Program status word
                cy              Carry flag
        
                Register names are NOT case sensitive.


        AR.2  78K/0S INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following tables list all 78K/0S mnemonics recognized by
        the AS78K0S assembler.  The designation [] refers to a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.  The first list specifies the format
        for each addressing mode supported by AS78K0S:  

                addr16          direct addressing
                                via 16-bit address
        
                !addr16         immediate addressing
                                only required for the
                                long br instruction
        


        AS78K0S ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AR-2
        78K/0S INSTRUCTION SET


                @saddr          short direct addressing
                                0xFE20 <= saddr <= 0xFF1F
        
                @saddr.bit      short direct addressing
                @saddr,bit      with bit addressing (0-7)
                                0xFE20 <= saddr <= 0xFF1F
        
                *sfr            special function registers
                                0xFF00 <= sfr <= 0xFFCF  or
                                0xFFE0 <= sfr <= 0xFFFF
        
                *sfr.bit        special function registers
                *sfr,bit        wiht bit addressing (0-7)
                                0xFF00 <= sfr <= 0xFFCF  or
                                0xFFE0 <= sfr <= 0xFFFF
        
                label           branch label
                                (pc relative addressing)
        
                #byte           immediate data (8  bit)
                #word           immediate data (16 bit)
        
                rn              registers (8 bit)
                                x, a, c, b, e, d, l, h
                                r0-r7
        
                rpn             registers (16 bit)
                                ax, bc, de, hl
                                rp0-rp3
        
                sp              stack pointer
        
                psw             program status register
        
                cy              carry flag
        
                [DE], [HL]      register indirect addressing
        
                [HL+byte]       based register indirect addressing

        The terms addr16, saddr, sfr, bit, label, byte, and word may all
        be expressions.  

           Absolute  addresses  (CONSTANTS)  will be checked as being in
        the 'saddr' range first and then as being in the 'sfr' range  if
        no explicit @ or * is specified.  

           The  bit addressing modes *sfr.bit and @saddr.bit use the '.'
        as a seperator from the address and  the  bit  value.   The  bit
        value  can  be  a numeric constant, a named constant, an expres-
        sion, or a combination of these.  Because  the  '.'  is  also  a
        legal character in a name or label the assembler may not be able


        AS78K0S ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AR-3
        78K/0S INSTRUCTION SET


        to resolve the address and bit value.  The  optional  method  of
        using a ',' to seperate the address and bit value may be used in
        this case.  

           If  the 'sfr' or 'saddr' address is external then the user is
        responsible to ensure the addresses are in  the  proper  ranges.
        NO ERRORS will be reported by the linker.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the 78K/0S technical data for valid modes.  


        AR.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                nop     halt    stop
                ret     reti
                di      ei


        AR.2.2  Branch Instructions 

                bc      label                   bnc     label
                bz      label                   bnz     label
        
                br      []                      dbnz    [],addr16
        
                bt      [],addr16               bf      [],addr16


        AR.2.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                inc     []                      dec     []
                incw    rpn                     dec     rpn
        
                set1    []                      clr1    []
        
                set1    cy                      clr1    cy
                not1    cy
        
                call    addr16                  callt   []
        
                push    []                      pop     []


        AS78K0S ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AR-4
        78K/0S INSTRUCTION SET


        AR.2.4  Double Operand Instructions 

                movw    sp,ax                   movw    ax,sp
                movw    [],[]                   xchw    ax,rpn
        
                add     a,[]                    add     saddr,#byte
                addc    a,[]                    addc    saddr,#byte
                sub     a,[]                    sub     saddr,#byte
                subc    a,[]                    subc    saddr,#byte
                and     a,[]                    and     saddr,#byte
                or      a,[]                    or      saddr,#byte
                xor     a,[]                    xor     saddr,#byte
                cmp     a,[]                    cmp     saddr,#byte
        
                adddw   ax,#word                subw    ax,#word
                cmpw    ax,#word
        
                ror     a,1                     rol     a,1
                rorc    a,1                     rolc    a,1














                                   APPENDIX AS

                                AS8048 ASSEMBLER




           AS8048  supports the 8048, 8041, 8022, and 8021 variations of
        the 8048 microprocessor family.  


        AS.1  .8048 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .8048 

        The .8048 directive enables processing of only the 8048 specific
        mnemonics.  8041/8022/8021 mnemonics encountered will be flagged
        with an 'o' error.  


        AS.2  .8041 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .8041 

        The  .8041  directive  enables  processing  of the 8041 specific
        mnemonics.  8041 mnemonics encountered without the .8041  direc-
        tive will be flagged with an 'o' error.  




        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-2
        .8022 DIRECTIVE


        AS.3  .8022 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .8022 

        The  .8022  directive  enables  processing  of the 8022 specific
        mnemonics.  8022 mnemonics encountered without the .8022  direc-
        tive will be flagged with an 'o' error.  


        AS.4  .8021 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .8021 

        The  .8021  directive  enables  processing  of the 8021 specific
        mnemonics.  8021 mnemonics encountered without the .8021  direc-
        tive will be flagged with an 'o' error.  


        AS.5  THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values for  the  AS8048
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                    .8048                        0
                    .8041                        1
                    .8022                        2
                    .8021                        3


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  



        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-3
        8048 REGISTER SET


        AS.6  8048 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 8048 registers used by AS8048:  

                a               -       8-bit accumulator
                r0,r1,r2,r3     -       8-bit registers
                r4,r5,r6,r7
                bus,p1,p2       -       bus and ports
                p4,p5,p6,p7
                an0,an1         -       analog input select
                rb0,rb1         -       register bank select
                mb0,mb1         -       memory bank select
                c               -       carry (bit in status word)
                clk             -       timer
                cnt             -       counter
                dbb             -       data bus buffer
                f0              -       f0 bit in psw
                f1              -       f1 bit in psw
                i               -       interrupt
                psw             -       program status word
                t               -       timer register
                tcnt            -       timer counter
                tcnti           -       timer interrupt


        AS.7  8048 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 8048 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS8048 assembler.  The following list specifies  the  format
        for each addressing mode supported by AS8048:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                r               register r0,r1
                rn              register r0,r1,r2,r3,r4,r5,r6, or r7
        
                @r              indirect on register r0 or r1
                @a              indirect on accumulator
        
                addr            direct memory address
                addr8           current page 8-bit jmp address
        
                #data           immediate data
        
                pn              ports p1 or p2
                port            ports p1,p2 or bus
                ep              ports p4,p5,p6, or p7
        
                bus             i/o bus
        


        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-4
        8048 INSTRUCTION SET


                s               f0 or f1 bits in psw
                bitaddr         bit address
        
                label           call or jump label

        The terms data, addr, and label may all be expressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction.  Refer to the 8048, 8041, 8022,  and  8021  technical
        data for valid modes.  


        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-5
        8048 INSTRUCTION SET


        AS.7.1  Alphabetical Instruction Listing 

                                        8021    8022    8041    8048
                add     a,@r            x       x       x       x
                add     a,#data         x       x       x       x
                add     a,rn            x       x       x       x
        
                addc    a,@r            x       x       x       x
                addc    a,#data         x       x       x       x
                addc    a,rn            x       x       x       x
        
                anl     port,#data                      x       x
                anl     bus,#data                               x
                anl     a,@r            x       x       x       x
                anl     a,rn            x       x       x       x
        
                anld    ep,a            x       x       x       x
        
                call    addr            x       x       x       x
        
                clr     a               x       x       x       x
                clr     c               x       x       x       x
                clr     s                               x       x
        
                cpl     a               x       x       x       x
                cpl     c               x       x       x       x
                cpl     s                               x       x
        
                daa     a               x       x       x       x
        
                dec     rn                              x       x
                dec     a               x       x       x       x
        
                dis     tcnti                           x       x
                dis     i                               x       x
        
                djnz    rn,addr8        x       x       x       x
        
                en      tcnti                           x       x
                en      i                               x       x
        
                ent0    clk                                     x


        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-6
        8048 INSTRUCTION SET


                                        8021    8022    8041    8048
                in      a,dbb                           x
                in      a,pn            x       x       x       x
        
                inc     a               x       x       x       x
                inc     a,@r                            x       x
                inc     rn              x       x       x       x
        
                ins     a,bus                                   x
        
                jmp     addr            x       x       x       x
        
                jmpp    @a              x       x       x       x
        
                jb0     addr8                           x       x
                jb1     addr8                           x       x
                jb2     addr8                           x       x
                jb3     addr8                           x       x
                jb4     addr8                           x       x
                jb5     addr8                           x       x
                jb6     addr8                           x       x
                jb7     addr8                           x       x
        
                jc      addr8           x       x       x       x
                jf0     addr8                           x       x
                jf1     addr8                           x       x
                jnc     addr8           x       x       x       x
                jni     addr8                                   x
                jnibf   addr8                           x
                jnt0    addr8                           x       x
                jnt1    addr8                           x       x
                jnz     addr8           x       x       x       x
                jobf    addr8                                   x
                jtf     addr8           x       x       x       x
                jt0     addr8                           x       x
                jt1     addr8           x       x       x       x
                jz      addr8           x       x       x       x


        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-7
        8048 INSTRUCTION SET


                                        8021    8022    8041    8048
                mov     a,#data         x       x       x       x
                mov     a,psw                           x       x
                mov     a,@r            x       x       x       x
                mov     a,rn            x       x       x       x
                mov     a,t             x       x       x       x
                mov     psw,a                           x       x
                mov     rn,a            x       x       x       x
                mov     @r,a            x       x       x       x
                mov     rn,#data        x       x       x       x
                mov     @r,#data        x       x       x       x
                mov     t,a             x       x       x       x
        
                movd    a,ep            x       x       x       x
                movd    ep,a            x               x       x
        
                movp    a,@a            x       x       x       x
        
                movp3   a,@a                            x       x
        
                movx    a,@r                                    x
                movx    @r,a                                    x
        
                nop                     x               x       x
        
                orl     a,#data         x       x       x       x
                orl     a,rn            x       x       x       x
                orl     a,@r            x       x       x       x
                orl     bus,#data                               x
                orl     port,#data                      x       x
        
                orld    ep,a            x       x       x       x
        
                out     dbb,a                           x
        
                outl    bus,a                   x
                outl    port,a          x       x       x       x
        
                rad     a                       x
        
                ret                     x       x       x       x
        
                retr                                    x       x


        AS8048 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AS-8
        8048 INSTRUCTION SET


                                        8021    8022    8041    8048
                rl      a               x       x       x       x
        
                rlc     a               x       x       x       x
        
                rr      a               x       x       x       x
        
                rrc     a               x       x       x       x
        
                sel     an0                     x
                sel     an1                     x
                sel     mb0                                     x
                sel     mb1                                     x
                sel     rb0                                     x
                sel     rb1                                     x
        
                swap    a               x       x       x       x
        
                stop    tcnt            x       x       x       x
                strt    cnt             x       x       x       x
                strt    t               x       x       x       x
        
                xch     a,@r            x       x       x       x
        
                xchd    a,@r            x       x       x       x
        
                xrl     a,@r            x       x       x       x
        
        
                xrl     a,#data         x       x       x       x
        
                xch     a,rn            x       x       x       x
        
                xrl     a,rn            x       x       x       x














                                   APPENDIX AT

                                AS8051 ASSEMBLER





        AT.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 


           Thanks  to  John  Hartman  for his contribution of the AS8051
        cross assembler.  

                John L. Hartman
                jhartman at compuserve dot com
                noice at noicedebugger dot com


        AT.2  8051 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the 8051 registers used by AS8051:  

                a,b             -       8-bit accumulators
                r0,r1,r2,r3     -       8-bit registers
                r4,r5,r6,r7
                dptr            -       data pointer
                sp              -       stack pointer
                pc              -       program counter
                psw             -       status word
                c               -       carry (bit in status word)


        AS8051 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AT-2
        8051 REGISTER SET


        AT.3  8051 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables  list all 8051 mnemonics recognized by
        the AS8051 assembler.  The following list specifies  the  format
        for each addressing mode supported by AS8051:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                r,r1,r2         register r0,r1,r2,r3,r4,r5,r6, or r7
        
                @r              indirect on register r0 or r1
                @dptr           indirect on data pointer
                @a+dptr         indirect on accumulator
                                plus data pointer
                @a+pc           indirect on accumulator
                                plus program counter
        
                addr            direct memory address
        
                bitaddr         bit address
        
                label           call or jump label

        The terms data, addr, bitaddr, and label may all be expressions. 

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction.  Refer to the 8051 technical data for valid modes.  


        AT.3.1  Inherent Instructions 

                nop


        AS8051 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AT-3
        8051 INSTRUCTION SET


        AT.3.2  Move Instructions 

                mov     a,#data         mov     a,addr
                mov     a,r             mov     a,@r
        
                mov     r,#data         mov     r,addr
                mov     r,a
        
                mov     addr,a          mov     addr,#data
                mov     addr,r          mov     addr,@r
                mov     addr1,addr2     mov     bitaddr,c
        
                mov     @r,#data        mov     @r,addr
                mov     @r,a
        
                mov     c,bitaddr
                mov     dptr,#data
        
                movc    a,@a+dptr       movc    a,@a+pc
                movx    a,@dptr         movx    a,@r
                movx    @dptr,a         movx    @r,a


        AT.3.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                clr     a               clr     c
                clr     bitaddr
                cpl     a               cpl     c
                cpl     bitaddr
                setb    c               setb    bitaddr
        
                da      a               
                rr      a               rrc     a
                rl      a               rlc     a
                swap    a
        
                dec     a               dec     r
                dec     @r
                inc     a               inc     r
                inc     dptr            inc     @r
        
                div     ab              mul     ab
        
                pop     addr            push    addr


        AS8051 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AT-4
        8051 INSTRUCTION SET


        AT.3.4  Two Operand Instructions 

                add     a,#data         add     a,addr
                add     a,r             add     a,@r
                addc    a,#data         addc    a,addr
                addc    a,r             addc    a,@r
                subb    a,#data         subb    a,addr
                subb    a,r             subb    a,@r
                orl     a,#data         orl     a,addr
                orl     a,r             orl     a,@r
                orl     addr,a          orl     addr,#data
                orl     c,bitaddr       orl     c,/bitaddr
                anl     a,#data         anl     a,addr
                anl     a,r             anl     a,@r
                anl     addr,a          anl     addr,#data
                anl     c,bitaddr       anl     c,/bitaddr
                xrl     a,#data         xrl     a,addr
                xrl     a,r             xrl     a,@r
                xrl     addr,a          xrl     addr,#data
                xrl     c,bitaddr       xrl     c,/bitaddr
                xch     a,addr          xch     a,r
                xch     a,@r            xchd    a,@r


        AT.3.5  Call and Return Instructions 

                acall   label           lcall   label
                ret                     reti
                in      data
                out     data
                rst     data


        AT.3.6  Jump Instructions 

                ajmp    label
                cjne    a,#data,label   cjne    a,addr,label
                cjne    r,#data,label   cjne    @r,#data,label
                djnz    r,label         djnz    addr,label
                jbc     bitadr,label
                jb      bitadr,label    jnb     bitadr,label
                jc      label           jnc     label
                jz      label           jnz     label
                jmp     @a+dptr
                ljmp    label           sjmp    label


        AS8051 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AT-5
        8051 INSTRUCTION SET


        AT.3.7  Predefined Symbols:  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                FC                                          FF
                F8                                          FB
                F4                                          F7
                F0      B                                   F3
                EC                                          EF
                E8                                          EB
                E4                                          E7
                E0      ACC                                 E3
                DC                                          DF
                D8                                          DB
                D4                                          D7
                D0      PSW                                 D3
                CC   [  TL2     TH2                     ]   CF
                C8   [  T2CON           RCAP2L  RCAP2H  ]   CB
                C4                                          C7
                C0                                          C3
                BC                                          BF
                B8      IP                                  BB
                B4                                          B7
                B0      P3                                  B3
                AC                                          AF
                A8      IE                                  AB
                A4                                          A7
                A0      P2                                  A3
                9C                                          9F
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B
                94                                          97
                90      P1                                  93
                8C      TH0     TH1                         8F
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                84                              PCON        87
                80      P0      SP      DPL     DPH         83
        
                [...] Indicates Resident in 8052, not 8051
                A is an allowed alternate for ACC.


        AS8051 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AT-6
        8051 INSTRUCTION SET


        AT.3.8  Predefined Symbols:  SFR Bit Addresses 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                FC                                          FF
                F8                                          FB
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
                F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                EC                                          EF
                E8                                          EB
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
                E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                DC                                          DF
                D8                                          DB
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
                D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                CC   [  T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7 ]   CF
                C8   [  T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3 ]   CB
                C4                                          C7
                C0                                          C3
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
                B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
                B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
                A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
                A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F
                98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
                90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
                88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                84      P0.4    P0.5    P0.6    P0.7        87
                80      P0.0    P0.1    P0.2    P0.3        83
        
                [...] Indicates Resident in 8052, not 8051
                A is an allowed alternate for ACC.


        AS8051 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AT-7
        8051 INSTRUCTION SET


        AT.3.9  Predefined Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                FC                                          FF
                F8                                          FB
                F4                                          F7
                F0                                          F3
                EC                                          EF
                E8                                          EB
                E4                                          E7
                E0                                          E3
                DC                                          DF
                D8                                          DB
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
                D0      P               OV      RS0         D3
                CC   [  TLCK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2     ]   CF
                C8   [  CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2   ]   CB
                C4                                          C7
                C0                                          C3
                BC      PS      PT2                         BF
                B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                B4                                          B7
                B0      RXD     TXD     INT0    INT1        B3
                AC      ES      ET2             EA          AF
                A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                A4                                          A7
                A0                                          A3
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SM0         9F
                98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                94                                          97
                90                                          93
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                84                                          87
                80                                          83
        
                [...] Indicates Resident in 8052, not 8051














                                   APPENDIX AU

                                AS8085 ASSEMBLER





        AU.1  8085 REGISTER SET 

        The  following  is  a  list  of  the 8080/8085 registers used by
        AS8085:  

                a,b,c,d,e,h,l   -       8-bit accumulators
                m               -       memory through (hl)
                sp              -       stack pointer
                psw             -       status word


        AU.2  8085 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following tables list all 8080/8085 mnemonics recognized
        by the AS8085  assembler.   The  following  list  specifies  the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS8085:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                r,r1,r2         register or register pair
                                psw,a,b,c,d,e,h,l
                                bc,de,hl,sp,pc
        
                m               memory address using (hl)
        
                addr            direct memory addressing
        
                label           call or jump label

        The terms data, m, addr, and label may be expressions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to  the  8080/8085  technical  data  for  valid
        modes.  


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-2
        8085 INSTRUCTION SET


        AU.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                cma             cmc
                daa             di
                ei              hlt
                nop             pchl
                ral             rar
                ret             rim
                rrc             rlc
                sim             sphl
                stc             xchg
                xthl


        AU.2.2  Register/Memory/Immediate Instructions 

                adc     r       adc     m       aci     #data
                add     r       add     m       adi     #data
                ana     r       ana     m       ani     #data
                cmp     r       cmp     m       cpi     #data
                ora     r       ora     m       ori     #data
                sbb     r       sbb     m       sbi     #data
                sub     r       sub     m       sui     #data
                xra     r       xra     m       xri     #data


        AU.2.3  Call and Return Instructions 

                cc      label           rc
                cm      label           rm
                cnc     label           rnc
                cnz     label           rnz
                cp      label           rp
                cpe     label           rpe
                cpo     label           rpo
                cz      label           rz
                call    label


        AU.2.4  Jump Instructions 

                jc      label
                jm      label
                jnc     label
                jnz     label
                jp      label
                jpe     label
                jpo     label
                jz      label
                jmp     label


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-3
        8085 INSTRUCTION SET


        AU.2.5  Input/Output/Reset Instructions 

                in      data
                out     data
                rst     data


        AU.2.6  Move Instructions 

                mov     r1,r2
                mov     r,m
                mov     m,r
        
                mvi     r,#data
                mvi     m,#data


        AU.2.7  Other Instructions 

                dcr     r               dcr     m
                inr     r               inr     m
        
                dad     r               dcx     r
                inx     r               ldax    r
                pop     r               push    r
                stax    r
        
                lda     addr            lhld    addr
                shld    addr            sta     addr
        
                lxi     r,#data


        AU.2.8  Unspecified Instructions 

                arhl
                dsub
        
                jnx5    addr
                jx5     addr
        
                ldhi    #data
                ldsi    #data
        
                lhlx
                rdel
                rstv
                shlx


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-4
        8085 INSTRUCTION SET


        AU.3  UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE 

        Engineer's Notebook,
        "Electronics" magazine, 1980
        
        ----------------------------
        
        Unspecified 8085 Op Codes Enhance Programming
        
        by Wolfgang Dehnhardt and Villy M. Sorenson
        GSI, Dermstat, and Sorenson Software,
        Seeheim, West Germany
        
        ----------------------------
        


           Ten  operating  codes and two flag bits previously unknown to
        most users of the 8085 microprocessor will enable programmers to
        write  more efficient routines.  The new members of the instruc-
        tion set, which were stumbled upon  during  the  testing  of  an
        assembler-disassembler  module,  include  seven opcodes that in-
        volve the processing of register pairs, two  that  involve  jump
        operations  with  one  new  flag, and one that performs a condi-
        tional restart on the overflow indication of the other flag bit. 


           The   seven  register  pair  instructions  (all  with  16-bit
        operands) consist of a double subtraction, a  rotate,  a  shift,
        indirect  loading  and  storing of a word, and two offset opera-
        tions.  Either BC, DE, HL, or SP  are  the  designated  register
        pairs used in these opcodes.  


           The  mnemonic names of the instructions have been selected to
        be compatible with the 8085's existing mnemonics.  In the double
        subtraction  (DSUB),  register  pair  BC  is subtracted from HL.
        This instruction thus performs the opposite task  of  DAD  B,  a
        well-known  instruction.   The instruction RDEL rotates register
        pair DE left 1 bit through the carry.   ARHL  is  an  arithmetic
        shift  to  the right of HL.  It serves to divide HL by 2, except
        in cases where HL is -1.  


           All  16  bits of register pair HL can be stored indirectly at
        the address contained in the DE pair by  specifying  instruction
        SHLX.  To load HL, LHLX must be employed.  


           As  an example of how this instruction can be used to cut in-
        struction steps, consider the common sequence used for a routine
        table  jump  shown  in part (a) of the figure.  By assigning the


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-5
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        register DE for HL and using the LHLX instruction, this sequence
        can  be  replaced  by  the much simpler arrangement shown at the
        bottom of part (a).  


           As  for  adding  the contents of register pairs with an addi-
        tional byte (offset), DE can be loaded with HL plus the byte  by
        selecting  the instruction LDHI, which simplifies array address-
        ing.  Usually, the architecture of the 8080-type systems dictate
        addressing  of  arrays  in  what  are called pages of 256 bytes.
        This restriction means that the starting  address  of  an  array
        must  be placed near the beginning of a page.  A typical call is
        shown in part (b) of the figure.  


           The  page  limitation  is by passed using th LDHI instruction
        code and constant indexes.  The starting address  of  the  array
        can  now  be  placed anywhere, and addressing occurs as shown at
        the bottom of part (b).  


           An  additional  byte can be combined with register pair SP in
        DE if  instruction  LDSI  is  specified.   This  instruction  is
        designed  for  operating system routines that transfer arguments
        on the stack.  An example sequence, shown in (c), stores HL into
        a  16-bit  word  located as the second item below the top of the
        stack.  


           The  jump  and  restart instructions work in conjunction with
        the two discoverd flag bits, X5 and V.  Op codes  JX5  and  JNX5
        jump depending on the state of th X5 flag.  Op code RSTV makes a
        restart call to hexidecimal address 40 if the  V  flag  is  set;
        otherwise it functions as a no-operation instruction.  


           Flag  bit V indicates a 2's complement overflow condition for
        8- and 16-bit arithmetic operations.  Flag bit X5 has been named
        for  its  position  in  the  condition code byte and not for its
        function.  It does not resemble any normal flag bit.   The  only
        use  for this bit found thus far are as an unsigned overflow in-
        dicator resulting from a data change of FFFF to 0000 on  execut-
        ing DCX.  


           The new 8085 instructions are outlined in the table.  


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-6
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        Figure:
        
            ------------------------------------------------------|
            |  part (a)                                           |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            | | Sourec Statement |           Comment            | |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            | |    MOV   E,M     |  ;Routine ADR Low Byte       | |
            | |    INX   H       |  ;HL = Table ADR             | |
            | |    MOV   D,M     |  ;Routine ADR High Byte      | |
            | |    XCHG          |  ;DE = Routine ADR           | |
            | |    PCHL          |  ;Go to Routine ADR          | |
            | |----                                         ----| |
            |                       ||                            |
            |                       \/                            |
            | |----                                         ----| |
            | |    LHLX          |  ;DE = Table ADR             | |
            | |    PCHL          |  ;HL = Routine ADR           | |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            |                                                     |
            |  part (b)                                           |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            | | Sourec Statement |           Comment            | |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            | |    LXI   H,ARRAY |  ;ARRAY Base ADR             | |
            | |    MVI   L,INDEX |  ;8-Bit INDEX, HL=ARRAY ADR  | |
            | |----                                         ----| |
            |                       ||                            |
            |                       \/                            |
            | |----                                         ----| |
            | |    LXI   H,ARRAY |  ;ARRAY Base ADR             | |
            | |    LDHI  L,INDEX |  ;8-Bit INDEX, HL=ARRAY ADR  | |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            |                                                     |
            |  part (c)                                           |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            | | Sourec Statement |           Comment            | |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            | |    LDSI  2       |  ;DE = SP + 2                | |
            | |    SHLX          |  ;Replace 2, Item on Stack   | |
            | |-------------------------------------------------| |
            |                                                     |
            | Options.   Newly discovered operating codes for     |
            | 8085 shown in table enables the writing of more     |
            | efficient programs. Program for table jump (a, top) |
            | can be reduced significantly when new instructions  |
            | (a, bottom) are implemented. Array routine (b, top) |
            | can be rewritten (b, Bottom) so that arrays can be  |
            | addressed across page boundaries.  Data words can   |
            | be entered at any point in a stack register (c).    |
            ------------------------------------------------------|


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-7
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        Table:
        
            -----------------------------------
            |    Condition  Code  Format      |
            -----------------------------------
            |  S   Z  X5  AC   O   P   V  CY  |
            -----------------------------------
        
            New Condition Codes:
        
            V  = Bit 1     2's complement overflow
            X5 = bit 5     Underflow (DCX) or Overflow (INX)
                           X5 = O1*O2 + O1*R + O2*R, where
                           * == AND, + == OR
                           O1 = sign of operand 1
                           O2 = sign of operand 2
                           R  = sign of result.
                           For subtraction and comparisons
                           replace O2 with ~O2.
        
        
        
          DSUB   (double subtraction)
        
            (H)(L)=(H)(L)-(B)(C)
            The contents of register pair B and C are subtracted
            from the contents of register pair H and L. The
            result is placed in register pair H and L. All
            condition flags are affected.
        
              ---------------------
              [  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  ]                (08)
              ---------------------
        
              cycles:          3
              states:         10
              addressing:     register
              flags:          Z,S,P,CY,AC,X5,V


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-8
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        
          ARHL    (arithmetic shift of H and L to the right)
        
            (H7=H7);(Hn-1)=(Hn)
            (L7=H0);(Ln-1)=(Ln);(CY)=(L0)
            The contents of register pair H and L are shifted
            right one bit. The uppermost bit is duplicated and
            the lowest bit is shifted into the carry bit.
            The result is placed in register pair H and L.
            Note: only the CY flag is affected.
        
              ---------------------
              [  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  ]                (10)
              ---------------------
        
              cycles:         3
              states:         7
              addressing:     register
              flags:          CY
        
        
        
          RDEL    (rotate D and E left through carry)
        
            (Dn+1)=(Dn);(D0)=(E7)
            (CY)=(D7);(En+1)=(En);(E0)=(CY)
            The contents of register pair D and E are rotated
            left one position through the carry flag. The low
            order bit is set equal to the CY flag and the CY
            flag is set to the value shifted out of the
            high-order bit. Only the CY and V flags are
            affected.
        
               ---------------------
               [  0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0  ]                (18)
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:           3
              states:          10
              addressing:      register
              flags:           CY, V


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AU-9
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        
          LDHI    (load D and E with H and L plus immediate byte)
        
            (D)(E)=((H)(L)+(byte 2)
            The contents of register pair H and L are added to
            the immediate byte. The result is placed in
            register pair D and E.
            Note: no condition flags are affected.
        
               ---------------------
               [  0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0  ]                (28)
               ---------------------
               [       data        ]
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:           3
              states:          10
              addressing:      immediate register
              flags:           none
        
        
        
          LDSI    (load D and E with SP plus immediate bytey)
        
            (D)(E);(D0)=(E7)
            (CY)=(D7);(SPH)(SPL)+(byte 2)
            The contents of register pair H and L are added to
            the immediate byte. The result is placed in
            register pair D and E.
            Note: no condition flags are affected.
        
               ---------------------
               [  0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0  ]                (38)
               ---------------------
               [       data        ]
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:           3
              states:          10
              addressing:      immediate register
              flags:           none


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AU-10
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        
          RSTV    (restart on overflow)
        
            if (V):
               ((SP)-1))=(PCH)
               ((SP)-2))=(PCL)
               (SP)=(SP)-2
               (PC)=40 hex
            If the overflow flag V is set, the actions
            specified above are performed; otherwise
            control continues sequentially.
        
               ---------------------
               [  1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1  ]                (CB)
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:          1 or 3
              states:          6 or 12
              addressing:      register indirect
              flags:           none
        
        
        
          SHLX    (store H and L indirect through D and E)
        
            ((D)(E))=(L)
            ((D)(E)+1)=(H)
            The contents of register L are moved to the
            memory-location whose address is in register pair
            D and E. The contents of register H are moved to
            the succeeding memory location.
        
               ---------------------
               [  1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1  ]                (D9)
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:           3
              states:          10
              addressing:      register indirect
              flags:           none


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AU-11
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        
          JNX5    (jump on not X5)
        
            if (not X5)
               (PC)=(byte 3)(byte 2)
        
            If the X5 flag is reset, control is transferred to
            the instruction whose address is specified in byte
            3 and byte 2 of the current instruction; otherwise
            control continues sequentially.
        
               ---------------------
               [  1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1  ]                (DD)
               ---------------------
               [  lo-order address ]
               ---------------------
               [  hi-order address ]
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:          2 or 3
              states:          7 or 10
              addressing:      immediate
              flags:           none
        
        
        
          LHLX    (load H and L indirect through D and E))
        
            (L)=((D)(E))
            (H)=((D)(E)+1)
            The content of the memory location whose address
            is in D and E, are moved to register L. The
            contents of the succeeding memory location are
            moved to register H.
        
               ---------------------
               [  1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1  ]                (ED)
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:           3
              states:          10
              addressing:      register indirect
              flags:           none


        AS8085 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AU-12
        UNSPECIFIED OPCODE ARTICLE


        
          JX5     (jump on X5)
        
            if (X5)
               (PC)=(byte 3)(byte 2)
        
            If the X5 flag is set, control is transferred to
            the instruction whose address is specified in byte
            3 and byte 2 of the current instruction; otherwise
            control continues sequentially.
        
               ---------------------
               [  1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1  ]                (FD)
               ---------------------
               [  lo-order address ]
               ---------------------
               [  hi-order address ]
               ---------------------
        
              cycles:          2 or 3
              states:          7 or 10
              addressing:      immediate
              flags:           none














                                   APPENDIX AV

                               AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER





        AV.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


           Thanks to Bill McKinnon for his contributions to the AS8XCXXX
        cross assembler.  

                Bill McKinnon
                w_mckinnon at conknet dot com

           This  assembler  was  derived from the AS8051 cross assembler
        contributed by John Hartman.  

                John L. Hartman
                jhartman at compuserve dot com
                noice at noicedebugger dot com


        AV.2  AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES 



        AV.2.1  Processor Selection Directives 


           The  AS8XCXXX  assembler  contains  directives to specify the
        processor core SFR (Special Function Registers) and  enable  the
        SFR  Bit  Register values during the assembly process.  The fol-
        lowing directives are supported:  

                .DS8XCXXX               ;80C32 core
                .DS80C310               ;Dallas Semiconductor
                .DS80C320               ;Microprocessors
                .DS80C323
                .DS80C390
                .DS83C520
                .DS83C530


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-2
        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                .DS83C550
                .DS87C520
                .DS87C530
                .DS87C550

        The invocation of one of the processor directives creates a pro-
        cessor specific symbol and an SFR-Bits symbol.  For example  the
        directive 

                .DS80C390

        creates  the  global  symbols '__DS80C390' and '__SFR_BITS' each
        with a value of 1.  If the microprocessor core selection  direc-
        tive  is  followed  by  an  optional  argument  then  the symbol
        '__SFR_BITS' is given the  value  of  the  argument.   The  file
        DS8XCXXX.SFR  contains  the  SFR and SFR register bit values for
        all the microprocessor selector directives.  This  file  may  be
        modified to create a new SFR for other microprocessor types.  

           If a microprocessor selection directive is not specified then
        no processor symbols will be defined.  This mode allows the  SFR
        and SFR register bit values to be defined by the assembly source
        file.  


        AV.2.2  .cpu Directive 


           The  .cpu  directive  is  similar  to the processor selection
        directives.  This directive defines a  new  processor  type  and
        creates a user defined symbol:  

                .cpu    "CP84C331"      2

           creates  the  symbol  '__CP84C331'  with a value of 1 and the
        symbol '__SFR_BITS' with a value of 2.  These values can be used
        to  select  the  processor SFR and SFR register bits from an in-
        clude file.  If the optional final argument, 2, is omitted  then
        the value of the symbol '__SFR_BITS' is 1.  




        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-3
        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        AV.2.3  Processor Addressing Range Directives 


           If one of the .DS8...  microprocessor selection directives is
        not specified then the following address range assembler  direc-
        tives are accepted:  

                .16bit                  ;16-Bit Addressing
                .24bit                  ;24-Bit Addressing
                .32bit                  ;32-Bit Addressing

        These  directives specify the assembler addressing space and ef-
        fect the output format for the .lst, .sym, and .rel files.  

           The  default  addressing space for defined microprocessors is
        16-Bit except for the DS80C390 microprocessor which is 24-Bit.  

           The  .cpu  directive  defaults to the 16-Bit addressing range
        but this can be changed using these directives.  


        AV.2.4  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values for the AS8XCXXX
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                  .cpu                           0
        
                  .DS8XCXXX                      1
                  .DS80C310                      2
                  .DS80C320                      3
                  .DS80C323                      4
                  .DS80C390                      5
                  .DS83C520                      6
                  .DS83C530                      7
                  .DS83C550                      8
                  .DS87C520                      9
                  .DS87C530                     10
                  .DS87C550                     11


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  



        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-4
        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        AV.2.5  DS80C390 Addressing Mode Directive 


           The  DS80C390  microprocessor  supports 16-Bit and 24-Bit ad-
        dressing modes.   The  .amode  assembler  directive  provides  a
        method  to  select  the addressing mode used by the ajmp, acall,
        ljmp, and lcall instructions.  These four  instructions  support
        16  and  24 bit addressing modes selected by bits AM0 and AM1 in
        the ACON register.  The assembler is 'informed'  about  the  ad-
        dressing mode selected by using the .amode directive:  

                .amode  2       ;mode 2 is 24-bit addressing

        If  a  second  argument  is specified and its value is non-zero,
        then a three instruction sequence is inserted at the .amode  lo-
        cation loading the mode bits into the ACON register:  

                .amode  2,1     ;mode 2 is 24-bit addressing, load ACON
                ;mov    ta,#0xAA
                ;mov    ta,#0x55
                ;mov    acon,#amode



        AV.2.6  The .msb Directive 


           The .msb directive is available in the AS8XCXXX assembler.  

           The  assembler operator '>' selects the upper byte (MSB) when
        included in an assembler  instruction.   The  default  assembler
        mode  is  to  select bits <15:8> as the MSB.  The .msb directive
        allows the programmer to specify a particular byte as the  'MSB'
        when the address space is larger than 16-bits.  

           The assembler directive   .msb n  configures the assembler to
        select a particular byte as MSB.  Given a 24-bit address of  Nmn
        (N(2) is <23:16>, m(1) is <15:8>, and n(0) is <7:0>) the follow-
        ing examples show how to select a particular address byte:  

                .msb 1          ;select byte 1 of address
                                ;
                LD A,>MNmn      ;byte m <15:8> ==>> A


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-5
        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


                ...
        
                .msb 2          ;select byte 2 of address
                                ;
                LD A,>MNmn      ;byte N <23:16> ==>> A
                ...


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-6
        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES


        AV.3  DS8XCXXX REGISTER SET 

        The  AS8XCXXX  cross assembler supports the Dallas Semiconductor
        DS8XCXXX series of 8051-compatible devices.  These  microproces-
        sors  retain  instruction set and object code compatability with
        the 8051 microprocessor.  The DS8XCXXX family  is  updated  with
        several   new  peripherals  while  providing  all  the  standard
        features of the 80C32 microprocessor.  

           The following is a list of the registers used by AS8XCXXX:  

                a,b             -       8-bit accumulators
                r0,r1,r2,r3     -       8-bit registers
                r4,r5,r6,r7
                dptr            -       data pointer
                sp              -       stack pointer
                pc              -       program counter
                psw             -       status word
                c               -       carry (bit in status word)


        AV.4  DS8XCXXX INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  tables list all DS8XCXXX mnemonics recognized
        by the AS8XCXXX assembler.  The  following  list  specifies  the
        format for each addressing mode supported by AS8XCXXX:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                r,r1,r2         register r0,r1,r2,r3,r4,r5,r6, or r7
        
                @r              indirect on register r0 or r1
                @dptr           indirect on data pointer
                @a+dptr         indirect on accumulator
                                plus data pointer
                @a+pc           indirect on accumulator
                                plus program counter
        
                addr            direct memory address
        
                bitaddr         bit address
        
                label           call or jump label

        The terms data, addr, bitaddr, and label may all be expressions. 

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction.  Refer to  the  DS8XCXXX  technical  data  for  valid
        modes.  


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-7
        DS8XCXXX INSTRUCTION SET


        AV.4.1  Inherent Instructions 

                nop


        AV.4.2  Move Instructions 

                mov     a,#data         mov     a,addr
                mov     a,r             mov     a,@r
        
                mov     r,#data         mov     r,addr
                mov     r,a
        
                mov     addr,a          mov     addr,#data
                mov     addr,r          mov     addr,@r
                mov     addr1,addr2     mov     bitaddr,c
        
                mov     @r,#data        mov     @r,addr
                mov     @r,a
        
                mov     c,bitaddr
                mov     dptr,#data
        
                movc    a,@a+dptr       movc    a,@a+pc
                movx    a,@dptr         movx    a,@r
                movx    @dptr,a         movx    @r,a


        AV.4.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                clr     a               clr     c
                clr     bitaddr
                cpl     a               cpl     c
                cpl     bitaddr
                setb    c               setb    bitaddr
        
                da      a               
                rr      a               rrc     a
                rl      a               rlc     a
                swap    a
        
                dec     a               dec     r
                dec     @r
                inc     a               inc     r
                inc     dptr            inc     @r
        
                div     ab              mul     ab
        
                pop     addr            push    addr


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-8
        DS8XCXXX INSTRUCTION SET


        AV.4.4  Two Operand Instructions 

                add     a,#data         add     a,addr
                add     a,r             add     a,@r
                addc    a,#data         addc    a,addr
                addc    a,r             addc    a,@r
                subb    a,#data         subb    a,addr
                subb    a,r             subb    a,@r
                orl     a,#data         orl     a,addr
                orl     a,r             orl     a,@r
                orl     addr,a          orl     addr,#data
                orl     c,bitaddr       orl     c,/bitaddr
                anl     a,#data         anl     a,addr
                anl     a,r             anl     a,@r
                anl     addr,a          anl     addr,#data
                anl     c,bitaddr       anl     c,/bitaddr
                xrl     a,#data         xrl     a,addr
                xrl     a,r             xrl     a,@r
                xrl     addr,a          xrl     addr,#data
                xrl     c,bitaddr       xrl     c,/bitaddr
                xch     a,addr          xch     a,r
                xch     a,@r            xchd    a,@r


        AV.4.5  Call and Return Instructions 

                acall   label           lcall   label
                ret                     reti
                in      data
                out     data
                rst     data


        AV.4.6  Jump Instructions 

                ajmp    label
                cjne    a,#data,label   cjne    a,addr,label
                cjne    r,#data,label   cjne    @r,#data,label
                djnz    r,label         djnz    addr,label
                jbc     bitadr,label
                jb      bitadr,label    jnb     bitadr,label
                jc      label           jnc     label
                jz      label           jnz     label
                jmp     @a+dptr
                ljmp    label           sjmp    label


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                     PAGE AV-9
        DS8XCXXX INSTRUCTION SET


        AV.5  DS8XCXXX SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The  80C32 core Special Function Registers are selected using
        the .DS8XCXXX assembler directive.  


        AV.5.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80              SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84                              PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1                         8F
                90      P1                                  93
                94                                          97
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B
                9C                                          9F
                A0      P2                                  A3
                A4                                          A7
                A8      IE      SADDR0                      AB
                AC                                          AF
                B0      P3                                  B3
                B4                                          B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0                      BB
                BC                                          BF
                C0                                          C3
                C4              STATUS                      C7
                C8      T2CON   T2MOD   RCAP2L  RCAP2H      CB
                CC      TL2     TH2                         CF
                D0      PSW                                 D3
                D4                                          D7
                D8                                          DB
                DC                                          DF
                E0      ACC                                 E3
                E4                                          E7
                E8                                          EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0      B                                   F3
                F4                                          F7
                F8                                          FB
                FC                                          FF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-10
        DS8XCXXX SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.5.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        P1      90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F
        P2      A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        P3      B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
                C0                                          C3
                C4                                          C7
        T2CON   C8      T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3     CB
                CC      T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7     CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
                D8                                          DB
                DC                                          DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
                E8                                          EB
                EC                                          EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
                F8                                          FB
                FC                                          FF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-11
        DS8XCXXX SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.5.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                90                                          93
                94                                          97
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2             EA          AF
                B0                                          B3
                B4                                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PT2                         BF
                C0                                          C3
                C4                                          C7
        T2CON   C8      CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2       CB
                CC      TCLK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2         CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
                D8                                          DB
                DC                                          DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
                E8                                          EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
                F8                                          FB
                FC                                          FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        T2CON   C8      CP_RL2  C_T2                        CB
                CC                                          CF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-12
        DS8XCXXX SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.5.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        PCON    0x80    SMOD    SMOD0                       0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        STATUS  0x80            HIP     LIP                 0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    T2OE    DCEN        0x01


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-13
        DS8XCXXX SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.6  DS80C310 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The  DS80C310  Special  Function Registers are selected using
        the .DS80C310 assembler directive.  


        AV.6.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80              SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84      DPL1    DPH1    DPS     PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1     CKCON               8F
                90      P1      EXIF                        93
                94                                          97
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B
                9C                                          9F
                A0      P2                                  A3
                A4                                          A7
                A8      IE      SADDR0                      AB
                AC                                          AF
                B0      P3                                  B3
                B4                                          B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0                      BB
                BC                                          BF
                C0                                          C3
                C4              STATUS                      C7
                C8      T2CON   T2MOD   RCAP2L  RCAP2H      CB
                CC      TL2     TH2                         CF
                D0      PSW                                 D3
                D4                                          D7
                D8      WDCON                               DB
                DC                                          DF
                E0      ACC                                 E3
                E4                                          E7
                E8      EIE                                 EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0      B                                   F3
                F4                                          F7
                F8      EIP                                 FB
                FC                                          FF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-14
        DS80C310 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.6.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        P1      90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F
        P2      A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        P3      B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
                C0                                          C3
                C4                                          C7
        T2CON   C8      T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3     CB
                CC      T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7     CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
        WDCON   D8      WDCON.0 WDCON.1 WDCON.2 WDCON.3     DB
                DC      WDCON.4 WDCON.5 WDCON.6 WDCON.7     DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
        EIE     E8      EIE.0   EIE.1   EIE.2   EIE.3       EB
                EC      EIE.4   EIE.5   EIE.6   EIE.7       EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
        EIP     F8      EIP.0   EIP.1   EIP.2   EIP.3       FB
                FC      EIP.4   EIP.5   EIP.6   EIP.7       FF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-15
        DS80C310 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.6.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                90                                          93
                94                                          97
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2             EA          AF
                B0                                          B3
                B4                                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PT2                         BF
                C0                                          C3
                C4                                          C7
        T2CON   C8      CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2       CB
                CC      TCLK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2         CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
        WDCON   D8                                          DB
                DC                      POR                 DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
        EIE     E8      EX2     EX3     EX4     EX5         EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
        EIP     F8      PX2     PX3     PX4     PX5         FB
                FC                                          FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        T2CON   C8      CP_RL2  C_T2                        CB
                CC                                          CF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-16
        DS80C310 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.6.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        DPS     0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                            SEL         0x01
        PCON    0x80    SMOD    SMOD0                       0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        CKCON   0x80                    T2M     T1M         0x10
                0x08    T0M     MD2     MD1     MD0         0x01
        EXIF    0x80    IE5     IE4     IE3     IE2         0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        STATUS  0x80            HIP     LIP                 0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    T2OE    DCEN        0x01
        
                Alternates:
        
        PCON    0x80    SMOD_0                              0x10
                0x08                                        0x01


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-17
        DS80C310 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.7  DS80C320/DS80C323 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The DS80C320/DS80C323 Special Function Registers are selected
        using the .DS80C320 or DS80C323 assembler directives.  


        AV.7.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80              SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84      DPL1    DPH1    DPS     PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1     CKCON               8F
                90      P1      EXIF                        93
                94                                          97
                98      SCON0   SBUF0                       9B
                9C                                          9F
                A0      P2                                  A3
                A4                                          A7
                A8      IE      SADDR0                      AB
                AC                                          AF
                B0      P3                                  B3
                B4                                          B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0                      BB
                BC                                          BF
                C0      SCON1   SBUF1                       C3
                C4              STATUS          TA          C7
                C8      T2CON   T2MOD   RCAP2L  RCAP2H      CB
                CC      TL2     TH2                         CF
                D0      PSW                                 D3
                D4                                          D7
                D8      WDCON                               DB
                DC                                          DF
                E0      ACC                                 E3
                E4                                          E7
                E8      EIE                                 EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0      B                                   F3
                F4                                          F7
                F8      EIP                                 FB
                FC                                          FF
        
                Alternates:
        
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-18
        DS80C320/DS80C323 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.7.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        P1      90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON0   98      SCON0.0 SCON0.1 SCON0.2 SCON0.3     9B
                9C      SCON0.4 SCON0.5 SCON0.6 SCON0.7     9F
        P2      A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        P3      B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
        SCON1   C0      SCON1.0 SCON1.1 SCON1.2 SCON1.3     C3
                C4      SCON1.4 SCON1.5 SCON1.6 SCON1.7     C7
        T2CON   C8      T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3     CB
                CC      T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7     CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
        WDCON   D8      WDCON.0 WDCON.1 WDCON.2 WDCON.3     DB
                DC      WDCON.4 WDCON.5 WDCON.6 WDCON.7     DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
        EIE     E8      EIE.0   EIE.1   EIE.2   EIE.3       EB
                EC      EIE.4   EIE.5   EIE.6   EIE.7       EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
        EIP     F8      EIP.0   EIP.1   EIP.2   EIP.3       FB
                FC      EIP.4   EIP.5   EIP.6   EIP.7       FF
        
                        Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-19
        DS80C320/DS80C323 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.7.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                90                                          93
                94                                          97
        SCON0   98      RI_0    TI_0    RB8_0   TB8_0       9B
                9C      REN_0   SM2_0   SM1_0   SMO_0       9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2             EA          AF
                B0                                          B3
                B4                                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PT2                         BF
        SCON1   C0      RI_1    TI_1    RB8_1   TB8_1       C3
                C4      REN_1   SM2_1   SM1_1   SMO_1       C7
        T2CON   C8      CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2       CB
                CC      TCLK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2         CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
        WDCON   D8      RWT     EWT     WTRF    WDIF        DB
                DC      PFI     EPFI    POR     SMOD_1      DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
        EIE     E8      EX2     EX3     EX4     EX5         EB
                EC      EWDI                                EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
        EIP     F8      PX2     PX3     PX4     PX5         FB
                FC      PWDI                                FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        SCON0   98                                          9B
                9C                              FE_0        9F
        SCON1   C0                                          C3
                C4                              FE_1        C7
        T2CON   C8      CP_RL2  C_T2                        CB
                CC                                          CF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-20
        DS80C320/DS80C323 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.7.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        DPS     0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                            SEL         0x01
        PCON    0x80    SMOD_0  SMOD0                       0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        CKCON   0x80    WD1     WD0     T2M     T1M         0x10
                0x08    T0M     MD2     MD1     MD0         0x01
        EXIF    0x80    IE5     IE4     IE3     IE2         0x10
                0x08            RGMD    RGSL    BGS         0x01
        STATUS  0x80    PIP     HIP     LIP                 0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    T2OE    DCEN        0x01
        
                Alternates:
        
        PCON    0x80    SMOD                                0x10
                0x08                                        0x01


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-21
        DS80C320/DS80C323 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.8  DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The  DS80C390  Special  Function Registers are selected using
        the .DS80C390 assembler directive.  


        AV.8.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80      P4      SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84      DPL1    DPH1    DPS     PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1     CKCON               8F
                90      P1      EXIF    P4CNT   DPX         93
                94              DPX1    C0RMS0  C0RMS1      97
                98      SCON0   SBUF0           ESP         9B
                9C      AP      ACON    C0TMA0  C0TMA1      9F
                A0      P2      P5      P5CNT   C0C         A3
                A4      C0S     C0IR    C0TE    C0RE        A7
                A8      IE      SADDR0  SADDR1  C0M1C       AB
                AC      C0M2C   C0M3C   C0M4C   C0M5C       AF
                B0      P3                      C0M6C       B3
                B4      C0M7C   C0M8C   C0M9C   C0M10C      B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0  SADEN1  C0M11C      BB
                BC      C0M12C  C0M13C  C0M14C  C0M15C      BF
                C0      SCON1   SBUF1                       C3
                C4      PMR     STATUS  MCON    TA          C7
                C8      T2CON   T2MOD   RCAP2L  RCAP2H      CB
                CC      TL2     TH2     COR                 CF
                D0      PSW     MCNT0   MCNT1   MA          D3
                D4      MB      MC      C1RMS0  C1RMS1      D7
                D8      WDCON                               DB
                DC                      C1TMA0  C1TMA1      DF
                E0      ACC                     C1C         E3
                E4      C1S     C1IR    C1TE    C1RE        E7
                E8      EIE             MXAX    C1M1C       EB
                EC      C1M2C   C1M3C   C1M4C   C1M5C       EF
                F0      B                       C1M6C       F3
                F4      C1M7C   C1M8C   C1M9C   C1M10C      F7
                F8      EIP                     C1M11C      FB
                FC      C1M12C  C1M13C  C1M14C  C1M15C      FF
        
                Alternates:
        
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-22
        DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.8.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        P4      80      P4.0    P4.1    P4.2    P4.3        83
                84      P4.4    P4.5    P4.6    P4.7        87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        P1      90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON0   98      SCON0.0 SCON0.1 SCON0.2 SCON0.3     9B
                9C      SCON0.4 SCON0.5 SCON0.6 SCON0.7     9F
        P2      A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        P3      B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
        SCON1   C0      SCON1.0 SCON1.1 SCON1.2 SCON1.3     C3
                C4      SCON1.4 SCON1.5 SCON1.6 SCON1.7     C7
        T2CON   C8      T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3     CB
                CC      T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7     CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
        WDCON   D8      WDCON.0 WDCON.1 WDCON.2 WDCON.3     DB
                DC      WDCON.4 WDCON.5 WDCON.6 WDCON.7     DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
        EIE     E8      EIE.0   EIE.1   EIE.2   EIE.3       EB
                EC      EIE.4   EIE.5   EIE.6   EIE.7       EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
        EIP     F8      EIP.0   EIP.1   EIP.2   EIP.3       FB
                FC      EIP.4   EIP.5   EIP.6   EIP.7       FF
        
                        Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-23
        DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.8.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
        P1      90      T2      T2EX    RXD1    TXD1        93
                94      INT2    INT3    INT4    INT5        97
        SCON0   98      RI_0    TI_0    RB8_0   TB8_0       9B
                9C      REN_0   SM2_0   SM1_0   SMO_0       9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2     ES1     EA          AF
        P3      B0      RXD0    TXD0    INT0    INT1        B3
                B4      T0      T1                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PT2     PS1                 BF
        SCON1   C0      RI_1    TI_1    RB8_1   TB8_1       C3
                C4      REN_1   SM2_1   SM1_1   SMO_1       C7
        T2CON   C8      CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2       CB
                CC      TCLK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2         CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
        WDCON   D8      RWT     EWT     WTRF    WDIF        DB
                DC      PFI     EPFI    POR     SMOD_1      DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
        EIE     E8      EX2     EX3     EX4     EX5         EB
                EC      EWDI    C1IE    C0IE    CANBIE      EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
        EIP     F8      PX2     PX3     PX4     PX5         FB
                FC      PWDI    C1IP    C0IP    CANBIP      FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        SCON0   98                                          9B
                9C                              FE_0        9F
        SCON1   C0                                          C3
                C4                              FE_1        C7
        T2CON   C8      CP_RL2  C_T2                        CB
                CC                                          CF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-24
        DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.8.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        DPS     0x80    ID1     ID0     TSL                 0x10
                0x08                            SEL         0x01
        PCON    0x80    SMOD_0  SMOD0   OFDF    OFDE        0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        CKCON   0x80    WD1     WD0     T2M     T1M         0x10
                0x08    T0M     MD2     MD1     MD0         0x01
        EXIF    0x80    IE5     IE4     IE3     IE2         0x10
                0x08    CKRY    RGMD    RGSL    BGS         0x01
        P4CNT   0x80            SBCAN                       0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        ESP     0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    ESP.1   ESP.0       0x01
        ACON    0x80                                        0x10
                0x08            SA      AM1     AM0         0x01
        P5      0x80    P5.7    P5.6    P5.5    P5.4        0x10
                0x08    P5.3    P5.2    P5.1    P5.0        0x01
        P5CNT   0x80    CAN1BA  CAN0BA  SP1EC   C1_IO       0x10
                0x08    C0_IO   P5CNT.2 P5CNT.1 P5CNT.0     0x01
        CxC     0x80    ERIE    STIE    PDE     SIESTA      0x10
                0x08    CRST    AUTOB   ERCS    SWINT       0x01
        CxS     0x80    BSS   EC96_128  WKS     RXS         0x10
                0x08    TXS     ER2     ER1     ER0         0x01
        CxIR    0x80    INTIN7  INTIN6  INTIN5  INTIN4      0x10
                0x08    INTIN3  INTIN2  INTIN1  INTIN0      0x01
        CxCxxC  0x80    MSRDY   ET1     ER1     INTRQ       0x10
                0x08    EXTRQ   MTRQ    ROW_TIH DTUP        0x01
        PMR     0x80    CD1     CD0     SWB     CTM         0x10
                0x08    4X_2X   ALEOFF                      0x01
        STATUS  0x80    PIP     HIP     LIP                 0x10
                0x08    SPTA1   SPRA1   SPTA0   SPRA0       0x01
        MCON    0x80    IDM1    IDM0    CMA                 0x10
                0x08    PDCE3   PDCE2   PDCE1   PDCE0       0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                            D13T1       0x10
                0x08    D13T2           T2OE    DCEN        0x01
        COR     0x80    IRDACK  C1BPR7  C1BPR6  C0BPR7      0x10
                0x08    C0BPR6  COD1    COD0    CLKOE       0x01
        MCNT0   0x80    _LSHIFT CSE     SCB     MAS4        0x10
                0x08    MAS3    MAS2    MAS1    MAS0        0x01
        MCNT1   0x80    MST     MOF             CLM         0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        
                Alternates:
        


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-25
        DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        PCON    0x80    SMOD                                0x10
                0x08                                        0x01


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-26
        DS80C390 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.9  DS83C520/DS87C520 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The DS83C520/DS87C520 Special Function Registers are selected
        using the .DS83C520 or DS87C520 assembler directives.  


        AV.9.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80      P0      SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84      DPL1    DPH1    DPS     PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1     CKCON               8F
                90      PORT1   EXIF                        93
                94                                          97
                98      SCON0   SBUF0                       9B
                9C                                          9F
                A0      P2                                  A3
                A4                                          A7
                A8      IE      SADDR0  SADDR1              AB
                AC                                          AF
                B0      P3                                  B3
                B4                                          B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0  SADEN1              BB
                BC                                          BF
                C0      SCON1   SBUF1   ROMSIZE             C3
                C4      PMR     STATUS          TA          C7
                C8      T2CON   T2MOD   RCAP2L  RCAP2H      CB
                CC      TL2     TH2                         CF
                D0      PSW                                 D3
                D4                                          D7
                D8      WDCON                               DB
                DC                                          DF
                E0      ACC                                 E3
                E4                                          E7
                E8      EIE                                 EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0      B                                   F3
                F4                                          F7
                F8      EIP                                 FB
                FC                                          FF
        
                Alternates:
        
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-27
        DS83C520/DS87C520 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.9.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        P0      80      P0.7    P0.6    P0.5    P0.4        83
                84      P0.3    P0.2    P0.1    P0.0        87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        PORT1   90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON0   98      SCON0.0 SCON0.1 SCON0.2 SCON0.3     9B
                9C      SCON0.4 SCON0.5 SCON0.6 SCON0.7     9F
        P2      A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        P3      B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
        SCON1   C0      SCON1.0 SCON1.1 SCON1.2 SCON1.3     C3
                C4      SCON1.4 SCON1.5 SCON1.6 SCON1.7     C7
        T2CON   C8      T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3     CB
                CC      T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7     CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
        WDCON   D8      WDCON.0 WDCON.1 WDCON.2 WDCON.3     DB
                DC      WDCON.4 WDCON.5 WDCON.6 WDCON.7     DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
        EIE     E8      EIE.0   EIE.1   EIE.2   EIE.3       EB
                EC      EIE.4   EIE.5   EIE.6   EIE.7       EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
        EIP     F8      EIP.0   EIP.1   EIP.2   EIP.3       FB
                FC      EIP.4   EIP.5   EIP.6   EIP.7       FF
        
                        Alternates:
        
        PORT1   90      PORT1.0 PORT1.1 PORT1.2 PORT1.3     93
                94      PORT1.4 PORT1.5 PORT1.6 PORT1.7     97
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-28
        DS83C520/DS87C520 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.9.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                90                                          93
                94                                          97
        SCON0   98      RI_0    TI_0    RB8_0   TB8_0       9B
                9C      REN_0   SM2_0   SM1_0   SMO_0       9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2     ES1     EA          AF
                B0                                          B3
                B4                                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PT2     PS1                 BF
        SCON1   C0      RI_1    TI_1    RB8_1   TB8_1       C3
                C4      REN_1   SM2_1   SM1_1   SMO_1       C7
        T2CON   C8      CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2       CB
                CC      TCLK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2         CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
        WDCON   D8      RWT     EWT     WTRF    WDIF        DB
                DC      PFI     EPFI    POR     SMOD_1      DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
        EIE     E8      EX2     EX3     EX4     EX5         EB
                EC      EWDI                                EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
        EIP     F8      PX2     PX3     PX4     PX5         FB
                FC      PWDI                                FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        SCON0   98                                          9B
                9C                              FE_0        9F
        SCON1   C0                                          C3
                C4                              FE_1        C7
        T2CON   C8      CP_RL2  C_T2                        CB
                CC                                          CF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-29
        DS83C520/DS87C520 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.9.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        DPS     0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                            SEL         0x01
        PCON    0x80    SMOD_0  SMOD0                       0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        CKCON   0x80    WD1     WD0     T2M     T1M         0x10
                0x08    T0M     MD2     MD1     MD0         0x01
        EXIF    0x80    IE5     IE4     IE3     IE          0x10
                0x08    XT_RG   RGMD    RGSL    BGS         0x01
        SBUF1   0x80    SB7     SB6     SB5     SB4         0x10
                0x08    SB3     SB2     SB1     SB0         0x01
        ROMSIZE 0x80                                        0x10
                0x08            RMS2    RMS1    RMS0        0x01
        PMR     0x80    CD1     CD0     SWB                 0x10
                0x08    XTOFF   ALEOFF  DME1    DME0        0x01
        STATUS  0x80    PIP     HIP     LIP     XTUP        0x10
                0x08    SPTA1   SPRA1   SPTA0   SPRA0       0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    T2OE    DCEN        0x01
        
                Alternates:
        
        PCON    0x80    SMOD                                0x10
                0x08                                        0x01


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-30
        DS83C520/DS87C520 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.10  DS83C530/DS87C530 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The DS83C530/DS87C530 Special Function Registers are selected
        using the .DS83C530 or DS87C530 assembler directives.  


        AV.10.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80      P0      SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84      DPL1    DPH1    DPS     PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1     CKCON               8F
                90      P1      EXIF                        93
                94                      TRIM                97
                98      SCON0   SBUF0                       9B
                9C                                          9F
                A0      P2                                  A3
                A4                                          A7
                A8      IE      SADDR0  SADDR1              AB
                AC                                          AF
                B0      P3                                  B3
                B4                                          B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0  SADEN1              BB
                BC                                          BF
                C0      SCON1   SBUF1   ROMSIZE             C3
                C4      PMR     STATUS          TA          C7
                C8      T2CON   T2MOD   RCAP2L  RCAP2H      CB
                CC      TL2     TH2                         CF
                D0      PSW                                 D3
                D4                                          D7
                D8      WDCON                               DB
                DC                                          DF
                E0      ACC                                 E3
                E4                                          E7
                E8      EIE                                 EB
                EC                                          EF
                F0      B               RTASS   RTAS        F3
                F4      RTAM    RTAH                        F7
                F8      EIP     RTCC    RTCSS   RTCS        FB
                FC      RTCM    RTCH    RTCD0   RTCD1       FF
        
                Alternates:
        
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-31
        DS83C530/DS87C530 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.10.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        P0      80      P0.7    P0.6    P0.5    P0.4        83
                84      P0.3    P0.2    P0.1    P0.0        87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        P1      90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON0   98      SCON0.0 SCON0.1 SCON0.2 SCON0.3     9B
                9C      SCON0.4 SCON0.5 SCON0.6 SCON0.7     9F
        P2      A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        P3      B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
        SCON1   C0      SCON1.0 SCON1.1 SCON1.2 SCON1.3     C3
                C4      SCON1.4 SCON1.5 SCON1.6 SCON1.7     C7
        T2CON   C8      T2CON.0 T2CON.1 T2CON.2 T2CON.3     CB
                CC      T2CON.4 T2CON.5 T2CON.6 T2CON.7     CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
        WDCON   D8      WDCON.0 WDCON.1 WDCON.2 WDCON.3     DB
                DC      WDCON.4 WDCON.5 WDCON.6 WDCON.7     DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
        EIE     E8      EIE.0   EIE.1   EIE.2   EIE.3       EB
                EC      EIE.4   EIE.5   EIE.6   EIE.7       EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
        EIP     F8      EIP.0   EIP.1   EIP.2   EIP.3       FB
                FC      EIP.4   EIP.5   EIP.6   EIP.7       FF
        
                        Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-32
        DS83C530/DS87C530 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.10.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                90                                          93
                94                                          97
        SCON0   98      RI_0    TI_0    RB8_0   TB8_0       9B
                9C      REN_0   SM2_0   SM1_0   SMO_0       9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2     ES1     EA          AF
                B0                                          B3
                B4                                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PT2     PS1                 BF
        SCON1   C0      RI_1    TI_1    RB8_1   TB8_1       C3
                C4      REN_1   SM2_1   SM1_1   SMO_1       C7
        T2CON   C8      CPRL2   CT2     TR2     EXEN2       CB
                CC      TCLK    RCLK    EXF2    TF2         CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
        WDCON   D8      RWT     EWT     WTRF    WDIF        DB
                DC      PFI     EPFI    POR     SMOD_1      DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
        EIE     E8      EX2     EX3     EX4     EX5         EB
                EC      EWDI    ERTCI                       EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
        EIP     F8      PX2     PX3     PX4     PX5         FB
                FC      PWDI    PRTCI                       FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        SCON0   98                                          9B
                9C                              FE_0        9F
        SCON1   C0                                          C3
                C4                              FE_1        C7
        T2CON   C8      CP_RL2  C_T2                        CB
                CC                                          CF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-33
        DS83C530/DS87C530 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.10.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        DPS     0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                            SEL         0x01
        PCON    0x80    SMOD_0  SMOD0                       0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        CKCON   0x80    WD1     WD0     T2M     T1M         0x10
                0x08    T0M     MD2     MD1     MD0         0x01
        EXIF    0x80    IE5     IE4     IE3     IE          0x10
                0x08    XT_RG   RGMD    RGSL    BGS         0x01
        TRIM    0x80    E4K     X12_6   TRM2    _TRM2       0x10
                0x08    TRM1    _TRM1   TRM0    _TRM0       0x01
        SBUF1   0x80    SB7     SB6     SB5     SB4         0x10
                0x08    SB3     SB2     SB1     SB0         0x01
        ROMSIZE 0x80                                        0x10
                0x08            RMS2    RMS1    RMS0        0x01
        PMR     0x80    CD1     CD0     SWB                 0x10
                0x08    XTOFF   ALEOFF  DME1    DME0        0x01
        STATUS  0x80    PIP     HIP     LIP     XTUP        0x10
                0x08    SPTA1   SPRA1   SPTA0   SPRA0       0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    T2OE    DCEN        0x01
        RTCC    0x80    SSCE    SCE     MCE     HCE         0x10
                0x08    RTCRE   RTCWE   RTCIF   RTCE        0x01
        
                Alternates:
        
        PCON    0x80    SMOD                                0x10
                0x08                                        0x01


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-34
        DS83C530/DS87C530 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.11  DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS 


           The DS83C550/DS87C550 Special Function Registers are selected
        using the .DS83C550 or DS87C550 assembler directives.  


        AV.11.1  SFR Map 

                        --------- 4 Bytes ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80      PORT0   SP      DPL     DPH         83
                84      DPL1    DPH1    DPS     PCON        87
                88      TCON    TMOD    TL0     TL1         8B
                8C      TH0     TH1     CKCON               8F
                90      PORT1   RCON                        93
                94                                          97
                98      SCON0   SBUF0                       9B
                9C                              PMR         9F
                A0      PORT2   SADDR0  SADDR1              A3
                A4                                          A7
                A8      IE      CMPL0   CMPL1   CMPL2       AB
                AC      CPTL0   CPTL1   CPTL2   CPTL3       AF
                B0      PORT3           ADCON1  ADCON2      B3
                B4      ADMSB   ADLSD   WINHI   WINLO       B7
                B8      IP      SADEN0  SADEN1              BB
                BC                      T2CON   T2MOD       BF
                C0      PORT4           ROMSIZE             C3
                C4      PORT5   STATUS          TA          C7
                C8      T2IR    CMPH0   CMPH1   CMPH2       CB
                CC      CPTH0   CPTH1   CPTH2   CPTH3       CF
                D0      PSW             PW0FG   PW1FG       D3
                D4      PW2FG   PW3FG   PWMADR              D7
                D8      SCON1   SBUF1                       DB
                DC      PWM0    PWM1    PWM2    PWM3        DF
                E0      ACC     PW01CS  PW23CS  PW01CON     E3
                E4      PW23CON         RLOADL  RLOADH      E7
                E8      EIE             T2SEL   CTCON       EB
                EC      TL2     TH2     SETR    RSTR        EF
                F0      B       PORT6                       F3
                F4                                          F7
                F8      EIP                                 FB
                FC                              WDCON       FF
        
                Alternates:
        
                80      P0                                  83
                90      P1                                  93
                98      SCON    SBUF                        9B
                A0      P2                                  A3
                B0      P3                                  B3
                C0      P4                                  C3


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-35
        DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


                C4      P5                                  C7
                F0              PORT6                       F3


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-36
        DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.11.2  Bit Addressable Registers:  Generic 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        PORT0   80      P0.7    P0.6    P0.5    P0.4        83
                84      P0.3    P0.2    P0.1    P0.0        87
        TCON    88      TCON.0  TCON.1  TCON.2  TCON.3      8B
                8C      TCON.4  TCON.5  TCON.6  TCON.7      8F
        PORT1   90      P1.0    P1.1    P1.2    P1.3        93
                94      P1.4    P1.5    P1.6    P1.7        97
        SCON0   98      SCON0.0 SCON0.1 SCON0.2 SCON0.3     9B
                9C      SCON0.4 SCON0.5 SCON0.6 SCON0.7     9F
        PORT2   A0      P2.0    P2.1    P2.2    P2.3        A3
                A4      P2.4    P2.5    P2.6    P2.7        A7
        IE      A8      IE.0    IE.1    IE.2    IE.3        AB
                AC      IE.4    IE.5    EI.6    IE.7        AF
        PORT3   B0      P3.0    P3.1    P3.2    P3.3        B3
                B4      P3.4    P3.5    P3.6    P3.7        B7
        IP      B8      IP.0    IP.1    IP.2    IP.3        BB
                BC      IP.4    IP.5    IP.6    IP.7        BF
        PORT4   C0      P4.0    P4.1    P4.2    P4.3        C3
                C4      P4.4    P4.5    P4.6    P4.7        C7
        T2IR    C8      T2IR.0  T2IR.1  T2IR.2  T2IR.3      CB
                CC      T2IR.4  T2IR.5  T2IR.6  T2IR.7      CF
        PSW     D0      PSW.0   PSW.1   PSW.2   PSW.3       D3
                D4      PSW.4   PSW.5   PSW.6   PSW.7       D7
        SCON1   D8      SCON1.0 SCON1.1 SCON1.2 SCON1.3     DB
                DC      SCON1.4 SCON1.5 SCON1.6 SCON1.7     DF
        ACC     E0      ACC.0   ACC.1   ACC.2   ACC.3       E3
                E4      ACC.4   ACC.5   ACC.6   ACC.7       E7
        EIE     E8      EIE.0   EIE.1   EIE.2   EIE.3       EB
                EC      EIE.4   EIE.5   EIE.6   EIE.7       EF
        B       F0      B.0     B.1     B.2     B.3         F3
                F4      B.4     B.5     B.6     B.7         F7
        EIP     F8      EIP.0   EIP.1   EIP.2   EIP.3       FB
                FC      EIP.4   EIP.5   EIP.6   EIP.7       FF
        
                        Alternates:
        
        PORT0   80      PORT0.7 PORT0.6 PORT0.5 PORT0.4     83
                84      PORT0.3 PORT0.2 PORT0.1 PORT0.0     87
        PORT1   90      PORT1.0 PORT1.1 PORT1.2 PORT1.3     93
                94      PORT1.4 PORT1.5 PORT1.6 PORT1.7     97
        SCON    98      SCON.0  SCON.1  SCON.2  SCON.3      9B
                9C      SCON.4  SCON.5  SCON.6  SCON.7      9F
        PORT2   A0      PORT2.0 PORT2.1 PORT2.2 PORT2.3     A3
                A4      PORT2.4 PORT2.5 PORT2.6 PORT2.7     A7
        PORT3   B0      PORT3.0 PORT3.1 PORT3.2 PORT3.3     B3
                B4      PORT3.4 PORT3.5 PORT3.6 PORT3.7     B7
        PORT4   C0      PORT4.0 PORT4.1 PORT4.2 PORT4.3     C3
                C4      PORT4.4 PORT4.5 PORT4.6 PORT4.7     C7


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-37
        DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.11.3  Bit Addressable Registers:  Specific 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                80                                          83
                84                                          87
        TCON    88      IT0     IE0     IT1     IE1         8B
                8C      TR0     TF0     TR1     TF1         8F
                90                                          93
                94                                          97
        SCON0   98      RI_0    TI_0    RB8_0   TB8_0       9B
                9C      REN_0   SM2_0   SM1_0   SMO_0       9F
                A0                                          A3
                A4                                          A7
        IE      A8      EX0     ET0     EX1     ET1         AB
                AC      ES0     ET2     ES1     EA          AF
                B0                                          B3
                B4                                          B7
        IP      B8      PX0     PT0     PX1     PT1         BB
                BC      PS0     PS1     PAD                 BF
        PORT4   C0      CMSR0   CMSR1   CMSR2   CMSR3       C3
                C4      CMSR4   CMSR5   CMT0    CMT1        C7
        T2IR    C8      CF0     CF1     CF2     CF3         CB
                CC      CM0F    CM1F    CM2F                CF
        PSW     D0      P       FL      OV      RS0         D3
                D4      RS1     F0      AC      CY          D7
        SCON1   D8      RI_1    TI_1    RB8_1   TB8_1       DB
                DC      REN_1   SM2_1   SM1_1   SMO_1       DF
                E0                                          E3
                E4                                          E7
        EIE     E8      EX2     EX3     EX4     EX5         EB
                EC      ECM0    ECM1    ECM2    ET2         EF
                F0                                          F3
                F4                                          F7
        EIP     F8      PX2     PX3     PX4     PX5         FB
                FC      PCM0    PCM1    PCM2    PT2         FF
        
                Alternates:
        
        SCON    98      RI      TI      RB8     TB8         9B
                9C      REN     SM2     SM1     SMO         9F
        SCON    98                                          9B
                9C                              FE          9F
        SCON0   98                                          9B
                9C                              FE_0        9F
        T2IR    C8      IE2     IE3     IE4     IE5         CB
                CC                                          CF
        SCON1   D8                                          DB
                DC                              FE_1        DF
        EIE     E8      EC0     EC1     EC2     EC3         EB
                EC                                          EF
        EIP     F8      PC0     PC1     PC2     PC3         FB


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-38
        DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


                FC                                          FF


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-39
        DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


        AV.11.4  Optional Symbols:  Control Bits 

                        ---------- 4 BITS ----------
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
                        0x80    0x40    0x20    0x10
                        0x08    0x04    0x02    0x10
                        ----    ----    ----    ----
        DPS     0x80    ID1     ID0     TSL                 0x10
                0x08                            SEL         0x01
        PCON    0x80    SMOD_0  SMOD0                       0x10
                0x08    GF1     GF0     STOP    IDLE        0x01
        TMOD    0x80    T1GATE  T1C_T   T1M1    T1M0        0x10
                0x08    T0GATE  T0C_T   T0M1    T0M0        0x01
        CKCON   0x80    WD1     WD0     T2M     T1M         0x10
                0x08    T0M     MD2     MD1     MD0         0x01
        RCON    0x80                                        0x10
                0x08    CKRDY   RGMD    RGSL    BGS         0x01
        PMR     0x80    CD1     CD0     SWB     CTM         0x10
                0x08    4X_2X   ALEOFF  DEM1    DEM0        0x01
        ADCON1  0x80   STRT_BSY EOC     CONT_SS ADEX        0x10
                0x08    WCQ     WCM     ADON    WCIO        0x01
        ADCON2  0x80    OUTCF   MUX2    MUX1    MUX0        0x10
                0x08    APS3    APS2    APS1    APS0        0x01
        T2CON   0x80    TF2     EXF2    RCLK    TCLK        0x10
                0x08    EXEN2   TR2     CT2     CPRL2       0x01
        T2MOD   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    T2OE    DCEN        0x01
        PORT5   0x80    ADC7    ADC6    ADC5    ADC4        0x10
                0x08    ADC3    ADC2    ADC1    ADC0        0x01
        ROMSIZE 0x80                                        0x10
                0x08            RMS2    RMS1    RMS0        0x01
        STATUS  0x80    PIP     HIP     LIP     XTUP        0x10
                0x08    SPTA1   SPRA1   SPTA0   SPRA0       0x01
        PWMADR  0x80    ADRS                                0x10
                0x08                    PWE1    PWE0        0x01
        PW01CS  0x80    PW0S2   PW0S1   PW0S0   PW0EN       0x10
                0x08    PW1S2   PW1S1   PW1S0   PW1EN       0x01
        PW23CS  0x80    PW2S2   PW2S1   PW2S0   PW2EN       0x10
                0x08    PW3S2   PW3S1   PW3S0   PW3EN       0x01
        PW01CON 0x80    PW0F    PW0DC   PW0OE   PW0T_C      0x10
                0x08    PW1F    PW1DC   PW1OE   PW1T_C      0x01
        PW23CON 0x80    PW2F    PW2DC   PW2OE   PW2T_C      0x10
                0x08    PW3F    PW3DC   PW3OE   PW3T_C      0x01
        T2SEL   0x80    TF2S    TF2BS           TF2B        0x10
                0x08                    T2P1    T2P0        0x01
        CTCON   0x80    _CT3    CT3     _CT2    CT2         0x10
                0x08    _CT1    CT1     _CT0    CT0         0x01
        SETR    0x80    TGFF1   TGFF0   CMS5    CMS4       0x10
                0x08    CMS3    CMS2    CMS1    CMS0        0x01
        RSTR    0x80    CMTE1   CMTE0   CMR5    CMR4        0x10
                0x08    CMR3    CMR2    CMR1    CMR0        0x01
        PORT6   0x80    STADC           PWMC1   PWMC0       0x10


        AS8XCXXX ASSEMBLER                                    PAGE AV-40
        DS83C550/DS87C550 SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS


                0x08    PWMO3   PWMO2   PWMO1   PWMO0       0x01
        WDCON   0x80    SMOD_1  POR     EPF1    PF1         0x10
                0x08    WDIF    WTRF    EWT     RWT         0x01
        
                Alternates:
        
        PCON    0x80    SMOD                                0x10
                0x08                                        0x01
        T2CON   0x80                                        0x10
                0x08                    C_T2    _RL2        0x01














                                   APPENDIX AW

                                 ASAVR ASSEMBLER





        AW.1  AVR ASSEMBLER NOTES 

        The  AVR  series  of  processors  uses  a non unified addressing
        scheme:  the instruction addressing is 1 per  instruction  word,
        each  instruction uses 2 bytes of memory.  The processor data is
        addressed as 1 per byte of data.  To properly address  the  pro-
        gram/data spaces you, the programmer, must seperate your program
        and data into seperate code and data areas.  The  data  area  is
        addressed  as 1 per byte and the code area is addressed as 1 per
        word.  

           The  assembler/linker  processes the instruction code so that
        the linker will output 2 bytes for each instruction  word.   The
        instruction  word  address  will  be  the  file  encoded address
        divided by 2.  

           The  default  address  space  is assumed to be 64K (16-bits).
        The larger address space (ATmega...) processors must specify the
        32-Bit  addressing assembler directive '.32bit' in order to pro-
        cess the JMP instruction.  


        AW.1.1  Processor Specific Directives 


           The  normal PC relative addressing is -2047 to +2048 relative
        to the current PC.  For a processor with less than 4K  words  of
        program space the AVR relative jump/call can access any location
        due to address wrap around.  

           The  ASAVR cross assembler has one (1) processor specific as-
        sembler directive which tells the assembler that the AVR has  4K
        words or less of program space.  

                .avr_4k   0     Normal PC Relative addressing
                .avr_4k   1     AVR with <= 4K of Memory


        ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AW-2
        AVR ASSEMBLER NOTES


           The  remaining  processor specific directives specify the AVR
        processor type.  

                .AT90SXXXX
                .AT90S1200
                .AT90S2313
                .AT90S2323
                .AT90S2343
                .AT90S2333
                .AT90S4433
                .AT90S4414
                .AT90S4434
                .AT90S8515
                .AT90C8534
                .AT90S8535
                .ATmega103
                .ATmega603
                .ATmega161
                .ATmega163
                .ATtiny10
                .ATtiny11
                .ATtiny12
                .ATtiny15
                .ATtiny22
                .ATtiny28

           A  file, avr.sfr, contains definitions for the Spepcial Func-
        tion Registers for all the defined processors.  Edit the file to
        make  your  selection of processor and then .include the file at
        the beginning of your assembler file.  


        AW.1.2  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values  for  the  ASAVR
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                 Undefined                       0
                 AT90SXXXX (User Defined)        1
                 AT90S1200                       2
                 AT90S2313                       3
                 AT90S2323                       4
                 AT90S2343                       5
                 AT90S2333                       6
                 AT90S4433                       7
                 AT90S4414                       8


        ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AW-3
        AVR ASSEMBLER NOTES


                 AT90S4434                       9
                 AT90S8515                      10
                 AT90C8534                      11
                 AT90S8535                      12
                 ATmega103                      13
                 ATmega603                      14
                 ATmega161                      15
                 ATmega163                      16
                 ATtiny10                       17
                 ATtiny11                       18
                 ATtiny12                       19
                 ATtiny15                       20
                 ATtiny22                       21
                 ATtiny28                       22


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        AW.2  AVR REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the AVR registers used by ASAVR:  

                r0-r31  -       8-bit registers
                x       -       index register (x = r27:r26)
                y       -       index register (y = r29:r28)
                z       -       index register (z = r31:r30)


        AW.3  AVR INSTRUCTION SET 


           The following tables list all AVR mnemonics recognized by the
        ASAVR assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required  ad-
        dressing mode argument.  The following list specifies the format
        for each addressing mode supported by ASAVR:  

                #data           immediate data
        
                expr            expression
        


        ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AW-4
        AVR INSTRUCTION SET


                Rd              destination register (0-31)
        
                Rd,Rs           destination register (0-31)
                                source register (0-31)
        
                Rd,#data        destination register (0-31)
                                immediate data
        
                addr            address
        
                addr,Rs         destination address
                                source register
        
                Rd,addr         destination register
                                source address
        
                Rs,b            source register
                                bit position
        
                Rd,b            destination register
                                bit position
        
                A               an I/O register (0-31)
        
                A,b             an I/O register (0-31)
                                bit position
        
                A,Rs            source register to
                                output register
        
                Rd,A            input register to
                                destination register
        
                Rd,X            load indirect
                Rd,Y
                Rd,Z
        
                Rd,-X           load indirect pre-decrement
                Rd,-Y
                Rd,-Z
        
                Rd,X+           load indirect post-increment
                Rd,Y+
                Rd,Z+
        
                Rd,Z+Q          load indirect with displacement
        
                X,Rs            store indirect
                Y,Rs
                Z,Rs
        
                -X,Rs           store indirect pre-decrement


        ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AW-5
        AVR INSTRUCTION SET


                -Y,Rs
                -Z,Rs
        
                X+,Rs           store indirect post increment
                Y+,Rs
                Z+,Rs
        
                Z+Q,Rs          store indirect with displacement
        
                label           branch label

        The  terms  data, expr, displacement, bit position, A, and label
        may be expressions.  

           Note  that not all instructions are available with every pro-
        cessor type.  Not all addressing modes are valid with every  in-
        struction,   refer   to   the   AVR  technical  data  for  valid
        instructions and modes.  


        AW.3.1  AVR Arithmetic and Logical Instructions 

                add     Rd,Rs           adc     Rd,Rs
                adiw    Rd,#data        sub     Rd,Rs
                subi    Rd,#data        sbc     Rd,Rs
                sbci    Rd,#data        sbiw    Rd,#data
                and     Rd,Rs           andi    Rd,#data
                or      Rd,Rs           ori     Rd,#data
                cp      Rd,Rs           eor     Rd,Rs
                cpi     Rd,#data        cpc     Rd,Rs
                cbr     Rd,#data        sbr     Rd,#data
                clr     Rd              com     Rd
                dec     Rd              inc     Rd
                neg     Rd              ser     Rd
                tst     Rd
                mul     Rd,Rs           fmul    Rd,Rs
                muls    Rd,Rs           fmuls   Rd,Rs
                mulsu   Rd,Rs           fmulsu  Rd,Rs


        ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AW-6
        AVR INSTRUCTION SET


        AW.3.2  AVR Bit and Bit-Test Instructions 

                lsl     Rd              lsr     Rd
                rol     Rd              ror     Rd
                asr     Rd              swap    Rd
                bset    b               bclr    b
                sbi     A,b             cbi     A,b
                bst     Rs,b            bld     Rd,b
                sec                     sez
                sen                     sev
                ses                     seh
                set                     sei
                clc                     clz
                cln                     clv
                cls                     clh
                clt                     cli
                nop                     sleep
                wdr


        AW.3.3  AVR Skip on Test Instructions 

                cpse    Rd,Rs
                sbrc    Rs,b            sbrs    Rs,b
                sbic    A,b             sbis    A,b


        AW.3.4  AVR Jump/Call/Return Instructions 

                jmp     addr            rjmp    addr
                ijmp                    eijmp
                call    addr            rcall   addr
                icall                   eicall
                ret                     reti


        AW.3.5  AVR Short Branch Instructions 

                brcc    label           brcs    label
                breq    label           brge    label
                brhc    label           brhs    label
                brid    label           brie    label
                brlo    label           brlt    label
                brmi    label           brne    label
                brpl    label           brsh    label
                brtc    label           brts    label
                brvc    label           brvs    label


        ASAVR ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE AW-7
        AVR INSTRUCTION SET


        AW.3.6  AVR Short Branch Instructions with Bit Test 

                brbc    b,label         brbs    b,label


        AW.3.7  AVR Data Transfer Instructions 

                mov     Rd,Rs           movw    Rd,Rs
                ldi     Rd,#data
                ld      []              st      []
                ldd     []              std     []
                lds     Rd,addr         sts     addr,Rs
                lpm     []              elpm    []
                spm
                push    Rs              pop     Rd
                in      Rd,A            out     A,Rs














                                   APPENDIX AX

                                ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER 





        AX.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

        Thanks  to Patrick Head for his contribution of the ASEZ80 cross
        assembler.  

           Patrick Head
        
                patrick at phead dot net




        AX.2  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           The  ASEZ80 assembler is a port of the ASZ80 assembler.  This
        assembler can process EZ80 code in Z80 and ADL modes in any com-
        bination  within  the  source  file.   The  following  processor
        specific assembler directives specify which mode  the  assembler
        is  to  process  the assembler source code.  The default mode of
        the assembler is Z80.  


        AX.2.1  .z80 Directive 

        Format:  

                .z80    (value) 

        The  .z80  directive  without an argument selects the 16-bit Z80
        compatible mode of the EZ80 processor.  The .z80 directive  with
        the  optional argument may be used to select the Z80 16-Bit mode
        (value != 0) or the EZ80 24-bit  mode  (value == 0).   Mnemonics
        not allowed in the selected mode will generate m (mode) and/or a
        (addressing) errors.  



        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-2
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


        AX.2.2  .adl Directive 

        Format:  

                .adl    (value) 

        The  .adl  directive without an argument selects the 24-bit EZ80
        mode of the EZ80 processor.  The .adl  directive  with  the  op-
        tional  argument  may  be  used  to  select the EZ80 24-Bit mode
        (value != 0) or the Z80 16-bit mode (value == 0).  Mnemonics not
        allowed  in  the  selected  mode will generate m (mode) and/or a
        (addressing) errors.  


        AX.2.3  .msb Directive 

        Format:  

                .msb    n 


           The  assembler operator '>' selects the upper byte (MSB) when
        included in an assembler instruction.  The normal assembler mode
        is  to select bits <15:8> as the MSB.  The .msb directive allows
        the programmer to specify a particular byte as  the  'MSB'  when
        the address space is larger than 16-bits.  

           For a 24-bit EZ80 address the assembler directive .msb n con-
        figures the assembler to select a particular byte as MSB.  Given
        a  24-bit  address  of  Mmn (M is <23:16>, m is <15:8>, and n is
        <7:0>) the following examples show how to  select  a  particular
        address byte:  

                .msb 1          ;select byte 1 of address
        
                LD A,>Mmn       ;byte m <15:8> ==>> A
                ...
        
                .msb 2          ;select byte 2 of address
        
                LD A,>Mmn       ;byte M <23:16> ==>> A
                LD MB,A         ;place in MBASE register


        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-3
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


        AX.3  EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 



        AX.3.1  Instruction Symbols 


        b          Bit select
                        (000 = bit 0, 001 = bit 1,
                         010 = bit 2, 011 = bit 3,
                         100 = bit 4, 101 = bit 5,
                         110 = bit 6, 111 = bit 7)
        cc         condition code C, NC, Z, NZ, P, M, PE, PO
                   test of single bit in FLAGS register
        cc'        condition code C, NC, Z, NZ
                   test of single bit in FLAGS register
        d          an 8-bit two's complement displacement with
                   value from -128 to 127.
        I          Interrupt Page Address Register
        ir or ir'  8-bit CPU register IXH(IX:[15:8]),
                   IXL (IX:[7:0], IYH (IY:[15:8]), IYL (IY:[7:0])
        IX/Y       CPU register IX or IY
        (IX/Y+d)   A location in memory with address formed by the
                   sum of the contents of the Index Register, IX
                   or IY, and the two's complement displacement d.
        MB         Z80 Memory Mode Base Address Register
        Mmn        A 24-bit immediate data value
        (Mmn)      A 24-bit value indicating a location in
                   memory at this address.
        mn         A 16-bit immediate data value
        (mn)       A 16-bit value indicating a location in
                   memory at this address.
        n          8-bit immediate data value
        R          Refresh Counter Register
        r or r'    8-bit CPU register A, B, C, D, E, H, L
        rr         16 or 24-bit CPU register BC, DE, HL
        rxy        16 or 24-bit CPU register BC, DE, HL, IX, IY
        SP         Stack Pointer, Can indicate either the
                   StackPointer Short register (SPS) or the
                   StackPointer Long register (SPL).


        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-4
        EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 


                C  -    carry bit set
                NC -    carry bit clear
                Z  -    zero bit set
                NZ -    zero bit clear
                M  -    sign bit set
                P  -    sign bit clear
                PE -    parity even
                PO -    parity odd


        The terms b, d, Mmn, mn, n, and ss may all be expressions.  


        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-5
        EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 


        AX.3.2  EZ80 Instructions 


           The  following list of instructions (with explicit addressing
        modes) are available for the EZ80.  

        ADC A,(HL)              DEC (HL)                INI
        ADC A,ir                DEC ir                  INI2
        ADC A,(IX/Y+d)          DEC IX/Y                INI2R
        ADC A,n                 DEC (IX/Y+d)
        ADC A,r                 DEC r                   INIM
        ADC HL,rr               DEC rr                  INIMR
        ADC HL,SP               DEC SP
                                                        INIR
        ADD A,(HL)              DI                      INIRX
        ADD A,ir
        ADD A,(IX/Y+d)          DJNZ d                  JP cc,Mmn
        ADD A,n                                         JP HL
        ADD A,r                 EI                      JP IX/Y
        ADD HL,rr                                       JP Mmn
        ADD HL,SP               EX AF,AF'
        ADD IX/Y,rxy            EX DE,HL                JR cc',d
        ADD IX/Y,SP             EX (SP),HL              JR d
                                EX (SP),IX/Y
        AND A,HL                                        LD A,I
        AND A,ir                EXX                     LD A,(IX/Y+d)
        AND A,(IX/Y+d)                                  LD A,MB
        AND A,n                 HALT                    LD A,(Mmn)
        AND A,r                                         LD A,R
                                IM n                    LD A,(rr)
        BIT b,(HL)              IM A,(n)                LD (HL),IX/Y
        BIT b, (IX/Y+d)         IN r,(BC)               LD (HL),n
        BIT b,r                                         LD (HL),r
                                IN0 r,(n)               LD (HL),rr
        CALL cc,Mmn                                     LD IY,(SP+n)
        CALL mn                 INC (HL)                LD I,HL
                                INC ir                  LD I,A
        CP A,(HL)               INC IX/Y                LD ir,ir'
        CP A,ir                 INC (IX/Y+d)            LD ir,n
        CP A,(IX/Y+d)           INC r                   LD ir,r
        CP A,r                  INC SP                  LD IX/Y,(HL)
                                                        LD IX/Y,(IX/Y+d)
        CPD                     IND                     LD IX/Y,Mmn
        CPDR                    IND2                    LD IX/Y,(Mmn)
                                IND2R                   LD (IX/Y+d),IX/Y
        CPI                                             LD (IX/Y+d),n
        CPIR                    INDM                    LD (IX/Y+d),r
                                INDMR                   LD (IX/Y+d),rr
        CPL                                             LD MB,A
                                INDR                    LD (Mmn),A
        DAA                     INDRX                   LD (Mmn),IX/Y


        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-6
        EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 


        LD (Mmn),rr             OTDR                    RL r
        LD (Mmn),SP             OTDRX
        LD R,A                                          RLA
        LD r,(HL)               OTI2R
        LD r,ir                                         RLC (HL)
        LD r,(IX/Y+d)           OTIM                    RLC (IX/Y+d)
        LD r,n                  OTIMR                   RLC r
        LD r,r'
        LD rr,(HL)              OTIR                    RLCA
        LD rr,(IX/Y+d)          OTIRX
        LD rr,Mmn                                       RLD
        LD rr,(Mmn)             OUT (BC),r
        LD (rr),A               OUT (C),r               RR (HL)
        LD SP,HL                OUT (n),A               RR (IX/Y+d)
        LD SP,IX/Y                                      RR r
        LD SP,Mmn               OUTD
        LD SP,(Mmn)             OUTD2                   RRA
        
        LDD                     OUTI                    RRC (HL)
        LDDR                    OUTI2                   RRC (IX/Y+d)
                                RL (IX+d)               RRC r
        LDI                     RL (IY+d
        LDIR                                            RRCA
                                PEA IX+d
        LEA IX/Y,IX+d           PEA IY+d                RRD
        LEA IX/Y,IY+d
        LEA rr,IX+d             POP AF                  RSMIX
        LEA rr,IY+d             POP IX/Y
                                POP rr                  RST n
        MLT rr
        MLT SP                  PUSH AF                 SBC A,(HL)
                                PUSH IX/Y               SBC A,ir
        NEG                     PUSH rr                 SBC A,(IX/Y+d)
                                                        SBC A,n
        NOP                     RES b,(IX/Y+d)          SBC A,r
                                RES b,r                 SBC HL,rr
        OR A,(HL)                                       SBC HL,SP
        OR A,ir                 RET
        OR A,(IX/Y+d)           RET cc                  SCF
        OR A,n
        OR A,r                  RETI                    SET b,(HL)
                                                        SET b,(IX/Y+d)
        OTD2R                   RETN                    SET b,r
        
        OTDM                    RL (HL)                 SLA (HL)
        OTDMR                   RL (IX/Y+d)             SLA (IX/Y+d)


        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-7
        EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 


        SLA r                   STMIX                   TSTIO n
        
        SLP                     SUB A,(HL)              XOR A,(HL)
                                SUB A,ir                XOR A,ir
        SRA (HL)                SUB A,(IX/Y+d)          XOR A,(IX/Y+d)
        SRA (IX/Y+d)            SUB A,n                 XOR A,n
        SRA r                   SUB A,r                 XOR A,r
        
        SRL (HL)                TST A,(HL)
        SRL (IX/Y+d)            TST A,n
        SRL r                   TST A,r


           The  accumulator  'A' argument is optional in all of the fol-
        lowing instructions:  

        ADC A,...               CP A,...                SUB A,...
        ADD A,...               OR A,...                TST A,...
        AND A,...               SBC A,...               XOR A,...

           The  following  tables,  organized by instruction type, lists
        all possible EZ80/Z80  mnemonic  extensions  recognized  by  the
        ASEZ80  assembler.   The designation [] refers to a required ad-
        dressing mode argument shown in the table  above.   The  allowed
        mnemonic  suffixes  are  denoted within the enclosing delimiters
        ().  Mnemonics specified with illegal  or  unrecognized  suffixs
        will be flagged with q or a errors.  


        AX.3.3  Arithmetic Instructions 

                adc (.l, .s)    [],[]
                add (.l, .s)    [],[]
                cp  (.l, .s)    [],[]
                daa
                dec (.l, .s)    []
                inc (.l, .s)    []
                mlt (.l, .s)    []
                neg
                sbc (.l, .s)    [],[]
                sub (.l, .s)    [],[]




        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-8
        EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 


        AX.3.4  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bit (.l, .s)    [],[]
                res (.l, .s)    [],[]
                set (.l, .s)    [],[]


        AX.3.5  Block Transfer and Compare Instructions 

                cpd (.l, .s)            cpdr (.l, .s)
                cpi (.l, .s)            cpir (.l, .s)
                ldd (.l, .s)            lddr (.l, .s)
                ldi (.l, .s)            ldir (.l, .s)


        AX.3.6  Exchange Instructions 

                ex (.l, .s)     [],[]
                exx


        AX.3.7  Input/Output Instructions 

                in      [],[]           in0     [],[]
                ind   (.l, .s)          indr  (.l, .s)
                indx  (.l, .s)
                ind2  (.l, .s)          ind2r (.l, .s)
                indm  (.l, .s)          indmr (.l, .s)
                ini   (.l, .s)          inir  (.l, .s)
                inim  (.l, .s)          inimr (.l, .s)
                otdm  (.l, .s)          otdmr (.l, .s)
                otdrx (.l, .s)
                otim  (.l, .s)          otimr (.l, .s)
                otirx (.l, .s)
                out   (.l, .s)  [],[]
                out0  (.l, .s)  [],[]
                outd  (.l, .s)          otdr  (.l, .s)
                outd2 (.l, .s)          otdr2 (.l, .s)
                outi  (.l, .s)          otir  (.l, .s)
                outi2 (.l, .s)          oti2r (.l, .s)
                tstio   []




        ASEZ80 ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE AX-9
        EZ80 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 


        AX.3.8  Load Instructions 

                ld   (.l, .s, .il, .is, .lil, .sis)     [],[]
                lea  (.l, .s)   []      pea  (.l, .s)   []
                pop  (.l, .s)   []      push (.l, .s)   []


        AX.3.9  Logical Instructions 

                and (.l, .s)    [],[]
                cpl (.l, .s)
                or  (.l, .s)    [],[]
                tst (.l, .s)    [],[]
                xor (.l, .s)    [],[]


        AX.3.10  Processor Control Instructions 

                ccf             di              ei
                halt            im              nop
                rsmix           stmix
                scf             slp


        AX.3.11  Program Flow Instructions 

                call (.il, .is)         []
                call (.il, .is)         CC,[]
                djnz    []
                jp   (.l, .s, .lil, .sis)       []
                jp   (.l, .s, .lil, .sis)       CC,[]
                jr      []
                jr      CC,[]
                ret  (.l)
                ret  (.l)       CC
                reti (.l)
                retn (.l)
                rst  (.l, .s)   []


        AX.3.12  Shift and Rotate Instructions 

                rl  (.l, .s)    []      rla
                rlc (.l, .s)    []      rlca
                rld                     rrd
                rr  (.l, .s)    []      rra
                rrc (.1, .s)    []      rrca
                sla (.l, .s)    []
                sra (.l, .s)    []
                srl (.l, .s)    []














                                   APPENDIX AY

                                ASF2MC8 ASSEMBLER





        AY.1  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


           The ASF2MC8 assembler supports the F2MC8L and F2MC8FX proces-
        sor cores.  


        AY.1.1  .8L Directive 

        Format:  

                .8L 

        The  .8L  directive selects the F2MC8L processor cycle counts to
        be listed.  This is the default selection if no processor direc-
        tive is specified in the source assemby file.  


        AY.1.2  .8FX Directive 

        Format:  

                .8FX 

        The .8FX directive selects the F2MC8FX processor cycle counts to
        be listed.  .8L is the default selection if no processor  direc-
        tive is specified in the source assemby file.  




        ASF2MC8 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AY-2
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        AY.1.3  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


           The value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds to
        the selected processor type.  The default value is 0 which  cor-
        responds  to  the  default  processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values for the  ASF2MC8
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                    .8L                          0
                    .8FX                         1


           The  variable  '.__.CPU.'  is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

           The  assembler  .globl  directive  may  be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        AY.2  F2MC8L/F2MC8FX REGISTERS 


           The  following  is a list of register designations recognized
        by the ASF2MC8 assembler:  

                pc              -       Program Counter
        
                a               -       Accumulator
        
                t               -       Temporary Accumulator
        
                ix              -       Index Register
        
                ep              -       Extra Pointer
        
                sp              -       Stack Pointer
        
                ps              -       Program Status
        
                r0,r1,r2,r3,    -       Memory Registers
                r4,r5,r6,r7             32 banks of
                                        8 registers each


        ASF2MC8 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AY-3
        F2MC8L/F2MC8FX INSTRUCTION SET


        AY.3  F2MC8L/F2MC8FX INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  list specifies the format for each addressing
        mode supported by ASF2MC8:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
        
                *dir:b          bit addressing to a
                                direct page address
        
                ext             extended addressing
        
                a,t             register addressing
                pc,sp,ix,ep
        
                @a              accumulator indexed
        
                @ix+d           indexed addressing
                                plus offset
        
                @ix             indexed addressing
                                with a zero offset
        
                @ep             pointer addressing
        
                r               General-purpose registers
        
                label           call/jmp/branch label

        The  terms  data,  dir,  ext, b, d, and label may all be expres-
        sions.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the F2MC8L/F2MC8FX technical data for  valid
        modes.  

           The following tables list all F2MC8L/F2MC8FX mnemonics recog-
        nized by the ASF2MC8 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a
        required addressing mode argument.  




        ASF2MC8 ASSEMBLER                                      PAGE AY-4
        F2MC8L/F2MC8FX INSTRUCTION SET


        AY.3.1  Transfer Instructions 

                mov     [],[]           movw    [],[]
                xch     [],[]           xchw    [],[]
                clrb    []              setb    []
                swap    []


        AY.3.2  Operation Instructions 

                addc    a(,[])          addcw   a
                subc    a(,[])          subcw   a
                inc     r               incw    []
                dec     r               decw    []
                mulu    a               divu    a
                and     a(,[])          andw    a
                cmp     a(,[])          cmpw    a
                or      a(,[])          orw     a
                xor     a(,[])          xorw    a
                rolc    a               rorc    a
                daa                     das


        AY.3.3  Branch/Jump/Call Instructions 

                bz      label           bew     label
                bnz     label           bne     label
                bc      label           blo     label
                bnc     label           bhs     label
                bn      label           bp      label
                blt     label           bge     label
                bbc     *dir:b,label    bbs     *dir:b,label
                jmp     []              call    label
                callv   #data           xchw    a,pc
                ret                     reti


        AY.3.4  Other Instructions 

                pushw   []              popw    []
                nop
                clrc                    setc
                clri                    seti














                                   APPENDIX AZ

                                 ASF8 ASSEMBLER




           The AS8 assembler supports the F8 and 3870 processor cores.  


        ASF8 ASSEMBLER                                         Page AZ-2
        


        AZ.1  F8 REGISTERS 


           The  following  is a list of register designations recognized
        by the ASF8 assembler:  

                r0-r11  -       Registers
        
                j       -       Scratch Pad Register r9
        
                hu      -       MSB of register H the
                                  Data Counter Buffer Register
                                  Scratch Pad Register r10
                hl      -       LSB of register H the
                                  Data Counter Buffer Register
                                  Scratch Pad Register r11
        
                ku      -       MSB of register K the
                                  Stack Buffer Register
                kl      -       LSB of register K the
                                  Stack Buffer Register
        
                qu      -       MSB of register Q a
                                  Buffer Register for the
                                  Data Counter or Program Counter
                ql      -       LSB of register Q a
                                  Buffer Register for the
                                  Data Counter or Program Counter
        
                a       -       Accumulator
        
                is      -       Scratch Pad Address Register (ISAR)
        
                w       -       Status Register
        
                s       -       Register Addressed
                                by is (unchanged)
        
                i       -       Register Addressed
                                by is (incremented)
        
                d       -       Register Addressed
                                by is (decremented)
        
                pc0     -       Program Counter
                or p0, pc
        
                pc1     -       Program Counter Buffer or
                or p1, p        Stack Register
        
                dc0     -       Data Counter
                or d0, dc


        ASF8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE AZ-3
        F8 REGISTERS


        


        AZ.2  F8 INSTRUCTION SET 


           The  following  list specifies the format for each addressing
        mode supported by ASF8:  

                #nibble         immediate  4-Bit data
                #byte           immediate  8-Bit data
                #word           immediate 16-Bit data
        
                #t3             3-Bit test condition
                                [Zero Carry Sign]
        
                #t4             4-Bit test condition
                                [Overflow Zero Carry Sign]
        
                r               register r0-r11 addressing and
                                indirect addressing s, i, and d
                                j is equivalent to r9
                                hu (MSB of h) is equivalent to r10
                                hl (LSB of h) is equivalent to r11
        
                ku and kl       MSB and LSB of k register
        
                qu and ql       MSB and LSB of q register
        
                h, k, or q      16-Bit registers
                p0, pc0, or pc
                p1 or p
                d0, dc0, or dc
        
                w               status register
        
                is              Indirect Scratchpad Address Register
        
                label           call/jmp/branch label

        The  terms  nibble, byte, word, t3, t4, and label may all be ex-
        pressions.  

           The  following tables list all F8 mnemonics recognized by the
        ASF8 assembler.  


        ASF8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE AZ-4
        F8 INSTRUCTION SET


        AZ.2.1  Accumulator Group Instructions 

                lnk                     ai      #byte
                ni      #byte           clr
                ci      #byte           com
                xi      #byte           inc
                li      #byte           lis     #nibble
                oi      #byte           sl      1
                sl      4               sr      1
                sr      4


        AZ.2.2  Branch Instructions 

                bc      label           bp      label
                bz      label           bt      #t3,label
                bm      label           bnc     label
                bno     label           bnz     label
                bf      #t4,label       br7     label
                br      label           jmp     label


        AZ.2.3  Memory Reference Instructions 

                am                      amd
                nm                      cm
                xm                      lm
                om                      st


        AZ.2.4  Address Register Instructions 

                adc                     pk
                pi      #word           xdc
                lr      dc,q            lr      dc,h
                dci     #word           lr      p0,q
                lr      p,k             pop
                lr      q,dc            lr      h,dc
                lr      k,p




        ASF8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE AZ-5
        F8 INSTRUCTION SET


        AZ.2.5  Scratchpad Register Instructions 

                as      r               asd     r
                ds      r
                lr      a,r
                lr      a,ku            lr      a,kl
                lr      a,qu            lr      a,ql
                lr      r,a
                lr      ku,a            lr      kl,a
                lr      qu,a            lr      ql,a
                ns      r               xs      r


        AZ.2.6  Miscellaneous Instructions 

                di                      ei
                in      #byte           ins     #nibble
                out     #byte           outs    #nibble
                lr      is,a            lr      a,is
                lr      w,j             lr      j,w
                lisl    #0-#7           lisu    #0-#7
                nop














                                   APPENDIX BA

                                 ASGB ASSEMBLER





        BA.1  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 


           Thanks  to  Roger Ivie for his contribution of the ASGB cross
        assembler.  

                Roger Ivie
                ivie at cc dot usu dot edu


        BA.2  INTRODUCTION 


           The  Gameboy uses an 8-bit processor which is closely related
        to the 8080.  It is usually described as a modified Z80, but may
        be more closely understood as an enhanced 8080;  it has the 8080
        register set and many, but not all, enhanced  Z80  instructions.
        However,  even  this is not accurate, for the Gameboy also lacks
        some basic 8080 instructions (most annoyingly  SHLD  and  LHLD).
        ASGB is based on ASZ80 and therefore uses the Z80 mnemonic set. 


        BA.3  GAMEBOY REGISTER SET AND CONDITIONS 


           The following is a complete list of register designations and
        condition mnemonics:  

                byte registers - a,b,c,d,e,h,l
                register pairs - af, bc, de, hl
                word registers - pc, sp
        
                C  - carry bit set
                NC - carry bit clear
                NZ - zero bit clear
                Z  - zero bit set


        ASGB ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BA-2
        GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET


        BA.4  GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET 


           The following tables list all Gameboy mnemnoics recognized by
        the ASGB assembler.  The designation [] refers to a required ad-
        dressing mode argument.  The following list specifies the format
        for each addressing mode supported by ASGB:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                n               byte value
        
                rg              a byte register
                                a,b,c,d,e,h,l
        
                rp              a register pair or 16-bit register
                                bc,de,hl
        
                (hl)            implied addressing or
                                register indirect addressing
        
                (label)         direct addressing
        
                label           call/jmp/jr label


           The terms data, dir, and ext may all be expression.  The term
        dir is not allowed to be an external reference.  

           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction.  Although official information is not, as  far  as  I
        know, publically available for the Gameboy processor, many unof-
        ficial sources are available on the internet.  


        BA.4.1  .tile Directive 


        Format:  

                        .tile  /string/         or 

                        .tile ^/string/ 



        where:  string  is  a  string of ascii characters taken from the
                        set ' ', '.', '+', '*', '0', '1', '2', and  '3'.
                        The   string   must   be  a  multiple  of  eight
                        characters long.  



        ASGB ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BA-3
        GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET


                /  /     represent  the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters  do  not match, the .tile
                        directive will give the (q) error.  

             The Gameboy displays information on the screen using a pro-
        grammable character set (referred to as  "tiles"  among  Gameboy
        developers).   The ASGB cross assembler has a processor-specific
        assembler directive  to  aid  in  the  creation  of  the  game's
        character set.  

             Each  character is created from an 8x8 grid of pixels, each
        pixel of which is composed of two bits.  The .tile directive ac-
        cepts  a single string argument which is processed to create the
        byte  values  corresponding  to  the  lines  of  pixels  in  the
        character.   The  string  argument  must  be  some multiple of 8
        characters long, and be one of these characters:  

                ' ' or '0' - for the pixel value 00
                '.' or '1' - for the pixel value 01
                '+' or '2' - for the pixel value 10
                '*' or '3' - for the pixel value 11

             The .tile directive processes each 8-character group of its
        string argument to create the two-byte  value  corresponding  to
        that  line of pixels.  The example in the popular extant litera-
        ture could be done using ASGB like this:  

           0000 7C 7C                 1         .tile " *****  "
           0002 00 C6                 2         .tile "++   ++ "
           0004 C6 00                 3         .tile "..   .. "
           0006 00 FE                 4         .tile "+++++++ "
           0008 C6 C6                 5         .tile "**   ** "
           000A 00 C6                 6         .tile "++   ++ "
           000C C6 00                 7         .tile "..   .. "
           000E 00 00                 8         .tile "        "

             Or, using the synonym character set, as:  

           0010 7C 7C                10         .tile "03333300"
           0012 00 C6                11         .tile "22000220"
           0014 C6 00                12         .tile "11000110"
           0016 00 FE                13         .tile "22222220"
           0018 C6 C6                14         .tile "33000330"
           001A 00 C6                15         .tile "22000220"
           001C C6 00                16         .tile "11000110"
           001E 00 00                17         .tile "00000000"



        ASGB ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BA-4
        GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET


             Since .tile is perfectly willing to assemble multiple lines
        of a character at once (as long as it is given complete rows  of
        pixels), it could even be done as:  

                .tile " *****  ++   ++ ..   .. +++++++ "
                .tile "**   ** ++   ++ ..   ..         "


        BA.4.2  Potentially Controversial Mnemonic Selection 


             Although the Gameboy processor is based on the Z80, it does
        include some features which are not present in the Z80.  The Z80
        mnemonic  set  is  not  sufficient  to describe these additional
        operations;  mnemonics must be created for the  new  operations.
        The  mnemonics ASGB uses are not the same as those used by other
        publically-available Gameboy assemblers.  


        BA.4.2.1  Auto-Indexing Loads  - 

             The  Gameboy provides instructions to load or store the ac-
        cumulator indirectly via HL and then subsequently  increment  or
        decrement HL.  ASGB uses the mnemonic 'ldd' for the instructions
        which decrement HL and 'ldi' for the instructions  which  incre-
        ment  HL.   Because the Gameboy lacks the Z80's block moves, the
        mnemonics are not otherwise needed by ASGB.  

                ldd a,(hl)      ldd (hl),a
                ldi a,(hl)      ldi (hl),a


        BA.4.2.2  Input and Output Operations  - 

             The  Gameboy  replaces the Z80's separate address space for
        I/O with a mechanism similar to the zero page addressing of pro-
        cessors  such  as  the  6800  or 6502.  All I/O registers in the
        Gameboy reside in the address range between 0xff00  and  0xffff.
        The  Gameboy adds special instructions to load and store the ac-
        cumulator from and into this page of memory.   The  instructions
        are  analogous to the Z80's in and out instructions and ASGB re-
        tains the 'in' and 'out' mnemonics for them.  

                in a,(n)        out (n),a
                in a,(c)        out (c),a

             From  ASGB's  perspective,  the  RAM  available from 0xff80
        through 0xffff is composed of unused I/O locations  rather  than
        direct-page RAM.  




        ASGB ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BA-5
        GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET


        BA.4.2.3  The 'stop' Instruction  - 

             The  publically-available  documentation  for  the  Gameboy
        lists the 'stop' instruction as the two-byte instruction 10  00,
        and the other freely-available Gameboy assemblers assemble it in
        that manner.  As far as I can tell, the only rationale for  this
        is  that  the  corresponding Z80 instruction ('djnz label') is a
        two-byte instruction.  ASGB assembles 'stop' as the one-byte in-
        struction 10.  


        BA.4.3  Inherent Instructions 


                ccf             cpl
                daa             di
                ei              nop
                halt            rla
                rlca            rra
                rrca            scf
                reti            stop
                swap


        BA.4.4  Implicit Operand Instructions 


                adc a,[]        adc []
                add a,[]        add []
                and a,[]        and []
                cp a,[]         cp []
                dec a,[]        dec []
                inc a,[]        inc []
                or a,[]         or []
                rl a,[]         rl []
                rlc a,[]        rlc []
                rr a,[]         rr []
                rrc a,[]        rrc []
                sbc a,[]        sbc []
                sla a,[]        sla []
                sra a,[]        sra []
                srl a,[]        srl []
                sub a,[]        sub []
                xor a,[]        xor []




        ASGB ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BA-6
        GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET


        BA.4.5  Load Instructions 


                ld rg,[]        ld [],rg
                ld (bc),a       ld a,(bc)
                ld (de),a       ld a,(de)
                ld (label),a    ld a,(label)
                ld (label),sp   ld rp,#data
                ld sp,hl        ld hl,sp
        
                ldd a,(hl)      ldd (hl),a
                ldi a,(hl)      ldi (hl),a


        BA.4.6  Call/Return Instructions 


                call C,label    ret C
                call NC,label   ret NC
                call Z,label    ret Z
                call NZ,label   ret NZ
                call label      ret
        
                rst n


        BA.4.7  Jump Instructions 


                jp C,label      jp NC,label
                jp Z,label      jp NZ,label
        
                jp (hl)         jp label
        
                jr C,label      jr NC,label
                jr Z,label      jr NZ,label
                jr label


        BA.4.8  Bit Manipulation Instructions 


                bit n,[]
                res n,[]
                set n,[]




        ASGB ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BA-7
        GAMEBOY INSTRUCTION SET


        BA.4.9  Input and Output Instructions 


                in a,(n)        in a,(c)
                out (n),a       out (c),a


        BA.4.10  Register Pair Instructions 


                add hl,rp       add hl,sp
                add sp,#data
        
                push rp         pop rp














                                   APPENDIX BB

                                 ASH8 ASSEMBLER





        BB.1  H8/3XX REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the H8 registers used by ASH8:  

                r0  -  r7,sp            16-bit accumulators
                r0L -  r7L,spL          8-bit accumulators
                r0H -  r7H,spH          8-bit accumulators
                spL,spH,sp              stack pointers
                ccr                     condition code


        BB.2  H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET 


             The  following  tables list all H8/3xx mnemonics recognized
        by the ASH8 assembler.  The designation [] refers to a  required
        addressing  mode  argument.   The  following  list specifies the
        format for each addressing mode supported by ASH8:  

                #xx:3           immediate data (3  bit)
                #xx:8           immediate data (8  bit)
                #xx:16          immediate data (16 bit)
        
                *dir            direct page addressing
                                (see .setdp directive)
                                0xFF00 <= dir <= 0xFFFF
        
                label           branch label
        
        
                rn              registers (16 bit)
                                r0-r7,sp
        
                rnB             registers (8 bit)
                                r0H-r7H,r0L-r7L,spH,spL
        


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-2
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


                ccr             condition code register
        
                @rn             register indirect
        
                @-rn            register indirect (auto pre-decrement)
        
                @rn+            register indirect (auto post-increment)
        
                @[offset,rn]    register indirect, 16-bit displacement
        
                @@offset        memory indirect, (8-bit address)
        
                ext             extended addressing (16-bit)

        The  terms  data, dir, label, offset, and ext may all be expres-
        sions.  

             Note that not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the H8/3xx technical data for valid modes.  


        BB.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                eepmov
                nop
                sleep
                rte
                rts


        BB.2.2  Branch Instructions 

                bcc     label                   bcs     label
                beq     label                   bf      label
                bge     label                   bgt     label
                bhi     label                   bhis    label
                bhs     label                   ble     label
                blo     label                   blos    label
                bls     label                   blt     label
                bmi     label                   bne     label
                bpl     label                   bra     label
                brn     label                   bt      label
                bvc     label                   bvs     label
                bsr     label


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-3
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


        BB.2.3  Single Operand Instructions 

                Free Form
        
                daa     rnB                     das     rnB
        
                dec     rnB                     inc     rnB
        
                neg     rnB                     not     rnB
        
                rotxl   rnB                     rotxr   rnB
        
                rotl    rnB                     rotr    rnB
        
                shal    rnB                     shar    rnB
        
                shll    rnB                     shlr    rnB
        
                push    rn                      pop     rn
        
        
                Byte / Word Form
        
                daa.b   rnB                     das.b   rnB
        
                dec.b   rnB                     inc.b   rnB
        
                neg.b   rnB                     not.b   rnB
        
                rotxl.b rnB                     rotxr.b rnB
        
                rotl.b  rnB                     rotr.b  rnB
        
                shal.b  rnB                     shar.b  rnB
        
                shll.b  rnB                     shlr.b  rnB
        
                push.w  rn                      pop.w   rn


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-4
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


        BB.2.4  Double Operand Instructions 

                Free Form
        
                add     rnB,rnB                 add     #xx:8,rnB
                add     rn,rn
                adds    #1,rn                   adds    #2,rn
                addx    rnB,rnB                 addx    #xx:8,rnB
        
                cmp     rnB,rnB                 cmp     #xx:8,rnB
                cmp     rn,rn
        
                sub     rnB,rnB
                sub     rn,rn
                subs    #1,rn                   subs    #2,rn
                subx    rnB,rnB                 subx    #xx:8,rnB
        
                and     rnB,rnB                 and     #xx:8,rnB
                                                and     #xx:8,ccr
        
                or      rnB,rnB                 or      #xx:8,rnB
                                                or      #xx:8,ccr
        
                xor     rnB,rnB                 xor     #xx:8,rnB
                                                xor     #xx:8,ccr
        
        
                Byte / Word Form
        
                add.b   rnB,rnB                 add.b   #xx:8,rnB
                add.w   rn,rn
        
                cmp.b   rnB,rnB                 cmp.b   #xx:8,rnB
                cmp.w   rn,rn
        
                sub.b   rnB,rnB
                sub.w   rn,rn
        
                addx.b  rnB,rnB                 addx.b  #xx:8,rnB
        
                and.b   rnB,rnB                 and.b   #xx:8,rnB
                                                and.b   #xx:8,ccr
        
                or.b    rnB,rnB                 or.b    #xx:8,rnB
                                                or.b    #xx:8,ccr
        
                subx.b  rnB,rnB                 subx.b  #xx:8,rnB
        
                xor.b   rnB,rnB                 xor.b   #xx:8,rnB
                                                xor.b   #xx:8,ccr


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-5
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


        BB.2.5  Mov Instructions 

                Free Form
        
                mov     rnB,rnB                 mov     rn,rn
                mov     #xx:8,rnB               mov     #xx:16,rn
                mov     @rn,rnB                 mov     @rn,rn
                mov     @[offset,rn],rnB        mov     @[offset,rn],rn
                mov     @rn+,rnB                mov     @rn+,rn
                mov     @dir,rnB
                mov     dir,rnB
                mov     *@dir,rnB
                mov     *dir,rnB
                mov     @label,rnB              mov     @label,rn
                mov     label,rnB               mov     label,rn
                mov     rnB,@rn                 mov     rn,@rn
                mov     rnB,@[offset,rn]        mov     rn,@[offset,rn]
                mov     rnB,@-rn                mov     rn,@-rn
                mov     rnB,@dir
                mov     rnB,dir
                mov     rnB,*@dir
                mov     rnB,*dir
                mov     rnB,@label              mov     rn,@label
                mov     rnB,label               mov     rn,label
        
        
                Byte / Word Form
        
                mov.b   rnB,rnB                 mov.w   rn,rn
                mov.b   #xx:8,rnB               mov.w   #xx:16,rn
                mov.b   @rn,rnB                 mov.w   @rn,rn
                mov.b   @[offset,rn],rnB        mov.w   @[offset,rn],rn
                mov.b   @rn+,rnB                mov.w   @rn+,rn
                mov.b   @dir,rnB
                mov.b   dir,rnB
                mov.b   *@dir,rnB
                mov.b   *dir,rnB
                mov.b   @label,rnB              mov.w   @label,rn
                mov.b   label,rnB               mov.w   label,rn
                mov.b   rnB,@rn                 mov.w   rn,@rn
                mov.b   rnB,@[offset,rn]        mov.w   rn,@[offset,rn]
                mov.b   rnB,@-rn                mov.w   rn,@-rn
                mov.b   rnB,@dir
                mov.b   rnB,dir
                mov.b   rnB,*@dir
                mov.b   rnB,*dir
                mov.b   rnB,@label              mov.w   rn,@label
                mov.b   rnB,label               mov.w   rn,label


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-6
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


        BB.2.6  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bld     #xx:3,rnB               bld     #xx:3,@rn
                bld     #xx:3,@dir              bld     #xx:3,dir
                bld     #xx:3,*@dir             bld     #xx:3,*dir
        
                bild    #xx:3,rnB               bild    #xx:3,@rn
                bild    #xx:3,@dir              bild    #xx:3,dir
                bild    #xx:3,*@dir             bild    #xx:3,*dir
        
                bst     #xx:3,rnB               bst     #xx:3,@rn
                bst     #xx:3,@dir              bst     #xx:3,dir
                bst     #xx:3,*@dir             bst     #xx:3,*dir
        
                bist    #xx:3,rnB               bist    #xx:3,@rn
                bist    #xx:3,@dir              bist    #xx:3,dir
                bist    #xx:3,*@dir             bist    #xx:3,*dir
        
                band    #xx:3,rnB               band    #xx:3,@rn
                band    #xx:3,@dir              band    #xx:3,dir
                band    #xx:3,*@dir             band    #xx:3,*dir
        
                biand   #xx:3,rnB               biand   #xx:3,@rn
                biand   #xx:3,@dir              biand   #xx:3,dir
                biand   #xx:3,*@dir             biand   #xx:3,*dir
        
                bor     #xx:3,rnB               bor     #xx:3,@rn
                bor     #xx:3,@dir              bor     #xx:3,dir
                bor     #xx:3,*@dir             bor     #xx:3,*dir
        
                bior    #xx:3,rnB               bior    #xx:3,@rn
                bior    #xx:3,@dir              bior    #xx:3,dir
                bior    #xx:3,*@dir             bior    #xx:3,*dir
        
                bxor    #xx:3,rnB               bxor    #xx:3,@rn
                bxor    #xx:3,@dir              bxor    #xx:3,dir
                bxor    #xx:3,*@dir             bxor    #xx:3,*dir
        
                bixor   #xx:3,rnB               bixor   #xx:3,@rn
                bixor   #xx:3,@dir              bixor   #xx:3,dir
                bixor   #xx:3,*@dir             bixor   #xx:3,*dir


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-7
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


        BB.2.7  Extended Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bset    #xx:3,rnB               bset    #xx:3,@rn
                bset    #xx:3,@dir              bset    #xx:3,dir
                bset    #xx:3,*@dir             bset    #xx:3,*dir
                bset    rnB,rnB                 bset    rnB,@rn
                bset    rnB,@dir                bset    rnB,dir
                bset    rnB,*@dir               bset    rnB,*dir
        
                bclr    #xx:3,rnB               bclr    #xx:3,@rn
                bclr    #xx:3,@dir              bclr    #xx:3,dir
                bclr    #xx:3,*@dir             bclr    #xx:3,*dir
                bclr    rnB,rnB                 bclr    rnB,@rn
                bclr    rnB,@dir                bclr    rnB,dir
                bclr    rnB,*@dir               bclr    rnB,*dir
        
                bnot    #xx:3,rnB               bnot    #xx:3,@rn
                bnot    #xx:3,@dir              bnot    #xx:3,dir
                bnot    #xx:3,*@dir             bnot    #xx:3,*dir
                bnot    rnB,rnB                 bnot    rnB,@rn
                bnot    rnB,@dir                bnot    rnB,dir
                bnot    rnB,*@dir               bnot    rnB,*dir
        
                btst    #xx:3,rnB               btst    #xx:3,@rn
                btst    #xx:3,@dir              btst    #xx:3,dir
                btst    #xx:3,*@dir             btst    #xx:3,*dir
                btst    rnB,rnB                 btst    rnB,@rn
                btst    rnB,@dir                btst    rnB,dir
                btst    rnB,*@dir               btst    rnB,*dir


        BB.2.8  Condition Code Instructions 

                andc    #xx:8,ccr               andc    #xx:8
                and     #xx:8,ccr               and.b   #xx:8,ccr
        
                ldc     #xx:8,ccr               ldc     #xx:8
                ldc     rnB,ccr                 ldc     rnB
        
                orc     #xx:8,ccr               orc     #xx:8
                or      #xx:8,ccr               or.b    #xx:8,ccr
        
                xorc    #xx:8,ccr               xorc    #xx:8
                xor     #xx:8,ccr               xor.b   #xx:8,ccr
        
                stc     ccr,rnB                 stc     rnB


        ASH8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BB-8
        H8/3XX INSTRUCTION SET


        BB.2.9  Other Instructions 

                divxu   rnB,rn                  divxu.b rnB,rn
        
                mulxu   rnB,rn                  mulxu.b rnB,rn
        
                movfpe  @label,rnB              movfpe  label,rnB
                movfpe.b  @label,rnB            movfpe.b  label,rnB
        
                movtpe  @label,rnB              movtpe  label,rnB
                movtpe.b  @label,rnB            movtpe.b  label,rnB


        BB.2.10  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jmp     @rn                     jmp     @@dir
                jmp     @label                  jmp     label
        
                jsr     @rn                     jsr     @@dir
                jsr     @label                  jsr     label














                                   APPENDIX BC

                                 ASM8C ASSEMBLER





        BC.1  M8C REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the M8C registers used by ASM8C:  

                A       -   Accumulator
                X       -   Index
                SP      -   Stack Pointer
                F       -   Flags


        BC.2  M8C ADDRESSING MODES 


             The  M8C  instructions  may have none, one, or two operands
        selected from the registers listed above or an  addressing  mode
        from the following list:  

                expr         -  immediate argument
                             -  In the lcall, ljmp, index,
                                and pc relative branching
                                instructions expr is an
                                address expression.
                #expr        -  immediate argument
                [expr]       -  argument at location expr
                [x+expr]     -  argument at location x + expr
                reg[expr]    -  argument at location expr
                                in register space
                reg[x+expr]  -  argument at location x + expr
                                in register space
                [[expr]++]   -  The value in memory at address
                                expr (the indirect address)
                                points to a memory location in
                                RAM. The value in memory at
                                address expr is then incremented.
                                This addressing mode is used only
                                by the mvi instruction and


        ASM8C ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BC-2
        M8C ADDRESSING MODES


                                allows the short form [expr]
                                for this addressing mode.



        BC.3  M8C INSTRUCTION SET 


             The  following tables list all M8C mnemonics and addressing
        modes recognized by the ASM8C assembler.  


        BC.3.1  Double Operand Arithmetic Instructions 

                adc  a,expr
                adc  a,[expr]           adc  [expr],a
                adc  a,[x+expr]         adc  [x+expr],a
                adc  [expr],expr        adc  [x+expr],expr
        
                add  a,expr
                add  a,[expr]           add  [expr],a
                add  a,[x+expr]         add  [x+expr],a
                add  [expr],expr        add  [x+expr],expr
                add  sp,expr
        
                cmp  a,expr
                cmp  a,[expr]
                cmp  a,[x+expr]
                cmp  [expr],expr        cmp  [x+expr],expr
        
                sbb  a,expr
                sbb  a,[expr]           sbb  [expr],a
                sbb  a,[x+expr]         sbb  [x+expr],a
                sbb  [expr],expr        sbb  [x+expr],expr
        
                sub  a,expr
                sub  a,[expr]           sub  [expr],a
                sub  a,[x+expr]         sub  [x+expr],a
                sub  [expr],expr        sub  [x+expr],expr


        ASM8C ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BC-3
        M8C INSTRUCTION SET


        BC.3.2  Double Operand Logic Instructions 

                and  a,expr             and  f,expr
                and  a,[expr]           and  [expr],a
                and  a,[x+expr]         and  [x+expr],a
                and  [expr],expr        and  [x+expr],expr
                and  reg[expr],expr     and  reg[x+expr],expr
        
                or   a,expr             or   f,expr
                or   a,[expr]           or   [expr],a
                or   a,[x+expr]         or   [x+expr],a
                or   [expr],expr        or   [x+expr],expr
                or   reg[expr],expr     or   reg[x+expr],expr
        
                xor  a,expr             xor  f,expr
                xor  a,[expr]           xor  [expr],a
                xor  a,[x+expr]         xor  [x+expr],a
                xor  [expr],expr        xor  [x+expr],expr
                xor  reg[expr],expr     xor  reg[x+expr],expr


        BC.3.3  Miscellaneous Double Operand Instructions 

                swap a,x                swap a,sp
                swap a,[expr]           swap a,[x+expr]
        
                tst  [expr]             tst  [x+expr]
                tst  reg[expr]          tst  reg[x+expr]


        BC.3.4  Single Operand Shift/Rotate Instructions 

                asl  a
                asl  [expr]             asl  [x+expr]
        
                asr  a
                asr  [expr]             asr  [x+expr]
        
                rlc  a
                rlc  [expr]             rlc  [x+expr]
        
                rrc  a
                rrc  [expr]             rrc  [x+expr]


        ASM8C ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BC-4
        M8C INSTRUCTION SET


        BC.3.5  Miscellaneous Single Operand Instructions 

                cpl  a
        
                dec  a                  dec  x
                dec  [expr]             dec  [x+expr]
        
                inc  a                  inc  x
                inc  [expr]             inc  [x+expr]
        
                pop  a                  pop  x
                push a                  push x
        
                tst  [expr]             tst  [x+expr]
                tst  reg[expr]          tst  reg[x+expr]


        BC.3.6  Move Instructions 

                mov  a,x
                mov  a,expr
                mov  a,[expr]           mov  [expr],a
                mov  a[x+expr]          mov  [x+expr],a
        
                mov  x,a                mov  x,sp
                mov  x,expr
                mov  x,[expr]           mov  [expr],x
                mov  x,[x+expr]
        
                mov  [expr],expr        mov  [x+expr],expr
        
                mov  [expr],[expr]
        
                mov  a,reg[expr]        mov  a,reg[x+expr]
                mov  reg[expr],a        mov  reg[x+expr],a
        
                mov  reg[expr],expr     mov  reg[x+expr],expr
        
                mvi  a,[expr]      ==   mvi  a,[[expr]++]
                mvi  [expr],a      ==   mvi  [[expr]++],a




        ASM8C ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BC-5
        M8C INSTRUCTION SET


        BC.3.7  Inherent Instructions 

                halt                    nop
                romx                    ssc
                ret                     reti


        BC.3.8  Branching Instructions 

                lcall expr              ljmp  expr
                jz    expr              jnz   expr
                jc    expr              jnc   expr
                jacc  expr


        BC.3.9  Relative Table Read Instruction 

                index expr














                                   APPENDIX BD

                                 ASPIC ASSEMBLER





        BD.1  PIC ASSEMBLER NOTES 

        The  PIC  series  of  processors  uses  a non unified addressing
        scheme:  the instruction addressing is 1 per  instruction  word,
        each  instruction  uses  a  word of memory varying from 12 to 16
        bits in length.  The processor data is addressed as 1  per  byte
        of  data.   To properly address the program/data spaces you, the
        programmer, must seperate your program and  data  into  seperate
        code  and  data areas.  The data area is addressed as 1 per byte
        and the code area is addressed as 1 per instruction.  

             The assembler/linker processes the instruction code so that
        the linker will output 2 bytes for each instruction  word.   The
        instruction  word  address  will  be  the  file  encoded address
        divided by 2.  


        BD.2  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


             The  ASPIC  assembler has several processor specific assem-
        bler directives.  These directives  specify  a  processor  name,
        select  a  PIC processor family type, define the maximum ram ad-
        dress, specify ram addresses that should not  be  accessed,  and
        define the register file address page.  




        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-2
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        BD.2.1  .pic Directive 

        Format:  

                .pic     /string/               or 

                .pic    ^/string/ 


        where:  string  represents a text string.  The string is the pic
                        processor type.  

                /  /    represent   the  delimiting  characters.   These
                        delimiters   may   be   any   paired    printing
                        characters,  as  long  as the characters are not
                        contained within  the  string  itself.   If  the
                        delimiting  characters  do  not  match, the .pic
                        directive will give the (q) error.  

             The assembler uses the delimited string to define a proces-
        sor  specific  symbol.   e.g:   "p12c508"  produces  the  symbol
        __12c508  having  a value of 1.  This symbol can then be used in
        an .ifdef/.else/.endif construct.  

             The  assembler should be configured by including directives
        similiar to the folowing at the beginning of your assembly file: 

                .pic            "p12c508"       ; Set PIC Name
                .pic12bit                       ; Select PIC Type

             The  ASPIC  assembler  will  then be configured for the PIC
        processor type "p12c508".  The .pic directive must  precede  the
        PIC  type  directive.  The PIC type directive configures the as-
        sembler based on the processor name and type selection.  

             An  alternate method to configure the ASPIC assembler is as
        follows:  

                .pic            "p12c508"       ; Set PIC Name
                .include        "piccpu.def"    ; Selects PIC Type

             To  define the special function register names, bit values,
        and memory constraints for  a  specific  processor  include  the
        appropriate definition file:  

                .include        "p12c508.def"   ; Definitions




        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-3
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        BD.2.2  .picnopic Directive 

        Format:  

                .picnopic 

             This directive deselects all processor specific mnemonics. 


        BD.2.3  .pic12bit Directive 

        Format:  

                .pic12bit 

             This  directive selects the 12-bit instruction word mnemon-
        ics and opcode values to be used during the assembly process.  


        BD.2.4  .pic14bit Directive 

        Format:  

                .pic14bit 

             This  directive selects the 14-bit instruction word mnemon-
        ics and opcode values to be used during the assembly process.  


        BD.2.5  .pic16bit Directive 

        Format:  

                .pic16bit 

             This  directive selects the 16-bit instruction word mnemon-
        ics and opcode values to be used during the assembly process.  


        BD.2.6  .pic20bit Directive 

        Format:  

                .pic20bit 

             This directive selects 20-bit addressing and the 16-bit in-
        struction word mnemonics and opcode values to be used during the
        assembly process.  




        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-4
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        BD.2.7  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


             The  value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds
        to the selected processor type.  The default value  is  0  which
        corresponds  to the default processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values  for  the  ASPIC
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                  .picnopic                      0
                  .pic12bit                      1
                  .pic14bit                      2
                  .pic16bit                      3
                  .pic20bit                      4


             The  variable '.__.CPU.' is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

             The  assembler  .globl  directive may be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        BD.2.8  .picfix Directive 

        Format:  

                .picfix chip,   mnemonic,       value 

             This  directive  can  be used to "fix" or change the opcode
        value of any pic instruction of the currently selected pic type.
        e.g.:  


             .picfix    "p12c671",      "clrw", 0x0103 

        will  change  the  "clrw"  instruction's opcode to 0x0103 if the
        current pic type is "p12c671".  




        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-5
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        BD.2.9  .maxram Directive 

        Format:  

                .maxram value 

             Where value is the highest allowed ram address 


        BD.2.10  .badram Directive 

        Format:  

                .badram address 
                .badram lo:hi 

             Where  address is a single location and lo:hi is a range of
        addresses that should not be used.   Multiple  locations  and/or
        ranges  may  be  specified  by  seperating  the arguments with a
        comma:  

                .badram         0x23, 0x28:0x2F, ...

             The  ASPIC  assembler will report an error for any absolute
        register file address in the badram range.  


        BD.2.11  .setdmm Directive 

        Format:  

                .setdmm value 

             The  .setdmm (set Data Memory Map) directive is used to in-
        form the assembler and linker about  which  ram  bank  has  been
        selected for access.  The PIC17Cxxx microprocessor family allows
        upto 2 (or more) banks of 256 byte ram  blocks.   The  PIC18Cxxx
        microprocessor  family  allows  upto  16  banks  of 256 byte ram
        blocks.  The data memory map value must be set  on  a  256  byte
        boundary.  e.g.:  


             .setdmm    0x0F00 

             The  assembler  verifies  that  any absolute address to the
        register file is within the  256  byte  page.   External  direct
        references  are  assumed  by  the assembler to be in the correct
        area and have valid offsets.  The linker  will  check  all  page
        relocations  to verify that they are within the correct address-
        ing range.  




        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-6
        12-BIT OPCODE PIC


        BD.3  12-BIT OPCODE PIC 


        The 12-bit opcode family of PIC processors support the following
        assembler arguments:  
                (*)f
                (*)f,(#)d
                (*)f,(#)b
                (#)k
                label
        
                where:  f       register file address
                        d       destination select:
                                        (0, -> w), (1 -> f)
                                        the letters w or f may be used
                                        to select the destination
                        b       bit address in an 8-bit file register
                        k       literal constant
                        label   label name
        
                Items enclosed in () are optional.
        
        
           The  terms  f, d, b, k, and label may all be expressions.  
        
           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction,  refer to the processor specific  technical data for
        valid modes.
          
        
            PIC12C5XX CPU Type
                PIC12C508,      PIC12C509,      PIC12CE518
                PIC12C508A,     PIC12C509A,     PIC12CE519
                PIC12CR509A


        BD.4  14-BIT OPCODE PIC 


        The 14-bit opcode family of PIC processors support the following
        assembler arguments:  
                (*)f
                (*)f,(#)d
                (*)f,(#)b
                (#)k
                label
        
                where:  f       register file address
                        d       destination select:
                                        (0, -> w), (1 -> f)
                                        the letters w or f may be used
                                        to select the destination


        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-7
        14-BIT OPCODE PIC


                        b       bit address in an 8-bit file register
                        k       literal constant
                        label   label name
        
                Items enclosed in () are optional.
        
        
           The  terms  f, d, b, k, and label may all be expressions.  
        
           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction,  refer to the processor specific  technical data for
        valid modes.
          
        
            PIC12C67X CPU Type
                PIC12C671,      PIC12C672,      PIC12LC671,
                PIC12LC672
                PIC12CE673,     PIC12CE674,     PIC12LCE673,
                PIC12LCE674
        
            PIC14000 CPU Type
                PIC14000
        
            PIC16C15X CPU Type
                PIC16C154,      PIC16C156,      PIC16C158
                PIC16CR154,     PIC16CR156,     PIC16CR158
        
            PIC16C5X CPU Type
                PIC16C52
                PIC16C54,       PICC16C54A,     PIC16C54B,
                PIC16C54C
                PIC16CR54,      PIC16CR54A,     PIC16C54B,
                PIC16CR54C
                PIC16C55,       PIC16C55A,      PIC16C56,
                PIC16C56A
                PIC16CR56A
                PIC16C57,       PIC16CR57A,     PIC16C57B,
                PIC16C57C
                PIC16C58A,      PIC16CR58A,     PIC16C58B,
                PIC16CR58B
        
            PIC16C55X CPU Type
                PIC16C554,      PIC16C556,      PIC16C558
        
            PIC16C62X, PIC16C64X and, PIC16C66X CPU Types
                PIC16C620,      PIC16C621,      PIC16C622
                PIC16C642,      PIC16C662
        
            PIC16C7XX CPU Type
                PIC16C71,       PIC16C72,       PIC16CR72
                PIC16C73A,      PIC16C74A,      PIC16C76,       PIC16C77
                PIC16C710,      PIC16C711,      PIC16C715


        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-8
        14-BIT OPCODE PIC


        
            PIC16C8X CPU Type
                PIC16F83,       PIC16CR83,      PIC16F84,
                PIC16CR84
                PIC16HV540
                PIC16F627,      PIC16F628
                PIC16F870,      PIC16F871,      PIC16F872,
                PIC16F873
                PIC16F874,      PIC16F876,      PIC16F877
        
            PIC16C9XX CPU Type
                PIC16C923,      PIC16C924


        BD.5  16-BIT OPCODE PIC 


        The 16-bit opcode family of PIC processors support the following
        assembler arguments:  
                (*)f
                (*)f,(#)d
                (*)f,(#)s
                (*)f,(#)b
                (*)f,(*)p       /       (*)p,(*)f
                (#)t,(*)f
                (#)t,(#)i,(*)f
                {#}k
                label
        
                where:  f       register file address
                        d       destination select:
                                        (0, -> w), (1 -> f)
                                        the letters w or f may be used
                                        to select the destination
                        s       destination select:
                                        (0, -> f and w), (1, -> f)
                                        the letters w or f may be used
                                        to select the destination
                        t       table byte select:
                                        (0, -> lower byte)
                                        (1, -> upper byte)
                        i       table pointer control
                                        (0, -> no change)
                                        (1, -> post increment)
                        b       bit address of an 8-bit file register
                        p       peripheral register file address
                        k       literal constant
                        label   label name
        
                Items enclosed in () are optional.
        
        


        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BD-9
        16-BIT OPCODE PIC


           The  terms  f, d, s, t, i, b, p, k,  and  label  may  all be
        expressions.  
        
           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction,  refer to the processor specific  technical data for
        valid modes.
          
        
            PIC17CXXX CPU Type
                PIC17C42,       PIC17C42A,      PIC17C43,       PIC17C44
                PIC17C752,      PIC17C756,      PIC17C756A
                PIC17C762,      PIC17C766,      PIC17CR42,
                PIC17CR43


        BD.6  20-BIT ADDRESSING PIC 


             The  20-bit addressing family of PIC processors support the
        following assembler arguments:  
                (*)f(,a)
                (*)f,(#)d(,(#)a)
                (*)f,(#)s
                (*)f,(#)b(,(#)a)
                (*)fs,(*)fd
                (#)t,(*)f
                (#)t,(#)i,(*)f
                {#}k
                label(,(#)s)
                ((#)s)
                mm
        
                where:  f       register file address
                        fs      register file source
                        fd      register file destination
                        a       ram access bit
                                        (0, -> ACCESS RAM)
                                        (1, -> RAM BANK)
                        d       destination select:
                                        (0, -> w), (1 -> f)
                                        the letters w or f may be used
                                        to select the destination
                        s       fast call/return mode:
                                        (0, -> SLOW), (1, -> FAST)
                        b       bit address of an 8-bit file register
                        mm      TBLRD and TBLWT suffixs
                                        ('*',  -> no change)
                                        ('*+', -> post-increment)
                                        ('*-', -> post-decrement)
                                        ('+*', -> pre-increment)
                        k       literal constant
                        label   label name


        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BD-10
        20-BIT ADDRESSING PIC


        
                Items enclosed in () are optional.
        
        
           The  terms  f, fs, fd, a, b, d, s, k, and  label  may all be
        expressions.  
        
           Note  that  not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction,  refer to the processor specific  technical data for
        valid modes.
          
        
            PIC18CXXX CPU Type
                PIC18C242,      PIC18C252
                PIC18C442,      PIC18C452
                PIC18C658,      PIC18C858


        BD.7  PIC OPCODES 



             The  following  table contains all the mnemonics recognized
        by the ASPIC assembler.  The processors supporting each mnemonic
        are  indicated by the code 'PIC:12:14:16:20' after each instruc-
        tion type.  The designation [] refers to a  required  addressing
        mode argument.  

                addwf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                addwfc  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                andwf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                comf    []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                decf    []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                decfsz  []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                dcfsnz  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                incf    []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                incfsz  []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                infsnz  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                iorwf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                movf    []              PIC:12:14:--:20
                negw    []              PIC:--:--:16:--
                rlf     []              PIC:12:14:--:--
                rlcf    []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                rlncf   []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                rrf     []              PIC:12:14:--:--
                rrcf    []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                rrncf   []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                subfwb  []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                subwf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                subwfb  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                swapf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                xorwf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20


        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BD-11
        PIC OPCODES


        
                movfp   []              PIC:--:--:16:--
                movpf   []              PIC:--:--:16:--
        
                movlb   []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                movlr   []              PIC:--:--:16:--
        
                movff   []              PIC:--:--:--:20
        
                lfsr    []              PIC:--:--:--:20
        
                clrf    []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                cpfseq  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                cpfsgt  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                cpfslt  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                movwf   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                mulwf   []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                negf    []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                setf    []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                tstfsz  []              PIC:--:--:16:20
        
                bcf     []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                bsf     []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                btfsc   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                btfss   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                btg     []              PIC:--:--:16:20
        
                addlw   []              PIC:--:14:16:20
                andlw   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                iorlw   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                movlw   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                mullw   []              PIC:--:--:16:20
                retlw   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                sublw   []              PIC:--:14:16:20
                xorlw   []              PIC:12:14:16:20
        
                call    []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                goto    []              PIC:12:14:16:20
                lcall   []              PIC:--:--:16:--
        
                bc      []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bn      []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bnc     []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bnn     []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bnov    []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bnc     []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bov     []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                bz      []              PIC:--:--:--:20
        
                bra     []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                rcall   []              PIC:--:--:--:20
        


        ASPIC ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BD-12
        PIC OPCODES


                tablrd  []              PIC:--:--:16:--
                tablwt  []              PIC:--:--:16:--
                tlrd    []              PIC:--:--:16:--
                tlwt    []              PIC:--:--:16:--
                tblrd   []              PIC:--:--:--:20
                tblwt   []              PIC:--:--:--:20
        
                clrw    []              PIC:12:14:--:--
                clrwdt                  PIC:12:14:16:20
                daw                     PIC:--:--:16:20
                nop                     PIC:12:14:16:20
                option                  PIC:12:14:--:--
                pop                     PIC:--:--:--:20
                push                    PIC:--:--:--:20
                retfie  []              PIC:--:14:16:20
                return  []              PIC:--:14:16:20
                sleep                   PIC:12:14:16:20
        
                tris    []              PIC:12:14:--:--














                                   APPENDIX BE

                                 ASRAB ASSEMBLER




             


        BE.1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

        Thanks to Ulrich Raich and Razaq Ijoduola for their contribution
        of the ASRAB cross assembler.  

           Ulrich Raich and Razaq Ijoduola
           PS Division
           CERN
           CH-1211 Geneva-23
                Ulrich Raich
                Ulrich dot Raich at cern dot ch




        BE.2  PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES 


             The ASRAB assembler is a port of the ASZ80 assembler.  This
        assembler can process Z80, HD64180 (Z180), and Rabbit  2000/3000
        (default)  code.   The  following  processor  specific assembler
        directives specify which processor to target when processing the
        input assembler files.  

             




        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-2
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        BE.2.1  .r2k Directive 

        Format:  

                .r2k 

        The  .r2k  directive  enables processing of the Rabbit 2000/3000
        specific mnemonics.  Mnemonics not associated  with  the  Rabbit
        2000/3000 processor will be flagged with an 'o' error.  Address-
        ing modes not supported by the Rabbit 2000/3000 will be  flagged
        with  an 'a' error.  A synonym of .r2k is .r3k.  The default as-
        sembler mode is .r2k.  

             The  .r2k  directive  also  selects  the  Rabbit  2000/3000
        specific cycles count to be output.  

             


        BE.2.2  .hd64 Directive 

        Format:  

                .hd64 

        The  .hd64  directive  enables  processing of the HD64180 (Z180)
        specific mnemonics not included  in  the  Z80  instruction  set.
        Rabbit  2000/3000  mnemonics encountered will be flagged with an
        'o' error.  Addressing modes not supported by the HD64180 (Z180)
        will be flagged with an 'a' error.  A synonym of .hd64 is .z180.

             The  .hd64 directive also selects the HD64180/Z180 specific
        cycles count to be output.  

             


        BE.2.3  .z80 Directive 

        Format:  

                .z80 

        The  .z80  directive  enables  processing  of  the  Z80 specific
        mnemonics.  HD64180 and Rabbit 2000/3000 specific mnemonics will
        be flagged with an 'o' error.  Addressing modes not supported by
        the z80 will be flagged with an 'a' error.  

             The  .z80  directive  also  selects the Z80 specific cycles
        count to be output.  



        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-3
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


             


        BE.2.4  The .__.CPU.  Variable 


             The  value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds
        to the selected processor type.  The default value  is  0  which
        corresponds  to the default processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values  for  the  ASRAB
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                 .r2k / .r3k                     0
                .hd64 / .z180                    1
                    .z80                         2


             The  variable '.__.CPU.' is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

             The  assembler  .globl  directive may be used to change the
        variable type to global causing its definition to be  output  to
        the  .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the variable
        '.__.CPU.' might be a useful means of validating that seperately
        assembled  files have been compiled for the same processor type.
        The linker will report an error for variables with multiple  non
        equal definitions.  


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-4
        PROCESSOR SPECIFIC DIRECTIVES


        BE.3  RABBIT 2000/3000 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 



        BE.3.1  Instruction Symbols 


        b       Bit select
                        (000 = bit 0, 001 = bit 1,
                         010 = bit 2, 011 = bit 3,
                         100 = bit 4, 101 = bit 5,
                         110 = bit 6, 111 = bit 7)
        cc      Condition code select
                        (00 = NZ, 01 = Z, 10 = NC, 11 = C)
        d       8-bit (signed) displacement.
                Expressed in two\'s complement.
        dd      word register select-destination
                        (00 = BC, 01 = DE, 10 = HL, 11 = SP)
        dd'     word register select-alternate
                        (00 = BC', 01 = DE', 10 = HL')
        e       8-bit (signed) displacement added to PC.
        f       condition code select
                        (000 = NZ, 001 = Z, 010 = NC, 011 = C,
                         100 = LZ/NV, 101 = LO/V, 110 = P, 111 = M)
        m       the most significant bits(MSB) of a 16-bit constant
        mn      16-bit constant
        n       8-bit constant or the least significant bits(LSB)
                of a 16-bit constant
        r, g    byte register select
                        (000 = B, 001 = C, 010 = D, 011 = E,
                         100 = H, 101 = L, 111 = A)
        ss      word register select-source
                        (00 = BC, 01 = DE, 10 = HL, 11 = SP)
        v       Restart address select
                        (010 = 0020h, 011 = 0030h, 100 = 0040h,
                         101 = 0050h, 111 = 0070h)
        x       an 8-bit constant to load into the XPC
        xx      word register select
                        (00 = BC, 01 = DE, 10 = IX, 11 = SP)
        yy      word register select
                        (00 = BC, 01 = DE, 10 = IY, 11 = SP)
        zz      word register select
                        (00 = BC, 01 = DE, 10 = HL, 11 = AF)

             


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-5
        RABBIT 2000/3000 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


                C  -    carry bit set
                M  -    sign bit set
                NC -    carry bit clear
                NZ -    zero bit clear
                P  -    sign bit clear
                PE -    parity even
                V  -    overflow bit set
                PO -    parity odd
                NV -    overflow bit clear
                Z  -    zero bit set


        The  terms  m, mn, n, and x may all be expressions.  The terms b
        and v are not allowed to be external references.  


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-6
        RABBIT 2000/3000 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        BE.3.2  Rabbit Instructions 


             The  following list of instructions (with explicit address-
        ing modes) are available in the Rabbit 2000/3000 assembler mode.
        Those instructions denoted by an asterisk (*) are additional in-
        structions not available in the HD64180 or Z80 assembler mode.  

         ADC A,n                 DEC IX                  LD A,EIR
         ADC A,r                 DEC IY                  LD A,IIR
         ADC A,(HL)              DEC r                  *LD A,XPC
         ADC A,(IX+d)            DEC ss                  LD A,(BC)
         ADC A,(IY+d)            DEC (HL)                LD A,(DE)
         ADC HL,ss               DEC (IX+d)              LD A,(mn)
         ADD A,n                 DEC (IY+d)             *LD dd,BC
         ADD A,r                 DJNZ e                 *LD dd,DE
         ADD A,(HL)                                      LD dd,mn
         ADD A,(IX+d)            EX AF,AF                LD dd,(mn)
         ADD A,(IY+d)            EX DE,HL                LD EIR,A
         ADD HL,ss               EX DE,HL               *LD HL,IX
         ADD IX,xx               EX (SP),HL             *LD HL,IY
         ADD IY,yy               EX (SP),IX             *LD HL,(HL+d)
        *ADD SP,d                EX (SP),IY             *LD HL,(IX+d)
        *ALTD                    EXX                    *LD HL,(IY+d)
        *AND HL,DE                                       LD HL,(mn)
        *AND IX,DE               INC IX                 *LD HL,(SP+n)
        *AND IY,DE               INC IY                  LD IIR,A
         AND n                   INC r                  *LD IX,HL
         AND r                   INC ss                  LD IX,mn
         AND (HL)                INC (HL)                LD IX,(mn)
         AND (IX+d)              INC (IX+d)             *LD IX,(SP+n)
         AND (IY+d)              INC (IY+d)             *LD IY,HL
                                *IOE                     LD IY,mn
         BIT b,r                *IOI                     LD IY,(mn)
         BIT b,(HL)             *IPRES                  *LD IY,(SP+n)
         BIT b,(IX+d)           *IPSET 0                 LD r,g
         BIT b,(IY+d)           *IPSET 1                 LD r,n
        *BOOL HL                *IPSET 2                 LD r,(HL)
        *BOOL IX                *IPSET 3                 LD r,(IX+d)
        *BOOL IY                                         LD r,(IY+d)
                                 JP f,mn                 LD SP,HL
         CALL mn                 JP mn                   LD SP,IX
         CCF                     JP (HL)                 LD SP,IY
         CP n                    JP (IX)                *LD XPC,A
         CP r                    JP (IY)                 LD (BC),A
         CP (HL)                 JR cc,e                 LD (DE),A
         CP (IX+d)               JR e                    LD (HL),n
         CP (IY+d)                                       LD (HL),r
         CPL                    *LCALL x,mn


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-7
        RABBIT 2000/3000 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        *LD (HL+d),HL           *POP IP                  SBC A,n
        *LD (IX+d),HL            POP IX                  SBC A,r
         LD (IX+d),n             POP IY                  SBC A,(HL)
         LD (IX+d),r             POP zz                  SBC HL,ss
        *LD (IY+d),HL           *PUSH IP                 SBC (IX+d)
         LD (IY+d),n             PUSH IX                 SBC (IY+d)
         LD (IY+d),r             PUSH IY                 SCF
         LD (mn),A               PUSH zz                 SET b,r
         LD (mn),HL                                      SET b,(HL)
         LD (mn),IX              RA                      SET b,(IX+d)
         LD (mn),IY              RES b,r                 SET b,(IY+d)
         LD (mn),ss              RES b,(HL)              SLA r
        *LD (SP+n),HL            RES b,(IX+d)            SLA (HL)
        *LD (SP+n),IX            RES b,(IY+d)            SLA (IX+d)
        *LD (SP+n),IY            RET                     SLA (IY+d)
         LDD                     RET f                   SRA r
         LDDR                   *RETI                    SRA (HL)
         LDI                    *RL DE                   SRA (IX+d)
         LDIR                    RL r                    SRA (IY+d)
        *LDP HL,(HL)             RL (HL)                 SRL r
        *LDP HL,(IX)             RL (IX+d)               SRL (HL)
        *LDP HL,(IY)             RL (IY+d)               SRL (IX+d)
        *LDP HL,(mn)             RLA                     SRL (IY+d)
        *LDP IX,(mn)             RLC r                   SUB n
        *LDP IY,(mn)             RLC (HL)                SUB r
        *LDP (HL),HL             RLC (IX+d)              SUB (HL)
        *LDP (IX),HL             RLC (IY+d)              SUB (IX+d)
        *LDP (IY),HL             RLCA                    SUB (IY+d)
        *LDP (mn),HL            *RR DE
        *LDP (mn),IX            *RR HL                   XOR n
        *LDP (mn),IY            *RR IX                   XOR r
         LJP x,mn               *RR IY                   XOR (HL)
         LRET                    RR r                    XOR (IX+d)
                                 RR (HL)                 XOR (IY+d)
        *MUL                     RR (IX+d)
                                 RR (IY+d)
         NEG                     RRC r
         NOP                     RRC (HL)
                                 RRC (IX+d)
        *OR HL,DE                RRC (IY+d)
        *OR IX,DE                RRCA
        *OR IY,DE                RST v
         OR n
         OR r
         OR (HL)
         OR (IX+d)
         OR (IY+d)

             




        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-8
        Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        BE.4  Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS 

        The following list specifies the format for each Z80/HD64180 ad-
        dressing mode supported by ASZ80:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                n               byte value
        
                rg              a byte register
                                a,b,c,d,e,h,l
        
                rp              a register pair
                                bc,de,hl
        
                (hl)            implied addressing or
                                register indirect addressing
        
                (label)         direct addressing
        
                (ix+offset)     indexed addressing with
                 offset(ix)     an offset
        
                label           call/jmp/jr label

        The  terms  data,  n, label, and offset, may all be expressions.
        The terms dir and offset are not allowed to be  external  refer-
        ences.  

             The  following tables list all Z80/HD64180 mnemonics recog-
        nized by the ASRAB assembler.  The designation []  refers  to  a
        required addressing mode argument.  Note that not all addressing
        modes are valid with every instruction, refer to the Z80/HD64180
        technical data for valid modes.  

             


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BE-9
        Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        BE.4.1  Inherent Instructions 

                ccf             cpd
                cpdr            cpi
                cpir            cpl
                daa             di
                ei              exx
                halt            neg
                nop             reti
                retn            rla
                rlca            rld
                rra             rrca
                rrd             scf

             


        BE.4.2  Implicit Operand Instructions 

                adc     a,[]            adc     []
                add     a,[]            add     []
                and     a,[]            and     []
                cp      a,[]            cp      []
                dec     a,[]            dec     []
                inc     a,[]            inc     []
                or      a,[]            or      []
                rl      a,[]            rl      []
                rlc     a,[]            rlc     []
                rr      a,[]            rr      []
                rrc     a,[]            rrc     []
                sbc     a,[]            sbc     []
                sla     a,[]            sla     []
                sra     a,[]            sra     []
                srl     a,[]            srl     []
                sub     a,[]            sub     []
                xor     a,[]            xor     []

             


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BE-10
        Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        BE.4.3  Load Instruction 

                ld      rg,[]           ld      [],rg
                ld      (bc),a          ld      a,(bc)
                ld      (de),a          ld      a,(de)
                ld      (label),a       ld      a,(label)
                ld      (label),rp      ld      rp,(label)
                ld      i,a             ld      r,a
                ld      a,i             ld      a,r
                ld      sp,hl           ld      sp,ix
                ld      sp,iy           ld      rp,#data
                ldd                     lddr
                ldi                     ldir

             


        BE.4.4  Call/Return Instructions 

                call    C,label         ret     C
                call    M,label         ret     M
                call    NC,label        ret     NC
                call    NZ,label        ret     NZ
                call    P,label         ret     P
                call    PE,label        ret     PE
                call    PO,label        ret     PO
                call    Z,label         ret     Z
                call    label           ret

             


        BE.4.5  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jp      C,label         jp      M,label
                jp      NC,label        jp      NZ,label
                jp      P,label         jp      PE,label
                jp      PO,label        jp      Z,label
                jp      (hl)            jp      (ix)
                jp      (iy)            jp      label
                djnz    label
                jr      C,label         jr      NC,label
                jr      NZ,label        jr      Z,label
                jr      label

             


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BE-11
        Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        BE.4.6  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bit     n,[]
                res     n,[]
                set     n,[]

             


        BE.4.7  Interrupt Mode and Reset Instructions 

                im      n
                im      n
                im      n
                rst     n

             


        BE.4.8  Input and Output Instructions 

                in      a,(n)           in      rg,(c)
                ind                     indr
                ini                     inir
                out     (n),a           out     (c),rg
                outd                    otdr
                outi                    otir

             


        BE.4.9  Register Pair Instructions 

                add     hl,rp           add     ix,rp
                add     iy,rp
                adc     hl,rp           sbc     hl,rp
                ex      (sp),hl         ex      (sp),ix
                ex      (sp),iy
                ex      de,hl
                ex      af,af'
                push    rp              pop     rp

             


        ASRAB ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BE-12
        Z80/HD64180 ADDRESSING AND INSTRUCTIONS


        BE.4.10  HD64180 Specific Instructions 

                in0     rg,(n)
                out0    (n),rg
                otdm                    otdmr
                otim                    otimr
                mlt     bc              mlt     de
                mlt     hl              mlt     sp
                slp
                tst     a
                tstio   #data














                                   APPENDIX BF

                                ASSCMP ASSEMBLER





        BF.1  SC/MP REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the SC/MP registers used by ASSCMP:  

                p0,pc      -    16-bit program counter
                p1,p2,p3   -    16-bit pointer registers


        BF.2  SC/MP ADDRESSING MODES 


             The  general addressing modes are normally described in the
        form @DISP(X) which correspond to these specific modes:  

            DISP        a PC relative address
            DISP(X)     a DISPlacement from a pointer register
            @DISP(X)    An auto-increment DISPlacement from a
                        pointer register


             The ASSCMP assembler also allows the ( and ) designators to
        be replaced by the [ and ] designators.  

             The  ASSCMP  assembler  also allows several shorthand nota-
        tions for the addressing modes as shown here:  

            (X)         ==>>    0(X)
            @(X)        ==>>    @0(X)
            @DISP       ==>>    @DISP(PC)


             The  xpal,  xpah,  and  xppc  instructions  require  only a
        pointer register - p0, p1, p2, p3, or pc.  



        ASSCMP ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BF-2
        SC/MP ADDRESSING MODES


             The  standard  memory reference instructions:  ld, and, or,
        xor, dad, add, and cad also allow an  alternate  immediate  mode
        instruction using the following format:  

            ld  #DATA


             The  #  is  required otherwise DATA will be treated as a PC
        relative address.  

             The  immediate mode instructions:  ldi, ani, ori, xri, dai,
        adi, and cai allow either of these forms:  

            ldi #DATA
            ldi DATA


        BF.3  SC/MP INSTRUCTION SET 


             The following tables list all SC/MP mnemonics recognized by
        the ASSCMP assembler.  


        BF.3.1  Memory Reference Instructions 

                ld      @DISP(X) / #data        Load
                st      @DISP(X) -------        Store
                and     @DISP(X) / #data        AND
                or      @DISP(X) / #data        OR
                xor     @DISP(X) / #data        Exclusive OR
                dad     @DISP(X) / #data        Decimal Add
                add     @DISP(X) / #data        Add
                cad     @DISP(X) / #data        Complement and Add


        BF.3.2  Immediate Instructions 

                ldi     #data / data    Load Immediate
                ld      #data
                ani     #data / data    AND Immediate
                and     #data
                ori     #data / data    Or Immediate
                or      #data
                xri     #data / data    Exclusive Or Immediate
                xor     #data
                dai     #data / data    Decimal Add Immediate
                dad     #data
                adi     #data / data    Add Immediate
                add     #data
                cai     #data / data    Complement and Add Immediate
                cad     #data


        ASSCMP ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BF-3
        SC/MP INSTRUCTION SET


        BF.3.3  Extension Register Instructions 

                lde             Load AC from Extension
                xae             Exchange AC and Extension
                ane             AND Extension
                ore             OR Extension
                xre             Exclusive Or Extension
                dae             Decimal Add Extension
                ade             Add Extension
                cae             Complement and Add Extension


        BF.3.4  Memory Increment/Decrement Instructions 

                dld     DISP(X)         Increment and Load
                ild     DISP(X)         Decrement  aand Load


        BF.3.5  Transfer Instructions 

                jmp     DISP(X)         Jump
                jp      DISP(X)         Jump if Positive
                jz      DISP(X)         Jump if Zero
                jnz     DISP(X)         Jump if Not Zero


        BF.3.6  Pointer Register Move Instructions 

                xpal    X               Exchange Pointer Low
                xpah    X               Exchange Pointer High
                xppc    X               Exchange Pointer with PC


        BF.3.7  Shift, Rotate, Serial I/O Instructions 

                sio             Serial Input/Output
                sr              Shift Right
                srl             Shift Right with Link
                rr              Rotate Right
                rrl             Rotate Right with Link




        ASSCMP ASSEMBLER                                       PAGE BF-4
        SC/MP INSTRUCTION SET


        BF.3.8  Single-Byte Miscellaneous Instructions 

                halt            Halt
                ccl             Clear Carry Link
                scl             Set Carry Link
                dint            Disable Interrupt
                ien             Enable Interrupt
                csa             Copy Status to AC
                cas             Copy AC to Status
                nop             No Operation


        BF.3.9  Double-Byte Miscellaneous Instruction 

                dly     #data / data    Delay














                                   APPENDIX BG

                                 ASST6 ASSEMBLER





        BG.1  ST6 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the ST6 registers used by ASST6:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                x,y     -       8-bit index registers
                v,w     -       8-bit scratch registers


        BG.2  ST6 INSTRUCTION SET 


             The following list specifies the format for each addressing
        mode supported by ASST6:  

                r               register (a,x,y,w,v) addressing
        
                #data           immediate data byte
        
                dir or *dir     8-bit zero page addressing
                                0 <= dir <= 255 
        
                ext             12-bit extended addressing
        
                (x) or (y)      register indirect addressing
        
                label           pc-relative branch addressing

        The  terms  data, dir, offset, ext, and label may all be expres-
        sions.  

             Note that not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the ST6 technical data for valid modes.  
        The  following  tables  list all ST6 mnemonics recognized by the
        ASST6 assembler.  


        ASST6 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BG-2
        ST6 INSTRUCTION SET


        BG.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                nop                     ret
                reti                    stop
                wait


        BG.2.2  Conditional Branch Instructions 

                jrc     label           jrnc    label
                jrz     label           jrnz    label
                jrr     #,*dir,label
                jrs     #,*dir,label


        BG.2.3  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                set     #,*dir          res     #,*dir


        BG.2.4  Single Operand Instructions 

                clr     a               clr     *dir
                com     a
        
                dec     r               dec     *dir
                dec     (x)             dec     (y)
                inc     r               inc     *dir
                inc     (x)             inc     (y)
        
                rlc     a               sla     a


        BG.2.5  Double Operand Instructions 

                add     a,(x)           add     a,(y)
                add     a,*dir          addi    a,#
        
                and     a,(x)           and     a,(y)
                and     a,*dir          andi    a,#
        
                cp      a,(x)           cp      a,(y)
                cp      a,*dir          cpi     a,#
        
                sub     a,(x)           sub     a,(y)
                sub     a,*dir          subi    a,#




        ASST6 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BG-3
        ST6 INSTRUCTION SET


        BG.2.6  Call to Subroutine and Jump Instructions 

                call    ext             jmp     ext


        BG.2.7  Load and Store Instructions 

                ld      a,x             ld      a,y
                ld      a,v             ld      a,w
        
                ld      x,a             ld      y,a
                ld      v,a             ld      w,a
        
                ld      a,*dir          ld      *dir,a
        
                ld      a,(x)           ld      a,(y)
                ld      (x),a           ld      (y),a
        
                ldi     a,#             ld      *dir,#














                                   APPENDIX BH

                                 ASST7 ASSEMBLER





        BH.1  ST7 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the ST7 registers used by ASST7:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                x,y     -       8-bit index registers
                cc      -       8-bit condition code register
                s       -       16-bit stack pointer


        BH.2  ST7 INSTRUCTION SET 


             The following list specifies the format for each addressing
        mode supported by ASST7:  

                reg             register addressing
                                (a,x,y,s,cc)
        
                #data           immediate data byte
        
                *saddr          8-bit zero page addressing
                                0x00 <= dir <= 0xFF
        
                laddr           16-bit addressing
        
                (x)             register indirect addressing


        ASST7 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BH-2
        ST7 INSTRUCTION SET


                (*sofst,r)      short indexed (r = x,y)
                (sofst,r).b
        
                (lofst,r).w     long indexed (r = x,y)
        
                (ofst,r)        if ofst is relocatable or
                                an external value then
                                the (lofst,r).w mode is
                                selected by default
                                else
        
                (ofst,r)        if ofst is a locally
                                defined constant then
                                the (sofst,r).b mode
                                is selected when
                                0x00 <= ofst <= 0xFF else
                                the (lofst,r).w mode
                                is selected
        
                                Instructions supporting
                                only a single form will
                                use the appropriate form
                                but will report an error.
        
        
                [*saddr]        short indirect
                [saddr].b
        
                [laddr].w       long indexed
        
                [addr]          if addr is relocatable or
                                an external value then
                                the [laddr].w mode is
                                selected by default
                                else
        
                [addr]          if addr is a locally
                                defined constant then
                                the [saddr].b mode
                                is selected when
                                0x00 <= addr <= 0xFF else
                                the [laddr].w mode
                                is selected
        
                                Instructions supporting
                                only a single form will
                                use the appropriate form
                                but will report an error.


        ASST7 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BH-3
        ST7 INSTRUCTION SET


                ([*saddr],r)    short indirect indexed
                ([saddr].b,r)   (r = x,y)
                ([saddr],r).b
        
                ([laddr].w,r)   long indirect indexed
                ([laddr],r).w   (r = x,y)
        
                ([addr],r)      if addr is relocatable or
                                an external value then
                                the ([laddr],r).w mode is
                                selected by default
                                else
        
                ([addr],r)      if addr is a locally
                                defined constant then
                                the ([saddr],r).b mode
                                is selected when
                                0x00 <= addr <= 0xFF else
                                the ([laddr],r).w mode
                                is selected
        
                                Instructions supporting
                                only a single form will
                                use the appropriate form
                                but will report an error.
        
        
                label           pc-relative branch addressing



        The  terms  data,  saddr,  laddr,  addr, sofst, lofst, ofst, and
        label may all be expressions.  

             Note that not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the ST7 technical data for valid modes.  
        The  following  tables  list all ST7 mnemonics recognized by the
        ASST7 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required  ad-
        dressing mode argument.  




        ASST7 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BH-4
        ST7 INSTRUCTION SET


        BH.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                nop                     trap
                wfi                     halt
                ret                     iret
                sim                     rim
                scf                     rcf
                rsp


        BH.2.2  Conditional Branch Instructions 

                jra     label
                jrt     label           jrf     label
                jrih    label           jril    label
                jrh     label           jrnh    label
                jrm     label           jrnm    label
                jrmi    label           jrpl    label
                jreq    label           jrne    label
                jrc     label           jrnc    label
                jrult   label           jruge   label
                jrugt   label           jrule   label
        
                jra     [saddr]
                jrt     [saddr]         jrf     [saddr]
                jrih    [saddr]         jril    [saddr]
                jrh     [saddr]         jrnh    [saddr]
                jrm     [saddr]         jrnm    [saddr]
                jrmi    [saddr]         jrpl    [saddr]
                jreq    [saddr]         jrne    [saddr]
                jrc     [saddr]         jrnc    [saddr]
                jrult   [saddr]         jruge   [saddr]
                jrugt   [saddr]         jrule   [saddr]


        BH.2.3  Bit Test and Branch Instructions 

                btjt    saddr,#,label
                btjf    saddr,#,label
                btjt    [saddr],#,label
                btjf    [saddr],#,label




        ASST7 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BH-5
        ST7 INSTRUCTION SET


        BH.2.4  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bset    saddr,#
                bres    saddr,#
                bset    [saddr],#
                bres    [saddr],#


        BH.2.5  Single Operand Instructions 

                neg     []              cpl     []
                srl     []              rrc     []
                sra     []              rlc     []
                sll     []              sla     []
                dec     []              inc     []
                tnz     []              swap    []
                clr     []
        
                pop     reg             push    reg


        BH.2.6  Double Operand Instructions 

                add     a,[]            adc     a,[]
                and     a,[]            bcp     a,[]
                or      a,[]            sbc     a,[]
                sub     a,[]            xor     a,[]
        
                mul     x,a             mul     y,a
        
                cp      reg,[]
        
                ld      [],[]


        BH.2.7  Call to Subroutine and Jump Instructions 

                call    []              jp      []
        
                callr   label           callr   [saddr]














                                   APPENDIX BI

                                 ASST8 ASSEMBLER





        BI.1  ST8 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the ST8 registers used by ASST8:  

                a       -       8-bit accumulator
                xl,yl   -       LSB of index registers
                xh,yh   -       MSB of index registers
                x,y     -       16-Bit index registers
                sp      -       16-bit stack pointer
                cc      -       8-bit condition code register


        BI.2  ST8 INSTRUCTION SET 


             The following list specifies the format for each addressing
        mode supported by ASST8:  

                reg             register addressing
                                (a,x,xl,xh,y,yl,yh,sp,cc)
        
                #data           immediate data
        
                *saddr          8-bit zero page addressing
                                0x00 <= saddr <= 0xFF
        
                laddr           16-bit addressing
                                0x0000 <= laddr <= 0xFFFF
        
                eaddr           24-bit addressing
                                0x000000 <= eaddr <= 0xFFFFFF
        
                (x)             register indirect addressing


        ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BI-2
        ST8 INSTRUCTION SET


                (*sofst,r)      short indexed (r = x,y,sp)
                (sofst,r).b
        
                (lofst,r).w     long indexed (r = x,y)
        
                (eofst,r).e     extended indexed (r = x,y)
                                eofst is a lofst value,
                                i.e. a 16-bit value where
                                (eofst,r).e points to a
                                24-bit address
        
                (ofst,r)        for the ldf instruction the
                                (eofst,r).e mode is selected
                                else
        
                (ofst,r)        if ofst is relocatable or
                                an external value then
                                the (lofst,r).w mode is
                                selected by default
                                else
        
                (ofst,r)        if ofst is a locally
                                defined constant then
                                the (sofst,r).b mode
                                is selected when
                                0x00 <= ofst <= 0xFF else
                                the (lofst,r).w mode
                                is selected
        
                                Instructions supporting
                                only a single form will
                                use the appropriate form
                                but will report an error.
        
        
                [*saddr]        short indirect
                [saddr].b
        
                [laddr].w       long indexed
        
                [eaddr].e       extended indexed
        
                [addr]          for the callf, jpf, and ldf
                                instructions the [eaddr].e
                                mode is selected
                                else
        
                [addr]          if addr is relocatable or
                                an external value then
                                the [laddr].w mode is
                                selected by default
                                else


        ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BI-3
        ST8 INSTRUCTION SET


        
                [addr]          if addr is a locally
                                defined constant then
                                the [saddr].b mode
                                is selected when
                                0x00 <= addr <= 0xFF else
                                the [laddr].w mode
                                is selected
        
                                Instructions supporting
                                only a single form will
                                use the appropriate form
                                but will report an error.


        ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BI-4
        ST8 INSTRUCTION SET


                ([*saddr],r)    short indirect indexed
                ([saddr].b,r)   (r = x,y)
                ([saddr],r).b
        
                ([laddr].w,r)   long indirect indexed
                ([laddr],r).w   (r = x,y)
        
                ([eaddr].e,r)   extended indirect indexed
                ([eaddr],r).e   (r = x,y)
        
                ([addr],r)      for the ldf instruction the
                                ([eaddr],r).e mode is selected
                                else
        
                ([addr],r)      if addr is relocatable or
                                an external value then
                                the ([laddr],r).w mode is
                                selected by default
                                else
        
                ([addr],r)      if addr is a locally
                                defined constant then
                                the ([saddr],r).b mode
                                is selected when
                                0x00 <= addr <= 0xFF else
                                the ([laddr],r).w mode
                                is selected
        
                                Instructions supporting
                                only a single form will
                                use the appropriate form
                                but will report an error.
        
        
                label           pc-relative branch addressing



        The  terms data, saddr, laddr, eaddr, addr, sofst, lofst, eofst,
        ofst, and label may all be expressions.  

             Note that not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to the ST8 technical data for valid modes.  
        The  following  tables  list all ST8 mnemonics recognized by the
        ASST8 assembler.  The designation [] refers to  a  required  ad-
        dressing mode argument.  


        ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BI-5
        ST8 INSTRUCTION SET


        BI.2.1  Inherent Instructions 

                nop                     trap
                wfi                     wfi
                halt                    ret
                retf                    iret
                sim                     rim
                scf                     rcf
                rvf                     ccf


        BI.2.2  Conditional Branch Instructions 

                jra     label
                jrt     label           jrf     label
                jrugt   label           jrule   label
                jruge   label           jrult   label
                jrnc    label           jrc     label
                jrne    label           jreq    label
                jrnv    label           jrv     label
                jrpl    label           jrmi    label
                jrsgt   label           jrsle   label
                jrsge   label           jrslt   label
                jrnh    label           jrh     label
                jrnm    label           jrm     label
                jril    label           jrih    label


        BI.2.3  Bit Test and Branch Instructions 

                btjt    laddr,#,label
                btjf    laddr,#,label


        BI.2.4  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bccm    laddr,#
                bcpl    laddr,#
                bset    laddr,#
                bres    laddr,#


        ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BI-6
        ST8 INSTRUCTION SET


        BI.2.5  Single Operand Instructions 

                neg     []              cpl     []
                srl     []              rrc     []
                sra     []              rlc     []
                sll     []              sla     []
                dec     []              inc     []
                tnz     []              swap    []
                clr     []
        
                negw    reg             cplw    reg
                srlw    reg             rrcw    reg
                sraw    reg             rlcw    reg
                sllw    reg             slaw    reg
                decw    reg             incw    reg
                tnzw    reg             swapw   reg
                clrw    reg
        
                pop     reg             push    reg


        BI.2.6  Double Operand Instructions 

                add     a,[]            adc     a,[]
                and     a,[]            bcp     a,[]
                cp      a,[]            or      a,[]
                sbc     a,[]            sub     a,[]
                xor     a,[]
        
                add     sp,#            sub     sp,#
        
                addw    reg,[]          subw    reg,[]
                cpw     reg,[]
        
                mul     x,a             mul     y,a
                div     x,a             div     y,a
                divw    x,y
        
                exg     a,reg           exg     a,laddr
                exgw    x,y
        
                rrwa    x,a             rrwa    y,a
                rlwa    x,a             rlwa    y,a
        
                ld      [],[]
                ldf     a,[]            ldf     [],a
                ldw     reg,[]          ldw     [],reg
        
                mov     saddr,saddr
                mov     laddr,laddr     mov     laddr,#


        ASST8 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BI-7
        ST8 INSTRUCTION SET


        BI.2.7  Call to Subroutine and Jump Instructions 

                call    []              jp      []
                callf   eaddr           callf   [eaddr].e
                jpf     eaddr           jpf     [eaddr].e
        
                callr   label














                                   APPENDIX BJ

                                 ASZ8 ASSEMBLER





        BJ.1  Z8 REGISTER SET 

        The following is a list of the Z8 registers used by ASZ8:  

                r0  ... r15     -        8-bit accumulators
                rr0 ... rr15    -       16-bit accumulators


        BJ.2  Z8 INSTRUCTION SET 


             The  following  tables  list all Z8 mnemonics recognized by
        the ASZ8 assembler.  The designation [] refers to a required ad-
        dressing mode argument.  The following list specifies the format
        for each addressing mode supported by ASZ8:  

                #data           immediate byte data
        
                addr            location/branch address
        
                r0  ... r15      8-bit registers
        
                rr0 ... rr15    16-bit registers
        
                @rn     or      register indirect addressing
                (rn)
        
                @rrn    or      register indirect addressing
                (rrn)
        
                @addr   or      indirect addressing
                (addr)
        
                offset(rn)      indexed register addressing

        The terms data, addr, and offset may all be expressions.  


        ASZ8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BJ-2
        Z8 INSTRUCTION SET




        The  designation  CC  refers  to a condition code argument.  The
        following table contains all the valid condition codes supported
        by ASZ8:  

                f       Always False            -
                t       Always True             -
                c       Carry                   C=1
                nc      No Carry                C=0
                z       Zero                    Z=1
                nz      Non-Zero                Z=0
                pl      Plus                    S=0
                mi      Minus                   S=1
                ov      Overflow                V=1
                nov     No Overflow             V=0
                eq      Equal                   Z=1
                ne      Not Equal               Z=0
                ge      Greater Than or Equal   (S XOR V)=0
                lt      Less Than               (S XOR V)=1
                gt      Greater Than            (Z OR (S XOR V))=0
                le      Less Than or Equal      (Z OR (S XOR V))=1
                uge     Unsigned ge             C=0
                ult     Unsigned lt             C=1
                ugt     Unsigned gt             (C=0 AND Z=0)=1
                ule     Unsigned le             (C OR Z)=1


        Note that not all addressing modes are valid with every instruc-
        tion, refer to the Z8 technical data for valid modes.  


        BJ.2.1  Load Instructions 

                clr     []
                ld      [],[]           ldc     [],[]
                pop     []              push    []


        BJ.2.2  Arithmetic Instructions 

                adc     [],[]           add     [],[]
                cp      [],[]           da      []
                dec     []              decw    []
                inc     []              incw    []
                sbc     [],[]           sub     [],[]




        ASZ8 ASSEMBLER                                         PAGE BJ-3
        Z8 INSTRUCTION SET


        BJ.2.3  Logical Instructions 

                and     [],[]           com     []
                or      [],[]           xor     [],[]


        BJ.2.4  Program Control Instructions 

                call    []              djnz    [],[]
                iret                    jp      CC,[]
                jr      CC,[]           ret


        BJ.2.5  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                tcm     [],[]           tm      [],[]
                and     [],[]           or      [],[]
                xor     [],[]


        BJ.2.6  Block Transfer Instructions 

                ldci    [],[]


        BJ.2.7  Rotate and Shift Instructions 

                rl      []              rlc     []
                rr      []              rrc     []
                sra     []              swap    []


        BJ.2.8  Cpu Control Instructions 

                ccf
                di                      ei
                halt                    nop
                rcf                     scf
                srp     []
                stop                    wait














                                   APPENDIX BK

                                 ASZ80 ASSEMBLER





        BK.1  .z80 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .z80 

        The  .z80  directive enables processing of only the z80 specific
        mnemonics.  HD64180/Z180 mnemonics encountered without the .hd64
        directive will be flagged with an 'o' error.  

             The  .z80  directive  also  selects the Z80 specific cycles
        count to be output.  


        BK.2  .hd64 DIRECTIVE 

        Format:  

                .hd64 

        The  .hd64  directive  enables  processing  of  the HD64180/Z180
        specific mnemonics not included  in  the  Z80  instruction  set.
        HD64180/Z180  mnemonics  encountered without the .hd64 directive
        will be flagged with an 'o' error.  A synonym of .hd64 is .z180. 

             The  .hd64 directive also selects the HD64180/Z180 specific
        cycles count to be output.  




        ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BK-2
        THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE


        BK.3  THE .__.CPU.  VARIABLE 


             The  value of the pre-defined symbol '.__.CPU.' corresponds
        to the selected processor type.  The default value  is  0  which
        corresponds  to the default processor type.  The following table
        lists the processor types and associated values  for  the  ASZ80
        assembler:  

                Processor Type            .__.CPU. Value
                --------------            --------------
                    .z80                         0
                .hd64 / .z180                    1


             The  variable '.__.CPU.' is by default defined as local and
        will not be output to the created .rel file.  The assembler com-
        mand line options -g or -a will not cause the local symbol to be
        output to the created .rel file.  

             The  assembler  .globl  directive may be used to change the
        the variable type to global causing its definition to be  output
        to  the .rel file.  The inclusion of the definition of the vari-
        able '.__.CPU.' might be  a  useful  means  of  validating  that
        seperately  assembled files have been compiled for the same pro-
        cessor type.  The linker will report an error for variables with
        multiple non equal definitions.  


        BK.4  Z80 REGISTER SET AND CONDITIONS 


             The  following  is a complete list of register designations
        and condition mnemonics:  

                byte registers  -       a,b,c,d,e,h,l,i,r
                register pairs  -       af,af',bc,de,hl
                word registers  -       pc,sp,ix,iy
        
                C -     carry bit set
                M -     sign bit set
                NC -    carry bit clear
                NZ -    zero bit clear
                P -     sign bit clear
                PE -    parity even
                PO -    parity odd
                Z -     zero bit set




        ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BK-3
        Z80 INSTRUCTION SET


        BK.5  Z80 INSTRUCTION SET 


             The following list specifies the format for each addressing
        mode supported by ASZ80:  

                #data           immediate data
                                byte or word data
        
                n               byte value
        
                rg              a byte register
                                a,b,c,d,e,h,l
        
                rp              a register pair
                                bc,de,hl
        
                (hl)            implied addressing or
                                register indirect addressing
        
                (label)         direct addressing
        
                offset(ix)      indexed addressing with
                                an offset
        
                label           call/jmp/jr label

        The terms data, n, label, and offset may all be expressions.  

             Note that not all addressing modes are valid with every in-
        struction, refer to  the  Z80/HD64180/Z180  technical  data  for
        valid modes.  

             The  following  tables  list all Z80/HD64180/Z180 mnemonics
        recognized by the ASZ80 assembler.  The designation [] refers to
        a required addressing mode argument.  


        ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BK-4
        Z80 INSTRUCTION SET


        BK.5.1  Inherent Instructions 

                ccf             cpd
                cpdr            cpi
                cpir            cpl
                daa             di
                ei              exx
                halt            neg
                nop             reti
                retn            rla
                rlca            rld
                rra             rrca
                rrd             scf


        BK.5.2  Implicit Operand Instructions 

                adc     a,[]            adc     []
                add     a,[]            add     []
                and     a,[]            and     []
                cp      a,[]            cp      []
                dec     a,[]            dec     []
                inc     a,[]            inc     []
                or      a,[]            or      []
                rl      a,[]            rl      []
                rlc     a,[]            rlc     []
                rr      a,[]            rr      []
                rrc     a,[]            rrc     []
                sbc     a,[]            sbc     []
                sla     a,[]            sla     []
                sra     a,[]            sra     []
                srl     a,[]            srl     []
                sub     a,[]            sub     []
                xor     a,[]            xor     []


        ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BK-5
        Z80 INSTRUCTION SET


        BK.5.3  Load Instruction 

                ld      rg,[]           ld      [],rg
                ld      (bc),a          ld      a,(bc)
                ld      (de),a          ld      a,(de)
                ld      (label),a       ld      a,(label)
                ld      (label),rp      ld      rp,(label)
                ld      i,a             ld      r,a
                ld      a,i             ld      a,r
                ld      sp,hl           ld      sp,ix
                ld      sp,iy           ld      rp,#data
        
                ldd                     lddr
                ldi                     ldir


        BK.5.4  Call/Return Instructions 

                call    C,label         ret     C
                call    M,label         ret     M
                call    NC,label        ret     NC
                call    NZ,label        ret     NZ
                call    P,label         ret     P
                call    PE,label        ret     PE
                call    PO,label        ret     PO
                call    Z,label         ret     Z
                call    label           ret


        BK.5.5  Jump and Jump to Subroutine Instructions 

                jp      C,label         jp      M,label
                jp      NC,label        jp      NZ,label
                jp      P,label         jp      PE,label
                jp      PO,label        jp      Z,label
        
                jp      (hl)            jp      (ix)
                jp      (iy)            jp      label
        
                djnz    label
        
                jr      C,label         jr      NC,label
                jr      NZ,label        jr      Z,label
                jr      label


        ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BK-6
        Z80 INSTRUCTION SET


        BK.5.6  Bit Manipulation Instructions 

                bit     n,[]
                res     n,[]
                set     n,[]


        BK.5.7  Interrupt Mode and Reset Instructions 

                im      n
                im      n
                im      n
                rst     n


        BK.5.8  Input and Output Instructions 

                in      a,(n)           in      rg,(c)
                ind                     indr
                ini                     inir
        
                out     (n),a           out     (c),rg
                outd                    otdr
                outi                    otir


        BK.5.9  Register Pair Instructions 

                add     hl,rp           add     ix,rp
                add     iy,rp
        
                adc     hl,rp           sbc     hl,rp
        
                ex      (sp),hl         ex      (sp),ix
                ex      (sp),iy
                ex      de,hl
                ex      af,af'
        
                push    rp              pop     rp


        ASZ80 ASSEMBLER                                        PAGE BK-7
        Z80 INSTRUCTION SET


        BK.5.10  HD64180/Z180 Specific Instructions 

                in0     rg,(n)
                out0    (n),rg
        
                otdm                    otdmr
                otim                    otimr
        
                mlt     bc              mlt     de
                mlt     hl              mlt     sp
        
                slp
        
                tst     a
                tstio   #data



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Last Updated: January 2017